Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, their effect; the strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Saturn. Winds have various aspects. Wind is a great source of transportation for seeds and small birds. In meteorology, winds are referred to according to their strength, the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high-speed wind are termed gusts. Strong winds of intermediate duration are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale and hurricane. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth.
The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, the rotation of the planet. Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land. In human civilization, the concept of wind has been explored in mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, provided a power source for mechanical work and recreation. Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft; when winds become strong and human-made structures are damaged or destroyed. Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes such as the formation of fertile soils, such as loess, by erosion. Dust from large deserts can be moved great distances from its source region by the prevailing winds.
Wind affects the spread of wildfires. Winds can disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations; when combined with cold temperatures, wind has a negative impact on livestock. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as defensive strategies. Wind is caused by differences in the atmospheric pressure; when a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds. On a rotating planet, air will be deflected by the Coriolis effect, except on the equator. Globally, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns are the differential heating between the equator and the poles and the rotation of the planet. Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, the large-scale winds tend to approach geostrophic balance. Near the Earth's surface, friction causes the wind to be slower. Surface friction causes winds to blow more inward into low-pressure areas.
Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds; the geostrophic wind component is the result of the balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. It flows parallel to isobars and approximates the flow above the atmospheric boundary layer in the midlatitudes; the thermal wind is the difference in the geostrophic wind between two levels in the atmosphere. It exists only in an atmosphere with horizontal temperature gradients; the ageostrophic wind component is the difference between actual and geostrophic wind, responsible for air "filling up" cyclones over time. The gradient wind is similar to the geostrophic wind but includes centrifugal force. Wind direction is expressed in terms of the direction from which it originates. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south.
Weather vanes pivot to indicate the direction of the wind. At airports, windsocks indicate wind direction, can be used to estimate wind speed by the angle of hang. Wind speed is measured by anemometers, most using rotating cups or propellers; when a high measurement frequency is needed, wind can be measured by the propagation speed of ultrasound signals or by the effect of ventilation on the resistance of a heated wire. Another type of anemometer uses pitot tubes that take advantage of the pressure differential between an inner tube and an outer tube, exposed to the wind to determine the dynamic pressure, used
In theatre and performing arts, the stage is a designated space for the performance of productions. The stage serves as a space for actors or performers and a focal point for the members of the audience; as an architectural feature, the stage may consist of a series of platforms. In some cases, these may be temporary or adjustable but in theaters and other buildings devoted to such productions, the stage is a permanent feature. There are several types of stages that vary as to the usage and the relation of the audience to them; the most common form found in the West is the proscenium stage. In this type, the audience is located on one side of the stage with the remaining sides hidden and used by the performers and technicians. Thrust stages may be similar to proscenium stages but with a platform or performance area that extends into the audience space so that the audience is located on three sides. In theatre in the round, the audience is located on all four sides of the stage; the fourth type of stage incorporates created and found stages which may be constructed for a performance or may involve a space, adapted as a stage.
Since the Italian Renaissance, the most common stage used in the West has been the proscenium stage which may be referred to as a picture frame stage. The primary feature is a large opening known as the proscenium arch through which the audience views the performance; the audience directly faces the stage—which is raised several feet above front row audience level—and views only one side of the scene. This one side is known as the invisible fourth wall of the scene; the proscenium arch evolved from the proskenium in Ancient Greek theaters. This was the space in front of the skênê or backdrop where the actors played; the first indoor theatres were created in French tennis courts and Italian Renaissance palaces where the newly embraced principles of perspective allowed designers to create stunning vistas with buildings and trees decreasing in size toward a "vanishing point" on the horizon. Stage floors were raked upward from front to back in order to contribute to the perspective illusion and to make actors more visible to audiences, who were seated on level floors.
Subsequently, audience seating was raked, balconies were added to give audiences a fuller view. By the end of the 19th century most stages had level floors, much of the audience looked down on, rather than up to, the stage; the competition among royals to produce elegant and elaborate entertainments fueled and financed the expansion of European court theatres. The proscenium—which was decorative in the manner of a triumphal arch—"framed" the prospective picture; the desire of court painters to show more than one of their perspective backgrounds led court architects to adapt the pin-rails and pulleys of sailing ships to the unrolling, to the lowering and raising, of canvas backdrops. A wood grid above the stage supported pulleys from which wooden battens, steel pipes, rolled down, or descended, with attached scenery pieces; the weight of heavy pieces was counterbalanced by sandbags. This system required the creation of a storage stage house or loft, as high or higher than the proscenium itself.
A "full-fly" stage could store the entire height of scenery above the visible stage using the pin-rails before or during performance, whereas a "half-fly" stage could only store props of limited size and thus required more careful backdrop and scenery design. Theatres using these rope systems, which are manually operated by stage hands, are known as hemp houses, they have been supplanted by counterweight fly systems. The proscenium, in conjunction with stage curtains called legs, conceals the sides of the stage, which are known as the wings; the wings may be used by theatre personnel during performances and as storage spaces for scenery and theatrical properties. Several rows of short curtains across the top of the stage, called teasers, hide the backdrops, which in turn are hidden above the stage in the fly system loft until ready for use. A stage may extend in front of the proscenium arch which offers additional playing area to the actors; this area is a referred to as the apron. Underneath and in front of the apron is sometimes an orchestra pit, used by musicians during musicals and operas.
The orchestra pit may sometimes be covered and used as an additional playing space in order to bring the actors closer to the audience. The stage is raised higher than the audience. Space above some proscenium stages may include a flyloft where curtains and battens supporting a variety of lighting instruments may hang; the numerous advantages of the proscenium stage have led to its popularity in the West. Many theatrical properties and scenery may be utilized. Backdrops and lighting can be used to greater effect without risk of rigging being visible to the audience. Entrances and exits can be made more graceful; the actors only have to concentrate on playing to the audience in one direction. Boxes are a feature of more modern stage designs in which temporary walls are built inside any proscenium stage, at a slight angle to the original walls, in order to allow audience members located to the left or right of the proscenium to see the entirety of the stage, they enable the creation of rat runs around the back of the stage, which are when cast members have to walk between entrances and exits without being seen by the audience.
This type of stage is located in the centre of the audience, with the audience facing it from all sides. T
Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", his writings cover many subjects – including physics, zoology, logic, aesthetics, theatre, rhetoric, linguistics, economics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry; as a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion. Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece, his father, died when Aristotle was a child, he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven.
Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication; the fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, following Plato's death, Aristotle developed an increased interest in natural sciences and adopted the position of immanent realism. Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic continued well into the 19th century He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as "The Philosopher", his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot. In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established; the biographies written in ancient times are speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points. Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose" in Ancient Greek, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki.
His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy, he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon.
While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants". By 335 BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus.
According to the Suda, he had an erômenos, Palaephatus of Abydus. This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works, he wrote many dialogues. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not
Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special effects are traditionally divided into the categories of mechanical effects and optical effects. With the emergence of digital film-making a distinction between special effects and visual effects has grown, with the latter referring to digital post-production while "special effects" referring to mechanical and optical effects. Mechanical effects are accomplished during the live-action shooting; this includes the use of mechanized props, scale models, animatronics and atmospheric effects: creating physical wind, fog, clouds, making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building, etc. Mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with break-away doors or walls to enhance a fight scene, or prosthetic makeup can be used to make an actor look like a non-human creature.
Optical effects are techniques in which images or film frames are created photographically, either "in-camera" using multiple exposure, mattes or the Schüfftan process or in post-production using an optical printer. An optical effect might be used to place sets against a different background. Since the 1990s, computer-generated imagery has come to the forefront of special effects technologies, it gives filmmakers greater control, allows many effects to be accomplished more safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs. As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI. In 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the world's first "special effects" image by combining different sections of 32 negatives into a single image, making a montaged combination print. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, Clark instructed an actor to step up to the block in Mary's costume.
As the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the actor's place, restarted filming, allowed the executioner to bring the axe down, severing the dummy's head. Techniques like these would dominate the production of special effects for a century, it wasn't only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was the first type of photographic trickery, only possible in a motion picture, referred to as the "stop trick". Georges Méliès, an early motion picture pioneer, accidentally discovered the same "stop trick." According to Méliès, his camera jammed. When he screened the film, he found that the "stop trick" had caused a truck to turn into a hearse, pedestrians to change direction, men to turn into women. Méliès, the stage manager at the Theatre Robert-Houdin, was inspired to develop a series of more than 500 short films, between 1914, in the process developing or inventing such techniques as multiple exposures, time-lapse photography and hand painted color.
Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality with the cinematograph, the prolific Méliès is sometimes referred to as the "Cinemagician." His most famous film, Le Voyage dans la lune, a whimsical parody of Jules Verne's From the Earth to the Moon, featured a combination of live action and animation, incorporated extensive miniature and matte painting work. From 1910 to 1920, the main innovations in special effects were the improvements on the matte shot by Norman Dawn. With the original matte shot, pieces of cardboard were placed to block the exposure of the film, which would be exposed later. Dawn combined this technique with the "glass shot." Rather than using cardboard to block certain areas of the film exposure, Dawn painted certain areas black to prevent any light from exposing the film. From the exposed film, a single frame is projected onto an easel, where the matte is drawn. By creating the matte from an image directly from the film, it became easy to paint an image with proper respect to scale and perspective.
Dawn's technique became the textbook for matte shots due to the natural images. During the 1920s and 1930s, special effects techniques were improved and refined by the motion picture industry. Many techniques—such as the Schüfftan process—were modifications of illusions from the theater and still photography. Rear projection was a refinement of the use of painted backgrounds in the theater, substituting moving pictures to create moving backgrounds. Lifecasting of faces was imported from traditional maskmaking. Along with makeup advances, fantastic masks could be created; as material science advanced, horror film maskmaking followed closely. Many studios established in-house "special effects" departments, which were responsible for nearly all optical and mechanical aspects of motion-picture trickery; the challenge of simulating spectacle in motion encouraged the development of the use of miniatures. Animation, creating the illusion of motion, was accomplished with drawings and with three-dimensional models.
Naval battles could be depicted with models in studio. Tanks and airplanes could be flown without risk of life and l
A thunderstorm known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. Weak thunderstorms are sometimes called thundershowers. Thunderstorms occur in a type of cloud known as a cumulonimbus, they are accompanied by strong winds, produce heavy rain and sometimes snow, sleet, or hail, but some thunderstorms produce little precipitation or no precipitation at all. Thunderstorms may become a rainband, known as a squall line. Strong or severe thunderstorms include some of the most dangerous weather phenomena, including large hail, strong winds, tornadoes; some of the most persistent severe thunderstorms, known as supercells, rotate as do cyclones. While most thunderstorms move with the mean wind flow through the layer of the troposphere that they occupy, vertical wind shear sometimes causes a deviation in their course at a right angle to the wind shear direction. Thunderstorms result from the rapid upward movement of moist air, sometimes along a front.
As the warm, moist air moves upward, it cools and forms a cumulonimbus cloud that can reach heights of over 20 kilometres. As the rising air reaches its dew point temperature, water vapor condenses into water droplets or ice, reducing pressure locally within the thunderstorm cell. Any precipitation falls the long distance through the clouds towards the Earth's surface; as the droplets fall, they become larger. The falling droplets create a downdraft as it pulls cold air with it, this cold air spreads out at the Earth's surface causing strong winds that are associated with thunderstorms. Thunderstorms can form and develop in any geographic location but most within the mid-latitude, where warm, moist air from tropical latitudes collides with cooler air from polar latitudes. Thunderstorms are responsible for the formation of many severe weather phenomena. Thunderstorms, the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards. Damage that results from thunderstorms is inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, flash flooding caused by heavy precipitation.
Stronger thunderstorm cells are capable of producing waterspouts. There are four types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell cluster, multi-cell lines and supercells. Supercell thunderstorms are the most severe. Mesoscale convective systems formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics can be responsible for the development of hurricanes. Dry thunderstorms, with no precipitation, can cause the outbreak of wildfires from the heat generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them. Several means are used to study thunderstorms: weather radar, weather stations, video photography. Past civilizations held various myths concerning thunderstorms and their development as late as the 18th century. Beyond the Earth's atmosphere, thunderstorms have been observed on the planets of Jupiter, Saturn and Venus. Warm air has a lower density than cool air, so warmer air rises upwards and cooler air will settle at the bottom. Clouds form as warmer air, carrying moisture, rises within cooler air.
The moist air rises, and, as it does so, it cools and some of the water vapor in that rising air condenses. When the moisture condenses, it releases energy known as latent heat of condensation, which allows the rising packet of air to cool less than the cooler surrounding air continuing the cloud's ascension. If enough instability is present in the atmosphere, this process will continue long enough for cumulonimbus clouds to form and produce lightning and thunder. Meteorological indices such as convective available potential energy and the lifted index can be used to assist in determining potential upward vertical development of clouds. Thunderstorms require three conditions to form: Moisture An unstable airmass A lifting force All thunderstorms, regardless of type, go through three stages: the developing stage, the mature stage, the dissipation stage; the average thunderstorm has a 24 km diameter. Depending on the conditions present in the atmosphere, each of these three stages take an average of 30 minutes.
The first stage of a thunderstorm is developing stage. During this stage, masses of moisture are lifted upwards into the atmosphere; the trigger for this lift can be solar illumination, where the heating of the ground produces thermals, or where two winds converge forcing air upwards, or where winds blow over terrain of increasing elevation. The moisture carried upward cools into liquid drops of water due to lower temperatures at high altitude, which appear as cumulus clouds; as the water vapor condenses into liquid, latent heat is released, which warms the air, causing it to become less dense than the surrounding, drier air. The air tends to rise in an updraft through the process of convection; this process creates a low-pressure zone beneath the forming thunderstorm. In a typical thunderstorm 500 million kilograms of water vapor are lifted into the Earth's atmosphere. In the mature stage of a thunderstorm, the warmed air continues to rise until it reaches an area of warmer air and can rise no farther.
This'cap' is the tropopause. The air is instead forced to spread out; the resulting cloud is called cumulonimbus incus. The water droplets coalesce into heavier droplets and freeze to become ice particles; as these fall, they melt to become rain. If the updraft
Sound design is the art and practice of creating sound tracks for a variety of needs. It involves specifying, acquiring or creating auditory elements using audio production techniques and tools, it is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmaking, television production, video game development, sound recording and reproduction, live performance, sound art, post-production and musical instrument development. Sound design involves performing and editing of composed or recorded audio, such as sound effects and dialogue for the purposes of the medium. A sound designer is one; the use of sound to evoke emotion, reflect mood and underscore actions in plays and dances began in prehistoric times. At its earliest, it was used in religious practices for recreation. In ancient Japan, theatrical events called kagura were performed in Shinto shrines with music and dance. Plays were performed in medieval times in a form of theatre called Commedia dell'arte, which used music and sound effects to enhance performances.
The use of music and sound in the Elizabethan Theatre followed, in which music and sound effects were produced off stage using devices such as bells and horns. Cues would be written in the script for music and sound effects to be played at the appropriate time. Italian composer Luigi Russolo built mechanical sound-making devices, called "intonarumori," for futurist theatrical and music performances starting around 1913; these devices were meant to simulate man-made sounds, such as trains and bombs. Russolo's treatise, The Art of Noises, is one of the earliest written documents on the use of abstract noise in the theatre. After his death, his intonarumori' were used in more conventional theatre performances to create realistic sound effects; the first use of recorded sound in the theatre was a phonograph playing a baby’s cry in a London theatre in 1890. Sixteen years Herbert Beerbohm Tree used recordings in his London production of Stephen Phillips’ tragedy NERO; the event is marked in the Theatre Magazine with two photographs.
The article states: “these sounds are all realistically reproduced by the gramophone”. As cited by Bertolt Brecht, there was a play about Rasputin written in by Alexej Tolstoi and directed by Erwin Piscator that included a recording of Lenin's voice. Whilst the term "sound designer" was not in use at this time, a number of stage managers specialised as "effects men", creating and performing offstage sound effects using a mix of vocal mimicry and electrical contraptions and gramophone records. A great deal of care and attention was paid to the construction and performance of these effects, both naturalistic and abstract. Over the course of the twentieth century the use of recorded sound effects began to take over from live sound effects, though it was the stage manager's duty to find the sound effects and an electrician played the recordings during performances. Between 1980 and 1988, Charlie Richmond, USITT's first Sound Design Commissioner, oversaw efforts of their Sound Design Commission to define the duties, responsibilities and procedures which might be expected of a theatre sound designer in North America.
This subject is still discussed by that group, but during that time, substantial conclusions were drawn and he wrote a document which, although now somewhat dated, provides a succinct record of what was expected at that time. It was subsequently provided to both the ADC and David Goodman at the Florida USA local when they were both planning to represent sound designers in the 1990s. MIDI and digital audio technology have contributed to the evolution of sound production techniques in the 1980s and 1990s. Digital audio workstations and a variety of digital signal processing algorithms applied in them allow more complicated sound tracks with more tracks as well as auditory effects to be realized. Features such as unlimited undo and sample-level editing allow fine control over the sound tracks. In theatre sound, features of computerized theatre sound design systems have been recognized as being essential for live show control systems at Walt Disney World and, as a result, Disney utilized systems of that type to control many facilities at their Disney-MGM Studios theme park, which opened in 1989.
These features were incorporated into the MIDI Show Control specification, an open communications protocol used to interact with diverse devices. The first show to utilize the MSC specification was the Magic Kingdom Parade at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom in September, 1991; the rise of interest in game audio has brought more advanced interactive audio tools that are accessible without a background in computer programming. Some of such software tools feature a workflow that's similar to that in more conventional digital audio workstation programs and can allow the sound production personnel to undertake some of the more creative interactive sound tasks that would have required a computer programmer. Interactive applications have given rise to a plethora of techniques in "dynamic audio" that loosely means sound that's "parametrically" adjusted during the run-time of the program; this allows for a broader expression in sounds, more similar to that in films, because this way the sound designer can e.g. create footstep sounds that vary in a believable and non-repeating way and that corresponds to what's seen in the picture
Safety is the state of being "safe", the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk. There are two different meanings of safety. For example, home safety may indicate a building's ability to protect against external harm events, or may indicate that its internal installations are safe for its inhabitants. Discussions of safety include mention of related terms. Security is such a term. With time the definitions between these two have become interchanged and appear juxtaposed in the same sentence. Readers are left to conclude whether they comprise a redundancy; this confuses the uniqueness. When seen as unique, as we intend here, each term will assume its rightful place in influencing and being influenced by the other. Safety is the condition of a “steady state” of an organization or place doing what it is supposed to do. “What it is supposed to do” is defined in terms of public codes and standards, associated architectural and engineering designs, corporate vision and mission statements, operational plans and personnel policies.
For any organization, place, or function, large or small, safety is a normative concept. It complies with situation-specific definitions of. Using this definition, protection from a home’s external threats and protection from its internal structural and equipment failures are not two types of safety but rather two aspects of a home’s steady state. In the world of everyday affairs, not all goes as planned; some entity’s steady state is challenged. This is where security science, of more recent date, enters. Drawing from the definition of safety, then: Security is the process or means, physical or human, of delaying and otherwise protecting against external or internal, dangers, loss and other individuals or actions that threaten, hinder or destroy an organization’s “steady state,” and deprive it of its intended purpose for being. Using this generic definition of safety it is possible to specify the elements of a security program. Safety can be limited in relation to some guarantee or a standard of insurance to the quality and unharmful function of an object or organization.
It is used in order to ensure that the organization will do only what it is meant to do. It is important to realize. Eliminating all risk, if possible, would be difficult and expensive. A safe situation is one where risks of injury or property damage are manageable; when something is called safe, this means that it is safe within certain reasonable limits and parameters. For example, a medication may be safe, for most people, under most circumstances, if taken in a certain amount. A choice motivated by safety may have unsafe consequences. For example, frail elderly people are sometimes moved out of their homes and into hospitals or skilled nursing homes with the claim that this will improve the person's safety; the safety provided is that daily medications will be supervised, the person will not need to engage in some risky activities such as climbing stairs or cooking, if the person falls down, someone there will be able to help the person get back up. However, the end result might be decidedly unsafe, including the dangers of transfer trauma, hospital delirium, elder abuse, hospital-acquired infections, anxiety, a desire to die.
There is a distinction between products that meet standards, that are safe, that feel safe. The highway safety community uses these terms: Normative safety is achieved when a product or design meets applicable standards and practices for design and construction or manufacture, regardless of the product's actual safety history. Substantive or objective safety occurs when the real-world safety history is favorable, whether or not standards are met. Perceived or subjective safety refers to the users' level of comfort and perception of risk, without consideration of standards or safety history. For example, traffic signals are perceived as safe, yet under some circumstances, they can increase traffic crashes at an intersection. Traffic roundabouts have a favorable safety record yet make drivers nervous. Low perceived. For example, after the 9/11/2001 attacks, many people chose to drive rather than fly, despite the fact that counting terrorist attacks, flying is safer than driving. Perceived risk discourages people from walking and bicycling for transportation, enjoyment or exercise though the health benefits outweigh the risk of injury.
Called social safety or public safety, security addresses the risk of harm due to intentional criminal acts such as assault, burglary or vandalism. Because of the moral issues involved, security is of higher importance to many people than substantive safety. For example, a death due to murder is considered worse than a death in a car crash though in many countries, traffic deaths are more common than homicides. Safety is interpreted as implying a real and significant impact on risk of death, injury or damage to property. In response to perceived risks many interventions may be proposed with engineering responses and regulation being two of the most common; the most common individual response to perceived safety issues is insurance, which compensates for or provides restitution in the case of damage or loss. System safety and reliability engineering is an engineering discipline. Contin