Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age. He was born around 50–45 BC in Assisium and died shortly after 15 BC. Propertius' surviving work comprises four books of Elegies, he was a friend of the poets Gallus and Virgil and, with them, had as his patron Maecenas and, through Maecenas, the emperor Augustus. Although Propertius was not as renowned in his own time as other Latin elegists, he is today regarded by scholars as a major poet. Little information is known about Propertius outside of his own writing, his praenomen "Sextus" is mentioned by Aelius Donatus, a few manuscripts list him as "Sextus Propertius", but the rest of his name is unknown. From numerous references in his poetry it is clear he was raised in Umbria, his birthplace is regarded as modern Assisi, where tourists can view the excavated remains of a house thought to have belonged at least to the poet's family, if not to the poet himself. During Propertius' childhood, his father died and the family lost land as part of a confiscation the same one which reduced Virgil's estates when Octavian allotted lands to his veterans in 41 BC.
Along with cryptic references in Ovid that imply that he was younger than his contemporary Tibullus, this suggests a birthdate after 55 BC. After his father's death, Propertius' mother set him on course for a public career, indicating his family still had some wealth, while the abundance of obscure mythology present in his poetry indicates he received a good education. Frequent mention of friends like Tullus, the nephew of Lucius Volcatius Tullus, consul in 33 BC, plus the fact that he lived on Rome's Esquiline Hill indicate he moved among the children of the rich and politically connected during the early part of the 20s BC, it was during this time that he met Cynthia, the older woman who would inspire him to express his poetic genius. Propertius published a first book of love elegies with Cynthia herself as the main theme; the Monobiblos must have attracted the attention of Maecenas, a patron of the arts who took Propertius into his circle of court poets. A second, larger book of elegies was published a year one that includes poems addressed directly to his patron and praises for Augustus.
The 19th century classics scholar Karl Lachmann argued, based on the unusually large number of poems in this book and Propertius' mention of tres libelli, that the single Book II comprises two separate books of poetry conflated in the manuscript tradition, an idea supported by the state of the manuscript tradition of "Book II." An editor of Propertius, Paul Fedeli, accepts this hypothesis, as does G. P. Goold, editor of the Loeb edition; the publication of a third book came sometime after 23 BC. Its content shows the poet beginning to move beyond simple love themes, as some poems use Amor as a starting point for other topics; the book shows the poet growing tired of the demanding yet fickle Cynthia, implies a bitter end to their torrid love affair. Book IV, published sometime after 16 BC, displays more of the poet's ambitious agenda, includes several aetiological poems explaining the origin of various Roman rites and landmarks. Book IV, the last Propertius wrote, has only half the number of poems as Book I.
Given the change in direction apparent in his poetry, scholars assume only his death a short time after publication prevented him from further exploration. It is possible that Propertius had children, either with Cynthia or a liaison. An elegy of Ovid dated to 2 BC makes it clear. Propertius' fame rests on his four books of elegies. All his poems are written using the elegiac couplet, a form in vogue among the Roman social set during the late 1st century BC. Like the work of nearly all the elegists, Propertius' work is dominated by the figure of a single woman, one he refers to throughout his poetry by the pseudonym Cynthia, she is named in over half the elegies of the first book and appears indirectly in several others, right from the first word of the first poem in the Monobiblos: Apuleius identifies her as a woman named Hostia, Propertius suggests she is a descendant of the Roman poet Hostius. Scholars guess that she was a courtesan. Propertius compliments her as docta puella'learned girl', like Sulpicia, she herself was a writer of verse.
Their affair veers wildly between emotional extremes, as a lover she dominates his life at least through the publication of the third book: It is difficult to date many of Propertius' poems, but they chronicle the kind of declarations, jealousies and lamentations that were commonplace subjects among the Latin elegists. The last two poems in Book III seem to indicate a final break with her, Cynthia died some time before the publication of the final book IV. In this last book Cynthia is the subject of only two poems, best regarded as a postscript; the bi-polar complexity of the relationship is amply demonstrated in a poignant, if amusing, poem from the final book. Cynthia's ghost addresses Propertius from beyond the grave with criticism that her funeral was not lavish enough, yet the longing of the poet remains in the final line inter complexus excidit umbra meos. - "Her shade slipped away from my embrace."Book IV indicates Propertius was planning a new direction for h
Troy was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, just south of the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida. The present-day location is known as Hisarlik, it was the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον. A new capital called, it flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric and declined in the Byzantine era, but is now a Latin Catholic titular see. In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlik, in 1868, Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert in Çanakkale; these excavations revealed several cities built in succession.
Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hisarlik with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the Hisarlik site, on Calvert's property. Troy VII has been identified with the city called Wilusa by the Hittites and is identified with Homeric Troy. Today, the hill at Hisarlik has given its name to a small village near the ruins, which supports the tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site, it lies within the province of Çanakkale, some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital called Çanakkale. The nearest village is Tevfikiye; the map here shows the adapted Scamander estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the Homeric plain. Due to Troy's location near the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea, it was a central hub for the military and trade. Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. Ancient Greek historians variously placed the Trojan War in the 12th, 13th, or 14th centuries BC: Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Duris of Samos to 1334 BC.
Modern archaeologists associate Homeric Troy with archaeological Troy VII. In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the River Scamander, where they beached their ships; the city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War took place. The site of the ancient city is some 5 km from the coast today, but 3,000 years ago the mouths of Scamander were much closer to the city, discharging into a large bay that formed a natural harbor, which has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent geological findings have permitted the identification of the ancient Trojan coastline, the results confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy. In November 2001, the geologist John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and the classicist John V. Luce from Trinity College, presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region, they compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia, concluded that there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's Troy and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.
Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature. The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid; the Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus. After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language, spoken in Homeric Troy. Frank Starke of the University of Tübingen demonstrated that the name of Priam, king of Troy at the time of the Trojan War, is connected to the Luwian compound Priimuua, which means "exceptionally courageous". "The certainty is growing that Wilusa/Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community," although it is not clear whether Luwian was the official language or in daily colloquial use.
With the rise of critical history and the Trojan War were, for a long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation; the Troad peninsula was anticipated to be the location. Early modern travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries, including Pierre Belon and Pietro Della Valle, had identified Troy with Alexandria Troas, a ruined town 20 km south of the accepted location. In the late 18th century, Jean Baptiste LeChevalier had identified a location near the village of Pınarbaşı, Ezine as the site of Troy, a mound 5 km south of the accepted location. LeChavalier's location, published in his Voyage de la Troade, was the most accepted theory for a century. In 1822, the Scottis
In Greek mythology, Pirithous was the King of the Lapiths of Larissa in Thessaly. Pirithous was a son of "heavenly" Dia, fathered either by Zeus, he married Hippodamia, daughter of Atrax or Butes, at whose wedding the famous Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs occurred. By his wife, he became the father of one of Greek leaders during the Trojan War. Peirithous was the close friend of the hero Theseus. According to Homer, Dia had sex with Zeus, disguised as a stallion, gave birth to Pirithous, his best friend was Theseus. In Iliad I, Nestor numbers Pirithous and Theseus "of heroic fame" among an earlier generation of heroes of his youth, "the strongest men that Earth has bred, the strongest men against the strongest enemies, a savage mountain-dwelling tribe whom they utterly destroyed". No trace of such an oral tradition, which Homer's listeners would have recognized in Nestor's allusion, survived in literary epic. In disjointed episodes that have survived, Pirithous had heard rumors about Theseus' courage and strength in battle but he wanted proof.
He rustled Theseus' herd of cattle from Marathon, Theseus set out to pursue him. Pirithous took up arms and the pair met became so impressed by each other they took an oath of friendship, they were among the company of heroes that hunted the Calydonian Boar, another mythic theme, well-known to Homer's listeners. Pirithous was set to marry Hippodamia; the centaurs were guests at the party, but they got drunk and tried to abduct the women, including Hippodamia, carried off by the intoxicated centaur Eurytion or Eurytus. The Lapiths won the Centauromachy, a favorite motif of Greek art. Hippodamia died shortly after Polypoetes' birth, thus and Theseus pledged to carry off daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen of Sparta and together they kidnapped her when she was 13 years of age and decided to hold on to her until she was old enough to marry. Pirithous chose a more dangerous prize: Persephone herself, they left Helen with Theseus' mother, Aethra at Aphidnae, traveled to the underworld domain of Persephone and her husband Hades.
When they stopped to rest, they found themselves unable to stand up from the rock as they saw the Furies appear before them. Heracles freed Theseus from the stone, he had committed too great a crime for wanting the wife of one of the great gods as his own bride. By the time Theseus returned to Athens, the Dioscuri had taken Helen back to Sparta; the friendship of Theseus and Pirithous acquired homoerotic undertone in the realm of Attic comedy, in which Heracles attempted to free them from the rock to which they had been bound together in the Underworld. He left behind his buttocks attached to the rocks. Due to this Theseus came to be called hypolispos, meaning "with hinder parts rubbed smooth."Pirithous was worshiped at Athens, along with Theseus, as a hero. Pirithous appears in the Class of the Titans episode "Recipe for Disaster" voiced by Michael Donovan, his mythology of being trapped in the Underworld and being unable to be freed by Heracles remains unchanged in the series, but it is mentioned that Hades freed Pirithous upon his death.
Pirithous appears in the video game God of War III voiced by Simon Templeman. His name is spelled Peirithous here. Peirithous is shown as a prisoner of Hades for trying to make off with Persephone. Peirithous offers Kratos to free him in exchange for giving him the Bow of Apollo. Kratos claims the Bow of Apollo. Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Vol. 3. Books 4.59–8. Online version at Bill Thayer's Web Site Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica. Vol 1-2. Immanel Bekker. Ludwig Dindorf. Friedrich Vogel. in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1888-1890. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA.
Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, Homeri Opera in five volumes. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1920. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, PH. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W. H. S. Jones, Litt. D. and H. A. Ormerod, M. A. in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History. John Bostock, M. D
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, its capital was Sardis. The Kingdom of Lydia existed from about 1200 BC to 546 BC. At its greatest extent, during the 7th century BC, it covered all of western Anatolia. In 546 BC, it became a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, known as the satrapy of Lydia or Sparda in Old Persian. In 133 BC, it became part of the Roman province of Asia. Coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC; the endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire: the satrapy of Sparda, Aramaic Saparda, Babylonian Sapardu, Elamitic Išbarda, Hebrew סְפָרַד. These in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC; the region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom.
However, the Lydian language is not categorized as part of the Luwic subgroup, as are the other nearby Anatolian languages Luwian and Lycian. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture; the Greek historian Herodotus stated that the Etruscans came from Lydia, repeated in Virgil's epic poem the Aeneid, Etruscan-like language was found on the Lemnos stele from the Aegean Sea island of Lemnos. However, the decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not part of the same language family. Furthermore, a mitochondrial DNA study suggests that the Etruscans were an indigenous population, showing that Etruscans appear to fall close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations suggesting that the Etruscan civilization developed locally from the Villanovan culture, genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago during the Neolithic; the boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries.
It was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia. The military power of Alyattes and Croesus expanded Lydia, with its capital at Sardis, controlled all Asia Minor west of the River Halys, except Lycia. After the Persian conquest the River Maeander was regarded as its southern boundary, during imperial Roman times Lydia comprised the country between Mysia and Caria on the one side and Phrygia and the Aegean Sea on the other; the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. Due to its fragmentary attestation, the meanings of many words are unknown but much of the grammar has been determined. Similar to other Anatolian languages, it featured extensive use of prefixes and grammatical particles to chain clauses together. Lydian had undergone extensive syncope, leading to numerous consonant clusters atypical of Indo-European languages. Lydian became extinct during the 1st century BC. Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC.
In Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the original name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia: Homer refers to the inhabitants of Lydia as Maiones. Homer describes their capital not as Hyde. Herodotus adds that the "Meiones" were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys, during the mythical epoch that preceded the Heracleid dynasty; this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. The Hebrew term for Lydians, Lûḏîm, as found in the Book of Jeremiah, has been considered, beginning with Flavius Josephus, to be derived from Lud son of Shem. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers; some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles. Lydian mythology is unknown, their literature and rituals have been lost due to the absence of any monuments or archaeological finds with extensive inscriptions.
For the Greeks, Tantalus was a primordial ruler of mythic Lydia, Niobe his proud daughter. In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the double-axe symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization, the labrys. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, whom Heracles was required to serve for a time, his adventures in Lydia are the adventures of a Greek hero in a peripheral and foreign land: during his stay, Heracles enslaved the Itones.
The Thebaid or Thebais was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan. The Thebaid acquired its name from its proximity to the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes. During the Ancient Egyptian dynasties this region was dominated by Thebes and its priesthood at the temple of Amun at Karnak. In Ptolemaic Egypt, the Thebaid formed a single administrative district under the Epistrategos of Thebes, responsible for overseeing navigation in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean; the capital of Ptolemaic Thebaid was Ptolemais Hermiou, a Hellenistic colony on the Nile which served as the center of royal political and economic control in Upper Egypt. During the Roman Empire, Diocletian created the province of Thebais, guarded by the legions I Maximiana Thebanorum and II Flavia Constantia; this was divided into Upper, comprising the southern half with its capital at Thebes, Lower or Nearer, comprising the northern half with capital at Ptolemais.
Around the 5th century, since it was a desert, the Thebaid became a place of retreat of a number of Christian hermits, was the birthplace of Pachomius. In Christian art, the Thebaid was represented as a place with numerous monks. Ancient episcopal sees of Thebais Prima listed in the Annuario Pontificio as Catholic titular sees: Antaeopolis Antinopolis, the Metropolitan Archbishopric Apollonopolis Parva Cusae Hermopolis Magna = Maior Hypselis Oasis Magna Panopolis Ancient episcopal sees of Thebais Secunda listed in the Annuario Pontificio as Catholic titular sees: List of Catholic dioceses in Egypt This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Bagnall, R. J. Drinkwater, A. Esmonde-Cleary, W. Harris, R. Knapp, S. Mitchell, S. Parker, C. Wells, J. Wilkes, R. Talbert, M. E. Downs, M. Joann McDaniel, B. Z. Lund, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 991398". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list GCatholic - Defunct sees in Egypt
A nymph in Greek mythology is a supernatural being associated with many other minor female deities that are associated with the air, seas or water, or particular locations or landforms. Different from Greek goddesses, nymphs are more regarded as divine spirits who animate or maintain Nature for the environments where they live, are depicted as beautiful, young graceful maidens, they are divided into various broad subgroups, such as Aurai, Nereides and Dryades The Greek word νύμφη has the primary meaning of "young woman. Yet the etymology of the noun νύμφη remains uncertain; the Doric and Aeolic form is νύμφα. Modern usage more applies to young women at the peak of their attractiveness, contrasting with parthenos "a virgin", generically as kore "maiden, girl"; the term is sometimes used by women to address each other and remains the regular Modern Greek term for "bride". Nymphs were sometimes beloved by many and dwell in most specific areas related to the natural environment. E.g. mountainous forests by springs or rivers.
Other nymphs appeared in the shape of young maidens, were part of the retinue of a god, such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan, or a goddess the huntress Artemis. The Greek nymphs were spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin genius loci, sometimes this produced complicated myths like cult of Arethusa to Sicily. In some of the works of the Greek-educated Latin poets, the nymphs absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams, while the Lymphae, Italian water-goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae; the classical mythologies of the Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cults of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of Latium. Among the Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted, they appear exclusively as divinities of the watery element; the ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century, when they were known as "nereids".
Nymphs tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. They might appear in a whirlwind; such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate human. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos. A motif that entered European art during the Renaissance was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a grotto or spring; this motif came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the River Danube. The report, an accompanying poem on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at Stourhead.
As H. J. Rose states, all the names for various classes of nymphs are plural feminine adjectives agreeing with the substantive nymphai, there was no single classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. Thus, the classes of nymphs tend to overlap. Rose mentions dryads and hamadryads as nymphs of trees meliai as nymphs of ash trees, naiads as nymphs of water, but no others specifically; the following is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended as a guide: The following is a list of groups of nymphs associated with this or that particular location. Nymphs in such groupings could belong to any of the classes mentioned above; the following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Dryades etc. See respective articles. Sabrina Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36281-9. Larson, Jennifer Lynn. Greek Nymphs: Myth, Lore. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514465-9.
Lawson, John Cuthbert, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910, p. 131 Nereids paleothea.com homepage Tomkinson, John L.. Haunted Greece: Nymphs and Other Exotika. Athens: Anagnosis. ISBN 978-960-88087-0-6; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nymphs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 930. Theoi.com: Nymphs Theoi Project – List of Nymphs
In classical mythology, Hylas was a youth who served as Heracles' companion and servant, as well as lover. His abduction by water nymphs was a theme of ancient art, has been an enduring subject for Western art in the classical tradition. In Greek mythology, Hylas was the son of King Theiodamas of the nymph Menodice. In some accounts his father was Euphemus or King Ceyx of Trachis. After Heracles killed Theiodamas in battle, he took on Hylas as arms bearer and taught him to be a warrior, in time the two fell in love; the poet Theocritus wrote about the love between Heracles and Hylas: "We are not the first mortals to see beauty in what is beautiful. No Amphitryon's bronze-hearted son, who defeated the savage Nemean lion, loved a boy—charming Hylas, whose hair hung down in curls, and like a father with a dear son he taught him all the things which had made him a mighty man, famous." Heracles took Hylas with him on the Argo. Hylas was kidnapped by nymphs of the spring of Pegae, Mysia when they fell in love with him, he vanished without a trace.
This upset Heracles, his boyfriend, so he along with Polyphemus searched for a great length of time. The ship set sail without them. According to the Latin Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus, they never found Hylas because the latter had fallen in love with the nymphs and remained "to share their power and their love." The story of Hylas and the nymphs is alluded to in Book 3 of Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, Canto XII, Stanza 7: Or that same daintie lad, so deareTo great Alcides, that when as he dydeHe wailed womanlike with many a teare,And every wood, every valley wydeHe fild with Hylas name. Hylas is mentioned in Christopher Marlowe's play Edward II: "Not Hylas was more mourned for of Hercules / Than thou hast been of me since thy exile", in Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, Chapter 11. "...and gilded a boy that he might serve at the feast as Ganymede or Hylas." "Hylas" is the name of one of the two characters in George Berkeley's Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. He represents the materialist position against.
In this context, the name is derived from ὕλη, the classical Greek word for "matter." Stanisław Lem adopted these characters in philosophical book, Dialogi. Iolaus Lympha Jason and the Argonauts Berkeley's Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous Encyclopædia Britannica on Hylas Hylas in the Classical Style by Stefanie E. Dittert, Professor Buttigieg Encyclopedia of Greek Mythology on Hylas Hylas – via Wikisource. Poem by Florence Earle Coates