Louis I, Count of Blois
Louis I of Blois was Count of Blois from 1191 to 1205. He was the son of Theobald Alix of France, his maternal grandparents were his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Whilst in his teens, Louis joined his father on the Third Crusade. Louis promulgated a charter in 1196 abolishing serfdom in his domains. At the Tournament at Écry-sur-Aisne on 28 November 1199, count Louis and his cousin Theobald III of Champagne were the first major nobles to respond to Pope Innocent III's call for a Fourth Crusade, he left France in 1202, along with a gift of 1,000 marks from King John of England. During the July 1203 siege of Constantinople, Louis was one of eight division commanders, the others including Boniface of Montferrat, Doge Enrico Dandolo, Baldwin of Flanders, Baldwin's brother Henry. Louis was afflicted with a severe fever for months, missed participating in the capture of Constantinople in 1204, he was too ill to take part in the subsequent forays of his men into Asia Minor, where he had been created Duke of Nicaea, a title he never vindicated as the city was captured by Theodore I Laskaris, founder of the Empire of Nicaea.
He had just recuperated when he participated in the Battle of Adrianople, where he was slain by a force of Cumans led by Kaloyan of Bulgaria. Louis chased the enemy too far, exhausting his men and horses and stretching them over a broad plain, where he brought himself and the Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople into a trap, he married Catherine, Countess of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, they had: Raoul, who died young Jeanne, who died young Theobald VI, Count of Blois Noble, Peter. "Baldwin of Flanders and Henry of Hainault as Military Commanders in the Latin Empire of Constantinople". In Housley, Norman. Knighthoods of Christ: Essays on the History of the Crusades and the Knights Templar. Ashgate Publishing Limited. Peter of Blois. Revell, Elizabeth, ed; the Later Letters of Peter of Blois. Oxford University Press. Queller, Donald E.. The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople. University of Pennsylvania Press. Thompson, Kathleen. Power and Border Lordship in Medieval France: The County of the Perche, 1000-1226.
The Boydell Press. Tyerman, Christopher. God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Harvard University Press. Williams, Jane Welch. Bread and Money: The Windows of the Trades at Chartres Cathedral. University of Chicago Press
Margaret, Countess of Blois
Margaret of Blois was suo jure Countess of Blois from 1218 to 1230, in what is now France. She was daughter of Theobald V of Alix of France. Margaret married three times, her first marriage was to Hugh of Lord of Montmirail. Her second husband was Otto I, Count of Burgundy, with whom she had two daughters: Joanna I, Countess of Burgundy Beatrice II, Countess of BurgundyFinally, she married Walter II of Avesnes, they had: Theobald, died young Mary, Countess of Blois Bumke, Joachim. Courtly Culture: Literature and Society in the High Middle Ages. Translated by Dunlap, Thomas. University of California Press. Platelle, Henri. Présence de l'au-delà: une vision médiévale du monde. Presses Universitaires du Septentrion
Blois is a city and the capital of Loir-et-Cher department in central France, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. Though of ancient origin, Blois is first distinctly mentioned by Gregory of Tours in the 6th century, the city gained some notability in the 9th century, when it became the seat of a powerful countship known as Blesum castrum. In 1171, Blois was the site of a blood libel against its Jewish community that led to 31 Jews being burned to death, their martyrdom contributed to a prominent and durable school of poetry inspired by Christian persecution. In 1196, Count Louis granted privileges to the townsmen; the counts of the Châtillon line resided at Blois more than their predecessors, the oldest parts of the château were built by them. In 1429, Joan of Arc made Blois her base of operations for the relief of Orléans. Joan of Arc rode the thirty-five miles on Wednesday 29 April to Blois to relieve Orléans. After his captivity in England, Charles of Orléans in 1440 took up his residence in the château, where in 1462 his son, afterwards Louis XII, was born.
In the 16th century Blois was the resort of the French court. The Treaty of Blois, which temporarily halted the Italian Wars, was signed there in 1504–1505; the city's inhabitants included many Calvinists, in 1562 and 1567 it was the scene of struggles between them and the supporters of the Catholic Church. In 1576 and 1588 Henri III, king of France, chose Blois as the meeting-place of the States-General, in 1588 he brought about the murders of Henry, duke of Guise, his brother, archbishop of Reims and cardinal, in the Château, where their deaths were shortly followed by that of the queen-mother, Catherine de' Medici. From 1617 to 1619 Marie de' Medici, wife of King Henri IV, exiled from the court, lived at the château, soon afterwards given by King Louis XIII to his brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, who lived there till his death in 1660; the bishopric, seated at Blois Cathedral, dates from the end of the 17th century. In 1814 Blois was for a short time the seat of the regency of Marie Louise, wife of Napoleon I.
Blois was occupied during World War II by the German army, which took the city on 18 June 1940. The city was liberated by American soldiers during the last two weeks of August 1944. On both occasions, the city withstood several days of bombing; the Château de Blois, a Renaissance château once occupied by King Louis XII, is located in the centre of the city, an 18th-century stone bridge spans the Loire. As Blois is built on a pair of steep hills and steep pathways run through the city, culminating in long staircases at various points. To the south of the city, the Forêt de Russy is a reminder of the thick woods that once covered the area. La Maison de la Magie Robert-Houdin is a museum fronting on the Château; as a museum of France, it is the only public museum in Europe which incorporates in one place collections of magic and a site for permanent performing arts, is directly reflects the personality of Robert-Houdin. The Gare de Blois railway station offers direct connections to Paris, Orléans, Tours and several regional destinations.
The A10 motorway connects Blois with Paris, Tours. Blois was the birthplace of: Thubois Stephen, King of England from 1135 to 1154. Louis XII, King of France from 1498 to 1515 Jean Morin and biblical scholar of Protestant parents Denis Papin, physicist and inventor Thomas de Mahy, Marquis de Favras, royalist Jean Marie Pardessus, lawyer Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry, historian Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, magician René Guénon, philosopher, social critic, the founder of the Traditionalist School Philippe Ariès, medievalist and historian Albert Ronsin, 20th-century French scholar, historian and curator Philippe Gondet, footballer Claudine Doury, photographer Sonia Bompastor, female footballer Aly Cissokho, footballer of Senegalese descent Bernard Onanga Itoua footballer Nicolas Vogondy, cyclist Corentin Jean, footballer Fabrice Moireau, 21st-century French watercolourist and artist Blois is twinned with: Waldshut-Tiengen, since 30 June 1963 Weimar, since 18 February 1995 Lewes, United kingdom, since 30 June 1963 Sighişoara, since 18 November 1995 Urbino, since 1 May 2003 Huế, since 23 May 2007 Athos, the count of La Fère has a castle in Blois, in Twenty Years After, The Vicomte de Bragelonne.
Official website Documentary photography of Blois by "Sayf" Jewish Encyclopedia entry INSEE commune file
Crown lands of France
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France refers to the lands and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain referred to the network of "castles and estates, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, the rights of justice and taxes" held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain.
By the time of Philip IV, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit, by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom. However, the medieval system of appanage alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals. During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was criticized; the Edict of Moulins declared that the royal domain could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land. Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille, upon the whole of the kingdom. At the beginning of Hugh Capet's reign, the crown estate was small and consisted of scattered possessions in the Île-de-France and Orléanais regions, with several other isolated pockets, such as Attigny.
These lands were the inheritance of the Robertians, the direct ancestors of the Capetians. 988: Montreuil-sur-Mer, the first port held by the Capetians, is acquired through the marriage of the crown prince Robert with Rozala, the widow of the Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. 1016: acquisition of the Duchy of Burgundy. The king was the nephew of Duke Henry of Burgundy. Robert gains the counties of Paris and Melun, negotiates the ultimate acquisition of a part of Sens. 1034: the king gives the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert 1055: annexation of the County of Sens. 1068: acquisition of Gâtinais and Château-Landon from Fulk IV, Count of Anjou 1077: annexation of the French Vexin 1081: acquisition of Moret-sur-Loing 1101: acquisition of the Viscounty of Bourges and the seigneury of Dun-sur-Auron from Odo Arpin of Bourges the king spends much of his reign pacifying and consolidating the royal domain by battling certain feudal lords from Fulk, Viscount of Gâtinais, Louis bought Moret, Le Châtelet-en-Brie, Boësses, Yèvre-le-Châtel and Chambon.
Other additions to the royal domain include: Montlhéry and Châteaufort, Corbeil, Meung-sur-Loire, Châteaurenard and Saint-Brisson. 1137: marriage of Louis with Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou. By this marriage, Louis hopes to attach most of South-West France to the royal domain. 1137: Louis gives Dreux to his brother Robert. 1151: separation of Louis VII and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who in 1152 weds Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine and Duke of Normandy, who becomes in 1154, King of England. Eleanor's lands come to Henry in her dowry. 1160: gives Norman Vexin to his daughter Margaret as a dowry. Margaret is forced to surrender her dowry. 1184: granted Montargis. 1185: by the Treaty of Boves, gains Amiens and Montdidier, Choisy-au-Bac, Thourotte and rights to the inheritance of Vermandois and Valois. 1187: seizes Tournai from the bishop. Confiscates Meulan and other castles. 1191: at the death of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, the County of Artois and its dependencies, the inheritance of the queen Isabelle of Hainaut, are given to prince Louis.
These areas would not become integrated into the royal domain until 1223. 1191: the County of Vermandois is acquired by the king, after the death of Elisabeth of Vermandois, the inheritor of the County. Confirmed in 1213, by Eléonore of Vermandois sister of Elisabeth. Philip gains Valois. 1200: the Norman Vexin is annexed 1200 the County of Évreux and Issoudun are annexed, in exchange for the king's recognition of John of England as king of England. 1204: confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Touraine, Saintonge and, temporarily, of the Poitou from John of England. 1208: La Ferté-Macé confiscated from Guillaume IV of Ferté-Macé 1220: the Count
The term "Moors" refers to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers; the name was also applied to Arabs. Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica observed that "The term'Moors' has no real ethnological value." Europeans of the Middle Ages and the early modern period variously applied the name to Arabs, North African Berbers, Muslim Europeans. The term has been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general those of Arab or Berber descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors" in South Asia and Sri Lanka, the Bengali Muslims were called Moors. In the Philippines, the longstanding Muslim community, which predates the arrival of the Spanish, now self-identifies as the "Moro people", an exonym introduced by Spanish colonizers due to their Muslim faith.
In 711, troops formed by Moors from northern Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Iberian peninsula came to be known in Classical Arabic as al-Andalus, which at its peak included most of Septimania and modern-day Spain and Portugal. In 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily, they went on to consolidate the rest of the island. Differences in religion and culture led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe, which tried to reclaim control of Muslim areas. In 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, destroyed by European Christians in 1300; the fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, although a Muslim minority persisted until their expulsion in 1609. During the classical period, the Romans interacted with, conquered, parts of Mauretania, a state that covered modern northern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla; the Berber tribes of the region were noted in the Classics as Mauri, subsequently rendered as "Moors" in English and in related variations in other European languages.
Mauri is recorded as the native name by Strabo in the early 1st century. This appellation was adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii; the Moors were mentioned by Tacitus as having revolted against the Roman Empire in 24 AD. During the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri was used to refer to Berbers and Arabs in the coastal regions of Northwest Africa; the 16th century scholar Leo Africanus identified the Moors as the native Berber inhabitants of the former Roman Africa Province. He described Moors as one of five main population groups on the continent alongside Egyptians, Abyssinians and Cafri. In medieval Romance languages, variations of the Latin word for the Moors developed different applications and connotations; the term denoted a specific Berber people in western Libya, but the name acquired more general meaning during the medieval period, associated with "Muslim", similar to associations with "Saracens". During the context of the Crusades and the Reconquista, the term Moors included the derogatory suggestion of "infidels".
Apart from these historic associations and context and Moorish designate a specific ethnic group speaking Hassaniya Arabic. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Morocco and Mali. In Niger and Mali, these peoples are known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara; the authoritative dictionary of the Spanish language does not list any derogatory meaning for the word moro, a term referring to people of Maghrebian origin in particular or Muslims in general. Some authors have pointed out that in modern colloquial Spanish use of the term moro is derogatory for Moroccans in particular and Muslims in general. In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many modern Filipinos call the large, local Muslim minority concentrated in Mindanao and other southern islands Moros; the word is a catch-all term, as Moro may come from several distinct ethno-linguistic groups such as the Maranao people. The term was introduced by Spanish colonisers, has since been appropriated by Filipino Muslims as an endonym, with many self-identifying as members of the Bangsamoro "Moro Nation".
Moreno can mean "dark-skinned" in Spain, Portugal and the Philippines. In Spanish, morapio is a humorous name for "wine" that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e. pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Filipino Moros from Mindanao, the moriscos of Granada. Moro refers to all things dark, as in "Moor", etc, it was used as a nickname. In Portugal, mouro may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura, where "Moor" implies "alien" and "non-Christian"; these beings were siren-like fairies with a fair face. They were believed to have magical properties. From this root, the name moor is applied to unbaptized children. In Basque, mairu means moor and refers to a mythical people. Muslims located in South Asia were distinguished by the Portuguese historians into two groups: Mouros da Terra and the Mouros da Arabia/Mouros de Meca ("Moors from Arabia/Mecca" or "Paradesi
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
Castile (historical region)
Castile is a historical region of Spain divided between Old Castile and New Castile. The area covers the following modern autonomous communities: the eastern part of Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha, Community of Madrid as well as Cantabria and La Rioja. Castile's name derives from the Spanish for "land of castles" in reference to the castles built in the area to consolidate the Christian Reconquest from the Moors. An eastern county of the kingdom of León, in the 11th century Castile became an independent realm with its capital at Burgos; the County of Castile, which included most of Burgos and parts of Vizcaya, Álava, Cantabria and La Rioja. became the leading force in the northern Christian states' 800-year Reconquista of central and southern Spain from the Moorish rulers who had dominated most of the peninsula since the early 8th century. The capture of Toledo in 1085 added New Castile to the crown's territories, the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa heralded the Moors' loss of most of southern Spain.
León was reunited with Castile in 1230, the following decades saw the capture of Córdoba and Seville. By the Treaty of Alcaçovas with Portugal on March 6, 1460, the ownership of the Canary Islands was transferred to Castile; the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, when Ferdinand II of Aragon wed Isabella I of Castile, would lead to the formal creation of Spain as a single entity in 1516 when their grandson Charles V assumed both thrones. See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree; the Muslim Kingdom of Granada was conquered in 1492, formally passing to the Crown of Castile in that year. Since it lacks modern day official recognition, Castile no longer has defined borders; the area consisted of the Kingdom of Castile. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre, the definition of what constituted Castile began to change, its historical capital was Burgos.
In modern Spain, it is considered to comprise Castile and León and Castile–La Mancha, with Madrid as its centre. West Castile and León, Cantabria and La Rioja are sometimes included in the definition. Since 1982 there have been two nominally Castilian autonomous communities in Spain, incorporating the toponym in their own official names: Castile and Leon and Castile-La Mancha. A third, the Community of Madrid is regarded as part of Castile, by dint of its geographic enclosure within the entity and, above all, by the statements of its Statute of Autonomy, since its autonomic process originated in national interest and not in popular disaffection with Castile. Other territories in the former Crown of Castile are left out for different reasons. In fact, the territory of the Castilian Crown comprised all other autonomous communities within Spain with the exception of Aragon, Balearic Islands and Catalonia, all belonging to the former Crown of Aragon, Navarre, offshoot of the older Kingdom of the same name.
Castile was divided between Old Castile in the north, so called because it was where the Kingdom of Castile was founded, New Castile, called the Kingdom of Toledo in the Middle Ages. The Leonese region, part of the Crown of Castile from 1230, was from medieval times considered a region in its own right on a par with the two Castiles, appeared on maps alongside Old Castile until the two joined as one region - Castile and Leon - in the 1980s. In 1833, Spain was further subdivided into administrative provinces. Two non-administrative, nominally Castilian regions existed from 1833 to 1982: Old Castile, including Santander, Logroño, Valladolid, Segovia and Ávila, New Castile consisting of Madrid, Cuenca and Ciudad Real; the language of Castile emerged as the primary language of Spain—known to many of its speakers as castellano and in English sometimes as Castilian, but as Spanish. See Names given to the Spanish language; the Castilian Kingdom and people were considered to be the main architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Moors and of marriages, wars and annexation of their smaller Eastern and Western neighbours.
From the advent of the Bourbon Monarchy following the War of the Spanish Succession until the arrival of parliamentary democracy in 1977, the Castilian language was the only one with official status in the Spanish state. Castilian people Old Castile New Castile Crown of Castile Early history of the Kingdom of León Economic history of Spain Later history of Spain List of Castile Kings Castile soap Heraldry of Castile Music of Castile and Leon Castella, a food whose name originates from Castile. Two places in the United States have been named after this kingdom: Village of Castile and Town of Castile. Both are located in the state of New York