Heidelberg is a university town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, with a quarter of its population being students. Located about 78 km south of Frankfurt, Heidelberg is the fifth-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. Founded in 1386, Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities. A scientific hub in Germany, the city of Heidelberg is home to several internationally renowned research facilities adjacent to its university, including four Max Planck Institutes. A former residence of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Heidelberg is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle, the Philosophers' Walk, the baroque style Old Town. Heidelberg is in the Rhine Rift Valley, on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald.
It is bordered by the Gaisberg mountains. The Neckar here flows in an east-west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain rises to a height of 445 meters; the Neckar flows into the Rhine 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim. Villages incorporated during the 20th century stretch from the Neckar Valley along the Bergstraße, a road running along the Odenwald hills. Heidelberg is on European walking route E1. Since Heidelberg is among the warmest regions of Germany, plants atypical of the central-European climate flourish there, including almond and fig trees. Alongside the Philosophenweg on the opposite side of the Old Town, winegrowing was restarted in 2000. There is a wild population of African rose-ringed parakeets, a wild population of Siberian swan geese, which can be seen on the islands in the Neckar near the district of Bergheim. Heidelberg is a unitary authority within the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe; the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis rural district surrounds it and has its seat in the town, although the town is not a part of the district.
Heidelberg is a part of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region referred to as the Rhein-Neckar Triangle. This region consists of the southern part of the State of Hessen, the southern part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the administrative districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg, the southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis; the Rhein-Neckar Triangle became a European metropolitan area in 2005. Heidelberg consists of 15 districts distributed in six sectors of the town. In the central area are Altstadt and Weststadt; the new district will have 5,000–6,000 residents and employment for 7,000. Further new residential space for 10,000-15,000 residents was made available in Patrick Henry Village following the departure of the US Armed Forces; the following towns and communes border the city of Heidelberg, beginning in the west and in a clockwise direction: Edingen-Neckarhausen, Schriesheim, Schönau, Neckargemünd, Gaiberg, Sandhausen, Plankstadt and Mannheim. Heidelberg has an oceanic climate, defined by the protected valley between the Pfälzerwald and the Odenwald.
Year-round, the mild temperatures are determined by maritime air masses coming from the west. In contrast to the nearby Upper Rhine Plain, Heidelberg's position in the valley leads to more frequent easterly winds than average; the hillsides of the Odenwald favour precipitation. The warmest month is July, the coldest is January. Temperatures rise beyond 30 °C in midsummer. According to the German Meteorological Service, Heidelberg was the warmest place in Germany in 2009. Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer, his jaw bone was discovered in 1907. Scientific dating determined his remains as the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of worship were built on the Heiligenberg, or "Mountain of Saints". Both places can still be identified. In 40 AD, a fort occupied by the 24th Roman cohort and the 2nd Cyrenaican cohort; the early Byzantine/late Roman Emperor Valentinian I, in 369 AD, built new and maintained older castra and a signal tower on the bank of the Neckar.
They built a wooden bridge based on stone pillars across it. The camp protected the first civilian settlements; the Romans remained until 260 AD. The local administrative center in Roman times was the nearby city of Lopodunum. Modern Heidelberg can trace its beginnings to the fifth century; the village Bergheim is first mentioned for that period in documents dated to 769 AD. Bergheim now lies in the middle of modern Heidelberg; the people converted to Christianity. In 863 AD, the monastery of St. Michael was founded on the Heiligenberg inside the double rampart of the Celtic fortress. Around 1130, the Neuburg Monastery was founded in the Neckar valley. At the same time, the bishopric of Worms extended its influence into the valley, founding Schönau Abbey in 1142. Modern He
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich is a public research university located in Munich, Germany. The University of Munich is Germany's sixth-oldest university in continuous operation. Established in Ingolstadt in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut by King Maximilian I of Bavaria when Ingolstadt was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1802, the university was named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria in his as well as the university's original founder's honour; the University of Munich has since the 19th century, been considered as one of Germany's as well as one of Europe's most prestigious universities. Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn and Thomas Mann. Pope Benedict XVI was a student and professor at the university; the LMU has been conferred the title of "elite university" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
LMU is the second-largest university in Germany in terms of student population. Of these, 8,671 were freshmen while international students totalled 7,812 or 15% of the student population; as for operating budget, the university records in 2015 a total of 660.0 million euros in funding without the university hospital. The University was founded with papal approval in 1472 as the University of Ingolstadt, with faculties of philosophy, medicine and theology, its first rector was Christopher Mendel of Steinfels, who became bishop of Chiemsee. In the period of German humanism, the university's academics included names such as Conrad Celtes and Petrus Apianus; the theologian Johann Eck taught at the university. From 1549 to 1773, the university was influenced by the Jesuits and became one of the centres of the Counter-Reformation; the Jesuit Petrus Canisius served as rector of the university. At the end of the 18th century, the university was influenced by the Enlightenment, which led to a stronger emphasis on natural science.
In 1800, the Prince-Elector Maximilian IV Joseph moved the university to Landshut, due to French aggression that threatened Ingolstadt during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1802, the university was renamed the Ludwig Maximilian University in honour of its two founders, Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria; the Minister of Education, Maximilian von Montgelas, initiated a number of reforms that sought to modernize the rather conservative and Jesuit-influenced university. In 1826, it was moved to the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria; the university was situated in the Old Academy until a new building in the Ludwigstraße was completed. The locals were somewhat critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian and Ludwig I invited to Munich, they were dubbed the "Nordlichter" and physician Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis was quite angry about them. In the second half of the 19th century, the university rose to great prominence in the European scientific community, attracting many of the world's leading scientists.
It was a period of great expansion. From 1903, women were allowed to study at Bavarian universities, by 1918, the female proportion of students at LMU had reached 18%. In 1918, Adele Hartmann became the first woman in Germany to earn the Habilitation, at LMU. During the Weimar Republic, the university continued to be one of the world's leading universities, with professors such as Wilhelm Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Richard Willstätter, Arnold Sommerfeld and Ferdinand Sauerbruch. During the Third Reich, academic freedom was curtailed. In 1943 the White Rose group of anti-Nazi students conducted their campaign of opposition to the National Socialists at this university; the university has continued to be one of the leading universities of West Germany during the Cold War and in the post-reunification era. In the late 1960s, the university was the scene of protests by radical students. Today the University of Munich is part of 24 Collaborative Research Centers funded by the German Research Foundation and is host university of 13 of them.
It hosts 12 DFG Research Training Groups and three international doctorate programs as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria. It attracts an additional 120 million euros per year in outside funding and is intensively involved in national and international funding initiatives. LMU Munich has a wide range of degree programs, with 150 subjects available in numerous combinations. 15% of the 45,000 students who attend the university come from abroad. In 2005, Germany’s state and federal governments launched the German Universities Excellence Initiative, a contest among its universities. With a total of 1.9 billion euros, 75 percent of which comes from the federal state, its architects aim to strategically promote top-level research and scholarship. The money is given to more than 30 research universities in Germany; the initiative will fund three project-oriented areas: graduate schools to promote the next generation of scholars, clusters of excellence to promote cutting-edge research and "future concepts" for the project-based expansion of academic excellence at universities as a whole.
In order to
Heidelberg University is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germany's oldest university and one of the world's oldest surviving universities, it was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire. Heidelberg has been a coeducational institution since 1899; the university consists of twelve faculties and offers degree programmes at undergraduate and postdoctoral levels in some 100 disciplines. Heidelberg comprises three major campuses: the humanities are predominantly located in Heidelberg's Old Town, the natural sciences and medicine in the Neuenheimer Feld quarter, the social sciences within the inner-city suburb Bergheim; the language of instruction is German, while a considerable number of graduate degrees are offered in English. As of 2017, 56 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university. Modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology, psychiatric genetics, environmental physics, modern sociology were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty.
1,000 doctorates are completed every year, with more than one third of the doctoral students coming from abroad. International students from some 130 countries account for more than 20 percent of the entire student body. Internationally renowned and ranked among Europe's top universities, Heidelberg is one of the most prestigious universities in the world, a German Excellence University, part of the U15, as well as a founding member of the League of European Research Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university's noted alumni include eleven domestic and foreign Heads of State or Heads of Government. The Great Schism of 1378 made it possible for Heidelberg, a small city and capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, to gain its own university; the Great Schism was initiated by the election of two popes after the death of Pope Gregory XI in the same year. One successor the other in Rome; the German secular and spiritual leaders voiced their support for the successor in Rome, which had far-reaching consequences for the German students and teachers in Paris: they lost their stipends and had to leave.
Rupert I recognized the opportunity and initiated talks with the Curia, which led to a Papal Bull for foundation of a university. After having received, on 23 October 1385, permission from pope Urban VI to create a school of general studies, the final decision to found the university was taken on 26 June 1386 at the behest of Rupert I, Count Palatine of the Rhine; as specified in the papal charter, the university was modelled after University of Paris and included four faculties: philosophy, theology and medicine. On 18 October 1386 a special Pontifical High Mass in the Heiliggeistkirche was the ceremony that established the university. On 19 October 1386 the first lecture was held. In November 1386, Marsilius of Inghen was elected first rector of the university; the rector seal motto was semper apertus—i.e. "the book of learning is always open." The university grew and in March 1390, 185 students were enrolled at the university. Between 1414 and 1418, theology and jurisprudence professors of the university took part in the Council of Constance and acted as counselors for Louis III, who attended this council as representative of the emperor and chief magistrate of the realm.
This resulted in establishing a good reputation for its professors. Due to the influence of Marsilius, the university taught the nominalism or via moderna. In 1412, both realism and the teachings of John Wycliffe were forbidden at the university but around 1454, the university decided that realism or via antique would be taught, thus introducing two parallel ways; the transition from scholastic to humanistic culture was effected by the chancellor and bishop Johann von Dalberg in the late 15th century. Humanism was represented at Heidelberg University by the founder of the older German Humanistic School Rudolph Agricola, Conrad Celtes, Jakob Wimpfeling, Johann Reuchlin. Æneas Silvius Piccolomini was chancellor of the university in his capacity of provost of Worms, always favored it with his friendship and good-will as Pope Pius II. In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV permitted laymen and married men to be appointed professors in the ordinary of medicine through a papal dispensation. In 1553, Pope Julius III sanctioned the allotment of ecclesiastical benefice to secular professors.
Martin Luther's disputation at Heidelberg in April 1518 made a lasting impact, his adherents among the masters and scholars soon became leading Reformationists in Southwest Germany. With the Electorate of the Palatinate turn to the Reformed faith, Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, converted the university into a calvinistic institution. In 1563, the Heidelberg Catechism was created under collaboration of members of the university's divinity school; as the 16th century was passing, the late humanism stepped beside Calvinism as a predominant school of thought. It developed into a cultural and academic center. However, with the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in 1618, the intellectual and fiscal wealth of the university declined. In 1622, the then-world-famous Bibliotheca Palatina was stolen from the University Cathedral and taken to Rome; the reconstruction e
University of Kiel
Kiel University is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. It was founded in 1665 as the Academia Holsatorum Chiloniensis by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and has 27,000 students today. Kiel University is the largest and most prestigious in the state of Schleswig-Holstein; until 1864/66 it was not only the northernmost university in Germany but at the same time the 2nd largest university of Denmark. Faculty and researchers of the Kiel University have won 12 Nobel Prizes. Kiel University is a member of the German Universities Excellence Initiative since 2006; the Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, established in cooperation with the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence "Inflammation at Interfaces" deals with chronic inflammatory diseases; the Kiel Institute for the World Economy is affiliated with Kiel University. The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
The citizens of the city of Kiel were quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be "quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character". But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire. After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew in size; the university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany, Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students. The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.
In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures. Faculty of Theology Faculty of Law Faculty of Business and Social Sciences Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Arts and Humanities Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition Faculty of Engineering See Category:University of Kiel alumniFranz Boas, anthropologist Alice Bota, journalist Gerhard Domagk, Nobel laureate Prof. Dr. Doris König, current judge of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, Germany's highest court Wolfgang Kubicki, vice chairman of the FDP in Germany, from 1992 to 1993 and since 1996 he is faction leader of the FDP in the Landtag, the parliament of Schleswig-Holstein, former member of the Bundestag Oswald Pohl, Nazi SS officer executed for war crimes Gerhard Stoltenberg, former prime minister of Schleswig-Holstein, former finance minister of Germany Peer Steinbrück, former prime minister of North Rhine Westphalia, former finance minister of Germany Erich Walter Sternberg, composer Dr. Sibylle Kessal-Wulf, current judge of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, Germany's highest court See Category:University of Kiel faculty There are several Nobel Prize Winners affiliated with the University of Kiel, including: 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1905 Philipp Lenard 1907 Eduard Buchner 1918 Max Planck 1922 Otto Meyerhof 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1950 Kurt Alder and Otto Diels.
Botanischer Garten der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, the university's botanical garden List of colleges and universities List of early modern universities in Europe University of Kiel Web site University of Kiel International Affairs Students' Association at University of Kiel
The German Confederation was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, dissolved in 1806. The German Confederation excluded German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German cantons of Switzerland, Alsace within France, majority German speaking; the Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention; the ruling body, the Confederate Diet, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after failed efforts to replace it. The Confederation was dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.
The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany with the Prussian king as emperor after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. However, the Confederation was designed to be weak, as it served the interests of the European Great Powers member states Austria and Prussia; the War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states. After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania, the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine; the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein created the Central Managing Authority for Germany in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein; the German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty; the states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were: Anhalt-Bernburg Anhalt-Dessau Anhalt-Köthen Austrian Empire Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hanover Electorate of Hesse Grand Duchy of Hesse Hohenzollern-Hechingen Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Holstein and Lauenburg, held by Denmark Holstein-Oldenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Nassau Prussia Reuss, elder line Reuss, younger line Saxony Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Meiningen Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck Württemberg Hesse-Homburg Lübeck Frankfurt Bremen Hamburg In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866.
The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation. The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly. Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Ass
Christian Klucker was a Swiss mountain guide who made many first ascents in the Alps in the Bernina Range, the Bregaglia and the Pennine Alps. Amongst his first ascents were: Gurgel on north-east face of Piz Bernina on 18 June 1890 North-west face of Piz Scerscen on 9 July 1890 North-east face of Piz Roseg on 16 July 1890 East-north-east ridge of the Ober Gabelhorn on 1 August 1890'Norman-Neruda route' on the north-east face of Lyskamm on 9 August 1890 Nadelgrat from the Hohberghorn to the Lenzspitze in 1892 Peuterey ridge to the summit of Mont Blanc via a couloir on the Brenva face on 15–19 August 1893 West-south-west ridge of Piz Badile on 14 June 1897 First traverse from the Italian side of the Porta da Roseg on Piz Roseg on 21 June 1898 Klucker appeared as the character Otto Spring in the 1929 mountain film, Die weiße Hölle vom Piz Palü, directed by Arnold Fanck. Collomb, Bernina Alps, Goring: West Col Productions, 1988 Collomb, Robin G. Bregaglia West, Goring: West Col Productions, 1984 Collomb, Robin G. Pennine Alps Central, London: Alpine Club, 1975 Dumler and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, London: Diadem, 1994 Klucker, Adventures of an Alpine Guide, London: John Murray, 1932 List of first ascents with Anton von Rydzewski in the Bregaglia
Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe was a seminal contributor in the birth of modern organic chemistry. He was a Professor at Leipzig. Kolbe coined the term synthesis and contributed to the philosophical demise of vitalism through synthesis of the organic substance acetic acid from carbon disulfide, contributed to the development of structural theory; this was done via modifications to the idea of "radicals" and accurate prediction of the existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols, to the emerging array of organic reactions through his Kolbe electrolysis of carboxylate salts, the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction in the preparation of aspirin and the Kolbe nitrile synthesis. After studies with Wöhler and Bunsen, Kolbe was involved with the early internationalization of chemistry through overseas work in London, rose through the ranks of his field to edit the Journal für Praktische Chemie; as such, he was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences won the Royal Society of London's Davy Medal in the year of his death.
Despite these accomplishments and his training a storied next generation of chemists, Kolbe is remembered for editing the Journal for more than a decade, where his rejection of Kekulé's structure of benzene, van't Hoff's theory on the origin of chirality and von Baeyer's reforms of nomenclature were critical and linguistically violent. Kolbe died of a heart attack in Leipzig six years after the death of his wife, Charlotte, he was survived by four children. Kolbe was born in Elliehausen, near Göttingen, Kingdom of Hanover as the eldest son of a Protestant pastor. At the age of 13, he entered the Göttingen Gymnasium, he obtained the leaving certificate six years later. He had become passionate about the study of chemistry, matriculating at the University of Göttingen in the spring of 1838 in order to study with the famous chemist Friedrich Wöhler. In 1842, he became an assistant to Robert Bunsen at the Philipps-Universität Marburg, he took his doctoral degree in 1843 at the same university. A new opportunity arose in 1845, when he became assistant to Lyon Playfair at the new Museum of Economic Geology in London and a close friend of Edward Frankland.
From 1847, he was engaged in editing the Handwörterbuch der reinen und angewandten Chemie edited by Justus von Liebig, Wöhler, Johann Christian Poggendorff, he wrote an important textbook. In 1851, Kolbe succeeded Bunsen as professor of chemistry at Marburg and, in 1865, he was called to the Universität Leipzig. In 1864, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1853, he married the daughter of General-Major Wilhelm von Bardeleben, his wife died in 1876 after 23 years of happy marriage. They had four children; as late as the 1840s, despite Friedrich Wöhler's synthesis of urea in 1828, some chemists still believed in the doctrine of vitalism, according to which a special life-force was necessary to create "organic" compounds. Kolbe promoted the idea that organic compounds could be derived from substances sourced from outside this "organic" context, directly or indirectly, by substitution processes, he validated his theory by converting carbon disulfide to acetic acid in several steps.
Kolbe introduced a modified idea of structural radicals, so contributing to the development of structural theory. A dramatic success came when his theoretical prediction of the existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols was confirmed by the synthesis of the first of these classes of organic molecules. Kolbe was the first person to use the word synthesis in its present-day meaning, contributed a number of new chemical reactions. In particular, Kolbe developed procedures for the electrolysis of the salts of fatty and other carboxylic acids and prepared salicylic acid, a building block of aspirin in a process called Kolbe synthesis or Kolbe-Schmitt reaction, his method for the synthesis of nitriles is called the Kolbe nitrile synthesis, with Edward Frankland he found that nitriles can be hydrolyzed to the corresponding acids. In addition to his own bench research and scholarly and editorial work, Kolbe oversaw student research at Leipzig and at Marburg. Besides his work for periodicals he wrote numerous books Kolbe served for more than a decade as what, in modern terms, would be understood the senior editor of the Journal für Praktische Chemie, Kolbe was sometimes so critical of the work of others after about 1874, that some wondered whether he might have been suffering