Eric Honeywood Partridge was a New Zealand–British lexicographer of the English language of its slang. His writing career was interrupted only by his service in the Army Education Corps and the RAF correspondence department during World War II. Partridge was born in the Waimata Valley, near Gisborne, on the North Island of New Zealand to John Thomas Partridge, a grazier, his wife Ethel Annabella Norris. In 1907 the family moved to Queensland, where he was educated at the Toowoomba Grammar School, he studied first classics and French and English at the University of Queensland. During this time Partridge worked for three years as a schoolteacher before enrolling in the Australian Imperial Force in April 1915 and serving in the Australian infantry during the First World War, serving in Egypt, Gallipoli and on the Western Front, before being wounded in the Battle of Pozières, his interest in slang and the "underside" of language is said to date from his wartime experience. Partridge returned to university between 1919 and 1921, when he received his BA.
After receiving his degree, Partridge became Queensland Travelling Fellow at Balliol College, where he worked on both an MA on eighteenth-century English romantic poetry, a B. Litt in comparative literature, he subsequently taught in a grammar school in Lancashire for a brief interval in the two years beginning September 1925, took lecturing positions at the Universities of Manchester and London. From 1923, he "found a second home", occupying the same desk in the British Museum Library for the next fifty years. In 1925 he married Agnes Dora Vye-Parminter, who in 1933 bore a daughter, Rosemary Ethel Honeywood Mann. In 1927 he founded the Scholartis Press, which he managed until it closed in 1931. During the twenties he wrote fiction under the pseudonym'Corrie Denison'; the Scholartis Press published over 60 books in these four years, including Songs and Slang of the British Soldier 1914-1918, which Partridge co-authored with John Brophy. From 1932 he commenced writing in earnest, his next major work on slang, Slang Today and Yesterday, appeared in 1933, his well-known Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English followed in 1937.
During the Second World War, Partridge served in the Army Education Corps transferring to the RAF's correspondence department, before returning to his British Museum desk in 1945. Partridge wrote over forty books on the English language, including well-known works on etymology and slang, he wrote novels under the pseudonym Corrie Denison, books on tennis, which he played well. His papers are archived at the University of Birmingham, British Library, King's College, the Royal Institute of British Architects, the University of Exeter, the University of San Francisco, Warwickshire Record Office, William Salt Library, he died in Moretonhampstead, Devon, in 1979, aged 85. Songs and Slang of the British Soldier, Scholartis Press, 1931. A Charm of Words. New York, Macmillan Co. 1961 A New Testament Word Book: a Glossary. London, George Routledge & Sons, 1940. Republished New York, Books for Libraries Press, 1970; the 1987 republication by the Christian publisher Barbour & Company of Uhricksville, Ohio as The Book of New Testament Word Studies, with copyright claimed by the publisher, appears to be a copyright violation.
The'Shaggy Dog' Story. New York, Philosophical Library, 1954 A Dictionary of the Underworld. London, Macmillan Co. 1949. Hamish Hamilton, 1952. Reprinted 1969 by Books for Libraries Press, New York. ISBN 0-8369-5055-0 The Gentle Art of Lexicography as pursued and experienced by an addict, New York: The Macmillan Company. Here and Everywhere. Hamish Hamilton. Name Into Word. Secker & Warburg A Dictionary of Catch Phrases. Routledge & Kegan Paul / Day. First published 1977. 2nd edition 1985. Paperback 1986. E-print 2005 ISBN 0-203-37995-0 A Dictionary of Clichés. Routledge & Kegan Paul. First published 1940. E-print 2005. ISBN 0-203-37996-9 A Dictionary of Forces’ Slang. A Dictionary of RAF Slang. Michael Joseph, 1945. Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. Reprint: Greenwich House, New York, 1983. ISBN 0-517-41425-2. Reprint: Random House Value Publishing A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. 1st edition: London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1937. 2nd edition 1938 3rd edition 1949 4th edition 1951 5th edition in two volumes, supplement much enlarged, 1961.
Reprinted in 1 vol. 1963. Mary Martin Books. Adelaide, South Australia. 6th edition 1967 7th edition 1970 8th edition London and New York, Routledge, 1984. Paperback reprint 2002 Shakespeare's Bawdy. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul /New York, E. P. Dutton & Co. Reprint: Routledge ISBN 0-415-05076-6. Routledge Classics 2001 Hardback ISBN 0-415-25553-8. Routledge & Kegan Paul. A Smaller Slang Dictionary. You Have A Point There: its Allies. First published 1953 by Hamish Hamilton Ltd. Taylor & Francis e-print 2005. ISBN 0-203-37992-6 Usage and Abusage: A Guide to Good English. Hamish Hamilton/Penguin Books. Reprint: W. W. Norton & Company ISBN 0-393-31709-9 Name This Child. Hamish Hamilton. Name Your Child. Evans Bros. Eric Partridge In His Own Words. Edited by David Crystal. 1980. Macmillan Publishing Co. New Yo
Film memorabilia are objects considered of value because of their connection to the cinema. These include costumes, advertising posters, scripts, among other things. Fans have always coveted memorabilia, but in recent years, what was once a hobby has mushroomed into big business, with millions of dollars changing hands in auctions held by such top firms as Christie's and Sotheby's. In addition, many popular films have their collectible items sold via independent, online movie memorabilia stores, web auctions, at film studio charity events. In the early days, most people sought original photographs or posters. Collectors had to rely on a handful of news magazines that were full of various sellers offering mail order catalogues or asking to buy bulk lots, or particular items of interest. Events would be organized which were structured around a live auction — these, while fewer in number today, still occur, one can still buy memorabilia in person from trusted sellers on-site; the community was fairly fragmented, with collectors and dealers spread out across the globe and no real consistent and reliable way to communicate with one another.
Movie studios were slow to recognize the value of their property, "generally viewing the material as junk taking up precious backlot real estate." Workers would just take souvenirs or sell items without permission, aware that their employers did not care. One of the more notorious of these was costumer Kent Warner, who amassed a large private collection and made money selling to interested buyers. One of his friends claimed that Warner rescued Humphrey Bogart's Casablanca trench coat, slated for burning; the turning point came in 1970. Kirk Kerkorian had installed James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. as president. As part of his cost-cutting measures, Aubrey decided to auction off hundreds of thousands of items; the success of this mammoth event made. MGM sold the contents of seven sound stages "for a mere $1.5 million" to auctioneer David Weisz. There were over 350,000 costumes alone. Weisz hired Kent Warner to prepare for the auction. In the course of his work, Warner found several pairs of the ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz.
One pair became the centerpiece of the event and sold for a then-unheard-of $15,000. Actress Debbie Reynolds spent $180,000 and "purchased thousands of items", the beginning of her large collection. Weisz "recouped eight times" what he paid "from eager nostalgia enthusiasts."Among the items sold were: the Cowardly Lion costume from The Wizard of Oz the time machine from the 1960 film The Time Machine the 82 inch and 22 inch models of the "United Planets Cruiser C-57D" from Forbidden Planet Johnny Weissmuller's Tarzan loinclothThe unsold items, "... truckloads of costume sketches, movie stills and other memorabilia were sent to the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas to be sold in the gift shop and used as hotel decorations." The auction catalogs have now themselves become sought-after collectibles. Debbie Reynolds' collection was sold by Profiles in History in two auctions in June and December 2011. Among the items to be put up for bid in the first of these auctions are: Marilyn Monroe's "subway dress", whose skirt is raised by the updraft of a passing subway train in The Seven Year Itch.
One of Charlie Chaplin's trademark bowler hats an early, unused Arabian motif version of the ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz Audrey Hepburn's Ascot dress and hat from My Fair Lady Charlton Heston's tunic and accessories from Ben-HurOn June 18, 2011, the subway dress sold for $4.6 million, far in excess of pre-auction estimates of $1–2 million. Another Monroe dress, worn in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, fetched $1.2 million. Estimated at $60,000 to $80,000, a blue cotton dress Judy Garland used in test shots for The Wizard of Oz went for $910,000. In total, the auction grossed $22.8 million. In the second Reynolds auction, on December 3, 2011, a still-functioning Panavision PSR 35mm camera used to film Star Wars went for $625,000, breaking records for Star Wars memorabilia and vintage cameras. In the early days of the internet, the larger community began to get in touch with one another through UseNet newsgroups; as the internet grew, collectors began communicating in ways never thought possible.
In 1995, popular on-line email group MoPo was formed, creating a central place for people to keep in touch about things and events important to the community. This group continues to provide information to old collectors alike. By 1997, the community had changed forever. Professional sellers took notice, causing many of them to close their bricks-and-mortar businesses and focus their attention on internet sites and the future of the on-line marketplace. In the early days of internet selling, prices varied widely. One could find posters valued in the hundreds of dollars selling for twenty dollars, or, find posters valued at twenty dollars going for a hundred, or more. Today, the market place for film memorabilia has stabilised. While one can still see a rare film poster go for large amounts, it is far more common to find that items are priced either at or near market value, or are bid up to that point. Film posters Lobby cards Still photos Autographs Film props Costumes Pressbooks and presskits Programmes Heralds Glass slides Industry magazines and related material Scripts and original concept art Promotional material of any
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Live action role-playing game
A live action role-playing game is a form of role-playing game where the participants physically portray their characters. The players pursue goals within a fictional setting represented by the real world while interacting with each other in character; the outcome of player actions may be mediated by game rules or determined by consensus among players. Event arrangers called gamemasters decide rules to be used and facilitate play; the first LARPs were run in the late 1970s, inspired by tabletop role-playing games and genre fiction. The activity spread internationally during the 1980s and has diversified into a wide variety of styles. Play may be game-like or may be more concerned with dramatic or artistic expression. Events can be designed to achieve educational or political goals; the fictional genres used vary from realistic modern or historical settings to fantastic or futuristic eras. Production values can involve elaborate venues and costumes. LARPs range in size from small private events lasting a few hours to large public events with thousands of players lasting for days.
LARP has been referred to as live role-playing, interactive literature, free form role-playing. Some of these terms are still in common use, it is sometimes written as larp. The live action in LARP is analogous to the term live action used in film and video to differentiate works with human actors from animation. Playing a LARP is called larping, one who does it is a larper; the participants in a LARP physically portray characters in a fictional setting, improvising their characters' speech and movements somewhat like actors in improvisational theatre. This is distinct from tabletop role-playing games. LARPs may last for hours or days. There is no audience. Players may dress as their character and carry appropriate equipment, the environment is sometimes decorated to resemble the setting. LARPs can be one-off events or a series of events in the same setting, events can vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand. Events are put on for the benefit of the players, who take on roles called player characters that the players may create themselves or be given by the gamemasters.
Players sometimes play the same character at separate events, progressively developing the character and its relations with other characters and the setting. Arrangers called gamemasters determine the rules and setting of a LARP, may influence an event and act as referees while it is taking place; the GMs may do the logistical work, or there may be other arrangers who handle details such as advertising the event, booking a venue, financial management. Unlike the GM in a tabletop role-playing game, a LARP GM has an overview of everything, happening during play because numerous participants may be interacting at once. For this reason, a LARP GM's role is less concerned with maintaining a narrative or directly entertaining the players, more with arranging the structure of the LARP before play begins and facilitating the players and crew to maintain the fictional environment during play. Participants sometimes known as the crew may help the GMs to set up and maintain the environment of the LARP during play by acting as stagehands or playing non-player characters who fill out the setting.
Crew receive more information about the setting and more direction from the GMs than players do. In a tabletop role-playing game, a GM plays all the NPCs, whereas in a LARP, each NPC is played by a separate crew member. Sometimes players are asked to play NPCs for periods of an event. Much of play consists of interactions between characters; some LARP scenarios feature interaction between PCs. Other scenarios focus on interaction between PCs and aspects of the setting, including NPCs, that are under the direction of the GMs. LARP does not have a single point of origin, but was invented independently by groups in North America and Australia; these groups shared an experience with genre fiction or tabletop role-playing games, a desire to physically experience such settings. In addition to tabletop role-playing, LARP is rooted in childhood games of make believe, play fighting, costume parties, roleplay simulations, Commedia dell'arte, improvisational theatre, military simulations, historical reenactment groups such as the Society for Creative Anachronism.
The earliest recorded LARP group is Dagorhir, founded in 1977 in the United States and focuses on fantasy battles. Soon after the release of the movie Logan's Run in 1976, rudimentary live role-playing games based on the movie were run at US science fiction conventions. In 1981, the International Fantasy Gaming Society started, with rules influenced by Dungeons & Dragons. IFGS was named after a fictional group in the 1981 novel Dream Park, which described futuristic LARPs. In 1982, the Society for Interactive Literature, a predecessor of the Live Action Roleplayers Association, formed as the first recorded theatre-style LARP group in the US. Treasure Trap, formed in 1982 at Peckforton Castle, was the first recorded LARP game in the UK and influenced the fantasy LARPs that followed there; the first recorded LARP in Australia was run in 1983. In 1993, White Wolf Publishing released Mind's Eye Theatre, still played internationally and is the most commercially successful published LARP; the first German events were in about 1994, with fantasy LARP in particular growing qu
Theater drapes and stage curtains
Theater drapes and stage curtains are large pieces of cloth that are designed to mask backstage areas of a theater from spectators. They are come in several types. Theater drapes represent a portion of any production's soft goods, a category which includes any cloth-based element of the stage or scenery. Proscenium stages use a greater variety of drapes than thrust stages. In proscenium theaters, drapes are suspended from battens that are controlled by a fly system; when a drape is flown, the task of adjusting its height for best masking effect is simplified and, in the case of a drape that must be moved during a performance, this enables the drape to be raised above the proscenium arch—thus positioning it out of view of spectators—or lowered to any arbitrary height above the stage, as required. The front curtain, variously called a grand drape, act curtain, house curtain, house drape, main drape, main rag, or, in the UK, hangs downstage, just behind the proscenium arch, it is opened and closed during performances to reveal or conceal the stage and scenery from the audience.
There are several types of front curtains, which may consist of a single section or two sections, of fabric that may be pleated or flat. Depending on the type, front curtains may travel vertically. In the case of front curtains that travel vertically, some types gather near the top of the proscenium when opened, while others are raised into the fly space above the stage. Hard teasers and tormentors are flat and vertical pieces that are located just upstage of the grand drape. Together, one hard teaser and a pair of tormentors are used to form a reduced-size "false proscenium" within the frame of the actual theater proscenium. Hard teasers and tormentors are covered with thin plywood, which in turn is covered with dark colored, light-absorbing material; the teaser is flown from a dedicated batten so that its height can be independently adjusted so as to optimize its masking of the flies. In the UK this teaser is referred to as the House Header. In some productions, a show portal is used in place of a false proscenium.
This is a decorative "frame" for the stage which serves to mask backstage areas, just as a teaser and tormentors would. Legs are narrow stage drapes that are used to mask the wings on either side of the stage. Borders, are short draperies that span the width of the stage. Legs and borders are made from a heavy, light-absorbing material similar to that of other stage drapes. A set of two legs, one on each side of the stage, one border, is used to form a complete masking "frame" around the stage. Several such sets of legs and borders are employed at varying distances upstage from the proscenium. Travelers are curtains onstage which can close. Drapes that hang at the sides of the stage perpendicular to the proscenium opening to mask the wings are known as Tabs, as shown in the drawing at the top of this page. In the UK, these curtains have other names Up & Downers. A scrim, sometimes gauze, is a curtain made of an open-weave fabric that appears opaque when lit from the front, but transparent when a person or object behind the curtain is lit.
A backdrop is a painted curtain. Before the advent of motion pictures, theaters would have 6-8 stock painted backdrops on canvas for use in live theatrical performances; these would include an urban scene, a nature or garden scene, a domestic interior. Drops may be hung by various means. Made of muslin, sized and painted, the top may be pressed between two pieces of lumber and clamped to a pipe, with a pipe or chain through a hem pocket at the bottom giving it weight to prevent flapping; some may be tied to the pipe with tie-line. A time-honored method of hanging a drop is the roll-drop, in which the bottom of the drop is attached to a round batten; the drop is rolled onto it from the back, is deployed by rope rigged through blocks to be pulled from offstage to release the tension holding the batten up, thus unrolling it until unfurled. There is a form of drop used in Vaudeville days, which may still be seen in older theaters, called an olio. "Olio" means conglomeration, these drops were most roll-drops covered with advertisements from various sponsors, for the audience to view between shows.
A cyclorama or cyc is a large curtain concave, at the back of the stage that can be lit to represent the sky or other backgrounds. Traditionally white or natural colored cloth, cycs now come in various colors of white, light blue and the green or blue curtains used in Chroma key work may be called cycs. With projected scenery and scrims may be used as drops, by employing either front or rear projection; this was done in a general sense in the 1910s and 1920s by means of painted glass plates in front of lighting instruments, which made
Oliver! is an English musical, with music and lyrics by Lionel Bart. The musical is based upon the novel Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens, it premiered in the West End in 1960, enjoying a long run, successful long runs on Broadway and revivals, after being brought to the US by producer David Merrick in 1963. Major London revivals played from 1977–80, 1994–98, 2008–11 and on tour in the UK from 2011-13. Additionally, its 1968 film adaptation, directed by Carol Reed, was successful, winning six Academy Awards including Best Picture. A prominent musical in British popular culture, Oliver! received thousands of performances in British schools in the 1970s, when it was by far the most popular school musical. In 1963 Lionel Bart received the Tony Award for Best Original Score. Many songs are well known to the public. Oliver! was the first musical adaptation of a famous Charles Dickens work to become a stage hit. There had been two previous Dickens musicals in the 1950s, both of them television adaptations of A Christmas Carol.
The plot of Dickens' original novel is simplified for the purposes of the musical, with Fagin being represented more as a comic character than as a villain, large portions of the latter part of the story being left out. Although Dickens' novel has been called antisemitic in its portrayal of the Jew Fagin as evil, the production by Bart was more sympathetic and featured many Jewish actors in leading roles: Ron Moody, Georgia Brown, Martin Horsey; the musical opens in the workhouse, as the half-starved orphan boys are entering the enormous dining room for dinner. They find some solace by imagining a richer menu. Oliver gathers up the courage to ask for more, he is apprehended and is told to gather his belongings by Mr. Bumble and the Widow Corney, the heartless and greedy caretakers of the workhouse. Mr. Bumble and Widow Corney are left alone, Mr. Bumble begins to make amorous advances. Mrs. Corney pretends to resent his attentions, but ends up on Mr. Bumble's lap, as he proposes to her. Mr. Bumble takes Oliver and sells him as an apprentice to an undertaker, Mr. Sowerberry.
He and his wife taunt Mr. Bumble, causing Mr. Bumble to become angry and storm out. Oliver is sent to sleep in the basement with the coffins; the next morning Noah Claypole, another employee of Sowerberry, insults Oliver's dead mother, whereupon Oliver begins pummeling him. Mrs. Sowerberry and her daughter, Charlotte Noah's girlfriend, run in, Mr. Bumble is sent for, he and the Sowerberrys lock Oliver in a coffin. After a week on the run, he ends up in the city of London and meets a boy about his age known as the Artful Dodger. Dodger seems a kindly boy, invites Oliver to join him and his friends. Dodger is, unknown to Oliver, a pickpocket, he invites Oliver to come and live in Fagin's lair. Fagin is an elderly criminal, now too old to thieve himself, who now teaches young boys to pick pockets. Oliver is unaware of any criminality, believes that the boys make handkerchiefs rather than steal them. Oliver is introduced to Fagin and his boys, is taught their ways; the next day, Oliver meets Nancy, an older member of Fagin's gang, the live-in wife of Fagin's terrifying associate Bill Sikes, a brutal house-burglar whose abuse she endures because she loves him.
Nancy, along with her younger sister Bet and the boys, sing about how they don't mind a bit of danger. Oliver bows to Nancy and Bet, trying to be polite. All the boys mimic Oliver. Nancy singles out Dodger to demonstrate the way. Nancy and Bet leave and Oliver is sent out with the other boys on his first pickpocketing job. Dodger, another boy named Charley Bates, Oliver decide to stick together, when Dodger and Charley rob Mr. Brownlow, a wealthy old man, they run off, leaving the horrified Oliver to be arrested for the crime. In the Three Cripples pub, to help take her mind off of Sikes's neglect towards her, Nancy strikes up an old tavern song with the low-life ruffians. Bill Sikes makes his first appearance, disperses the crowd. Dodger tells Fagin about Oliver's capture and removal to the Brownlow household. Scared he will betray the gang's whereabouts and Bill decide to abduct Oliver and bring him back to the den, with Nancy's help. Nancy, who has come to care for Oliver, at first refuses to help, but Bill physically abuses her and forces her into obedience.
In spite of this, Nancy still loves Bill, believes he loves her too. The next morning, at Mr. Brownlow's house in Bloomsbury, Mrs. Bedwin the housekeeper sings to Oliver, Oliver wakes up. Mr. Brownlow and Dr. Grimwig decide that Oliver is well enough to go outside, so Brownlow sends Oliver to return some books to the library. Oliver joins them in song; as the vendors leave and Bill appear and grab Oliver. They bring him back to Fagin's den, where Nancy saves Oliver from a beating from Sikes after the boy tries to flee. Nancy remorsefully reviews their dreadful life, but Bill maintains that any living is better than none. Fagin tries to act as an intermediary. Left alone, Fagin wonders what his life might be like if he left London and began an honest life, after thinking of various excuses, he