Tomb KV3, located in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, was intended for the burial of an unidentified son of Pharaoh Ramesses III during the early part of the Twentieth Dynasty. It is similar in design to the "straight axis" tombs typical of this dynasty, an ostracon written in hieratic script from the time of Ramesses III mentions the founding of a tomb for a royal prince this tomb; the unfinished state of a couple of rooms in the tomb along with scant archeological evidence suggests that the tomb was never used. Some have suggested that it was intended for use by the prince regent who would succeed as Ramesses IV, who started building his own tomb soon after he came to the throne. In terms of its design it follows that used for tombs in the Valley of the Queens, its size reflects the effort that would have gone into burying a member of the royal family. Past the entrance to the tomb KV3 descends any further, a particular feature for other tombs built for other sons of Ramesses III in the Valley of the Queens.
There are two corridors which lead from the opening to the tomb, with the second passage flanked near the end by two chambers. Of these two chambers, only the one facing south was finished, the other one being only just begun when work on the tomb was abandoned. Past the second corridor is a larger room containing four pillars, flanked by two smaller rooms; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. Only the side chamber to the north was finished, with work on the second one only just begun when work stopped. Past this room and running along the same axis as the corridor are three further rooms, the first two of which have vaulted ceilings. One of these two final vaulted chambers was intended as a burial chamber; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. What tomb decoration that survives can be found only along the length and flanking gates on either end of corridor B; these show Rameses III attended by various gods and goddesses.
It is thought that more decoration once existed, since Karl Lepsius noted traces of paint on the vaulted chambers and mentions cartouches and images of Ramesses III in the first corridor when he visited the tomb in the 1840s. There is evidence. Though open since Ancient times, the tomb was only properly excavated in 1912 by archeologist Harry Burton, funded by the wealthy American lawyer Theodore M. Davis, it was one of the last excavations funded by Davis, no report of this excavation work was published. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV3 - Includes description and plan of the tomb
KV62 is the standard Egyptological designation for the tomb of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, now renowned for the wealth of valuable antiquities it contained. The tomb was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter, underneath the remains of workmen's huts built during the Ramesside Period; the tomb was densely packed with items in great disarray due to its small size, the two robberies, the hurried nature of its completion. Due to the state of the tomb, to Carter's meticulous recording technique, the tomb took eight years to empty, the contents all being transported to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Tutankhamun's tomb had been entered at least twice not long after his mummy was buried, well before Carter's discovery; the outermost doors of the shrines enclosing the king's nested coffins were unsealed, though the inner two shrines remained intact and sealed. In 1907, just before his discovery of the tomb of Horemheb, Theodore M. Davis's team uncovered a small site containing funerary artifacts with Tutankhamun's name and some embalming parts.
Erroneously assuming that this site, numbered as KV54, was Tutankhamun's complete tomb, Davis concluded the dig. The details of both findings are documented in Davis's 1912 publication, The Tombs of Harmhabi and Touatânkhamanou, but Davis was to be proven spectacularly wrong. The British Egyptologist Howard Carter hired a crew to help him excavate at the site of KV62. Carter went back to a line of huts. After the crew cleared the huts and rock debris beneath, their young water boy accidentally stumbled on a stone that turned out to be the top of a flight of steps cut into the bedrock. Carter had the steps dug out until the top of a mud-plastered doorway was found; the doorway was stamped with indistinct cartouches. Carter ordered the staircase to be refilled, sent a telegram to Carnarvon, who arrived two-and-a-half weeks on 23 November along with his 21-year-old daughter, Lady Evelyn Herbert; the excavators cleared the stairway which allowed clearer seals lower down on the door to be read, seals bearing the name of Tutankhamun.
However, further examination showed that the door blocking had been breached and resealed on at least two occasions. Clearing the blocking led to a downward corridor, blocked with packed limestone chippings, through which a robbers' tunnel had been excavated and anciently refilled. At the end of the tunnel was a second sealed door, breached and re-sealed in antiquity. Carter made a hole in the door and used a candle to check for foul gases, before looking inside. "At first I could see nothing," he would write, "the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flame to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged from the mist, strange animals and gold — everywhere the glint of gold." After a pause, Carnarvon asked, "Can you see anything?" Carter famously replied, "Yes, wonderful things..." The first step to the stairs was found on November 4, 1922. The following day saw the exposure of a complete staircase; the end of November saw access to the antechamber and the discovery of the annex, the burial chamber and treasury.
On November 29, the tomb was opened, the first announcement and press conference followed the next day. The first item was removed from the tomb on December 27. On February 16, 1923, the burial chamber was opened, on April 5, Lord Carnarvon died. On February 12, 1924, the granite lid of the sarcophagus was raised. In April, Carter left the excavation for the United States. In January 1925, Carter resumed activities in the tomb, on October 13, he removed the cover of the first sarcophagus. Work started in the treasury on October 24, 1926, between October 30 and December 15, 1927, the annex was emptied and examined. On November 10, 1930, eight years after the discovery, the last objects were removed from the tomb. In design, the tomb appears to have been intended for a private individual, not for royalty. There is some evidence to suggest that the tomb was adapted for a royal occupant during its excavation; this may be supported by the fact that only the burial chamber walls were decorated, unlike royal tombs in which nearly all walls were painted with scenes from the netherworld books.
Starting from a small, level platform, 16 steps descend to the first doorway, sealed and plastered, although it had been penetrated by grave robbers at least twice in antiquity. Beyond the first doorway, a descending corridor leads to the second sealed door, into the room that Carter described as the antechamber; this was used to hold material left over from the funeral and material associated with the embalming of the king. After an initial robbery, this material was either moved into the tomb proper, or to KV54, the corridor was sealed with packed limestone chippings which covered some debris from the first robbery. A robbery broke through the outer door and excavated a tunnel through the chippings to the second door; the robbery was discovered and the second door wa
Tomb KV10, located in the Valley of the Kings near the modern-day Egyptian city of Luxor, was cut and decorated for the burial of Pharaoh Amenmesse of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. However, there is no proof that he was buried here; the decoration was replaced with scenes for Takhat and Baketwernel—two royal women dating to the late 20th dynasty. It was visited by Richard Pococke, Jean-François Champollion and Karl Richard Lepsius, studied by Edward R. Ayrton before being properly examined by a team from the University of Memphis in the United States under Otto Schaden in 1992. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV10 - Includes description and plans of the tomb. KV-10 The Tomb of Amenmesse Project
Located in the Valley of the Kings, Tomb KV12 is an unusual tomb, used in the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, again in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties. It was used for multiple burials of royal family members, rather like KV5; the builders of KV9 broke into KV12 whilst excavating that tomb. During the excavation, rumors of the second tomb had circulated throughout the camp, leading scientists dismissed the idea and continued on. Little did they realize the mistake, about to be made; the tomb diggers broke through the ground into the tomb only to find the remains of multiple family members in the new tomb. Researchers are still working on identifying the family members and collecting the other artifacts in the tomb. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV12 - Includes description and plans of the tomb.
Images showing KV12 and KV9
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Tomb KV8, located in the Valley of the Kings, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Merenptah of Ancient Egypt's Nineteenth Dynasty. The burial chamber, located at the end of 160 metres of corridor held a set of four nested sarcophagi; the outer one of these was so voluminous that parts of the corridor had to have their doorjambs demolished and rebuilt to allow it to be brought in. These jambs were rebuilt with the help of inscribed sandstone blocks which were fixed into their place with dovetail cramps; the pillars in Chamber F were removed to allow passage of the sacrophagus, only two were replaced. The other two pillars may have been stolen by Paneb, a worker in the craftsman's village, for use in his own tomb. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV8: Includes description and plans of the tomb
The American University in Cairo
The American University in Cairo is an independent, English language, research university located in Cairo, Egypt. The university offers American-style learning programs at the undergraduate and professional levels, along with a continuing education program; the AUC student body represents over 50 countries. AUC's faculty members, adjunct teaching staff and visiting lecturers are internationally diverse and include academics, business professionals, journalists and others from the United States and other countries. AUC holds institutional accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and from Egypt's National Authority for Quality Assurance and Assessment of Education; the American University in Cairo was founded in 1919 by American Mission in Egypt, a Protestant mission sponsored by the United Presbyterian Church of North America, as an English-language university and preparatory school. University founder Charles A. Watson wanted to establish a western institution for higher education.
AUC was intended as both a university. The preparatory school opened to 142 students on October 5, 1920 in Khairy Pasha palace, built in the 1860s; the first diplomas issued were junior college-level certificates given to 20 students in 1923. There were disputes between Watson, interested in building the university's academic reputation, United Presbyterian leaders in the United States who sought to return the university to its Christian roots. Four years Watson decided that the university could not afford to maintain its original religious ties and that its best hope was the promotion of good moral and ethical behavior. Limited to male students, the university enrolled its first female student in 1928; that same year, the University graduated its first class, with two Bachelor of Arts and one Bachelor of Sciences degrees awarded. In 1950, AUC added its first graduate programs to its ongoing bachelor of arts, bachelor of sciences, graduate diploma, continuing education programs, in 1951, phased out the preparatory school program.
During the Six-Day War, AUC avoided being nationalized, although most American faculty were forced to leave the country. By the mid-1970s, the university offered a broad range of liberal sciences programs. In the following years, the university added bachelors and diploma programs in engineering, computer science and mass communication and sciences programs, as well as establishing a number of research centers in strategic areas, including business, the social sciences and civic engagement, science and technology. In the 1950s, the university changed its name from The American University at Cairo, replacing "at" with "in." The American University in Cairo Press was established in 1960. By 2016, it was publishing up to 80 books annually. In 1978, the university established the Desert Development Center to promote sustainable development in Egypt's reclaimed desert areas; the Desert Development Center's legacy is being carried forward by the Research Institute for a Sustainable Environment. Faculty voted "no confidence" in university president Francis J. Ricciardone in February 2019.
In a letter to the president, the faculty cited "low morale, complaints about his management style, grievances over contracts and accusations of illegal discrimination" with tensions further increasing when Ricciardone invited U. S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to give a speech at the university. AUC was established in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo; the 7.8-acre Tahrir Square campus was developed around the Khairy Pasha Palace. Built in the neo-Mamluk style, the palace inspired an architectural style, replicated throughout Cairo. Ewart Hall was established in 1928, named for William Dana Ewart, the father of an American visitor to the campus, who made a gift of $100,000 towards the cost of construction on the condition that she remain anonymous; the structure was designed by A. St. John Diament, abutting the south side of the Palace; the central portion of the building houses an auditorium large enough to seat 1,200, as well as classrooms and exhibition galleries. The school's continued growth required additional space, in 1932, a new building was dedicated to house the School of Oriental Studies.
East of Ewart Hall, the building featured Oriental Hall, an auditorium and reception room built and decorated in an adaptation of traditional styles, yet responsive to the architectural style of its own time. Over time AUC added more buildings to what has become known as THE GrEEK CAMPUS, for a total of five buildings and 250,000 square feet in downtown Cairo. Sadat Metro was developed with access to the campus, its main lines intersect near there. Nearby is the Ramses Railway Station; the campus wall on Mohamed Mahmoud Street still has revolutionary graffiti put up. The American University in Cairo tried to preserve the wall graffiti. Many admirers published and documented these graffiti by collecting images/photos of the mural taken by visitors, who were present during this historic period. In the fall of 2008, AUC left the Greek Campus and inaugurated AUC New Cairo, a new 260-acre suburban campus in New Cairo, a satellite city about 20 miles from the downtown campus. New Cairo is a governmental development comprising 46,000 acres of land with a projected population of 2.5 million people.
AUC New Cairo provides advanced facilities for research and learning, as well as all the modern resources needed to support campus life. In its master plan for the new campus, the university mandated that the