John Dewey was an American philosopher and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the fathers of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Dewey as the 93rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century. A well-known public intellectual, he was a major voice of progressive education and liberalism. Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he wrote about many other topics, including epistemology, aesthetics, logic, social theory, ethics, he was a major educational reformer for the 20th century. The overriding theme of Dewey's works was his profound belief in democracy, be it in politics, education, or communication and journalism; as Dewey himself stated in 1888, while still at the University of Michigan, "Democracy and the one, ethical ideal of humanity are to my mind synonymous."Known for his advocacy of democracy, Dewey considered two fundamental elements—schools and civil society—to be major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality.
Dewey asserted that complete democracy was to be obtained not just by extending voting rights but by ensuring that there exists a formed public opinion, accomplished by communication among citizens and politicians, with the latter being accountable for the policies they adopt. John Dewey was born in Vermont to a family of modest means, he was one of four boys born to Lucina Artemisia Rich Dewey. Their second son was named John, but he died in an accident on January 17, 1859; the second John Dewey was born October 20, 1859, forty weeks after the death of his older brother. Like his older, surviving brother, Davis Rich Dewey, he attended the University of Vermont, where he was initiated into Delta Psi, graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1879. A significant professor of Dewey's at the University of Vermont was Henry Augustus Pearson Torrey, the son-in-law and nephew of former University of Vermont president Joseph Torrey. Dewey studied with Torrey between his graduation from Vermont and his enrollment at Johns Hopkins University.
After two years as a high-school teacher in Oil City and one teaching elementary school in the small town of Charlotte, Dewey decided that he was unsuited as a primary or secondary school teacher. After studying with George Sylvester Morris, Charles Sanders Peirce, Herbert Baxter Adams, G. Stanley Hall, Dewey received his Ph. D. from the School of Arts & Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. In 1884, he accepted a faculty position at the University of Michigan with the help of George Sylvester Morris, his unpublished and now lost dissertation was titled "The Psychology of Kant." In 1894 Dewey joined the newly founded University of Chicago where he developed his belief in Rational Empiricism, becoming associated with the newly emerging Pragmatic philosophy. His time at the University of Chicago resulted in four essays collectively entitled Thought and its Subject-Matter, published with collected works from his colleagues at Chicago under the collective title Studies in Logical Theory. During that time Dewey initiated the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, where he was able to actualize the pedagogical beliefs that provided material for his first major work on education, The School and Society.
Disagreements with the administration caused his resignation from the university, soon thereafter he relocated near the East Coast. In 1899, Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association. From 1904 until his retirement in 1930 he was professor of philosophy at Columbia University. In 1905 he became president of the American Philosophical Association, he was a longtime member of the American Federation of Teachers. Along with the historians Charles A. Beard and James Harvey Robinson, the economist Thorstein Veblen, Dewey is one of the founders of The New School. Dewey's most significant writings were "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology", a critique of a standard psychological concept and the basis of all his further work. While each of these works focuses on one particular philosophical theme, Dewey included his major themes in most of what he published, he published more than 700 articles in 140 journals, 40 books. Reflecting his immense influence on 20th-century thought, Hilda Neatby wrote "Dewey has been to our age what Aristotle was to the Middle Ages, not a philosopher, but the philosopher."Dewey married Alice Chipma
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space and causation are mere sensibilities. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features, he drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori, that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality. Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. Kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy the fields of epistemology, political theory, post-modern aesthetics. In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason, he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists which philosophy had led to, is held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought. Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation, he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith. Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history; these include the Universal Natural History, the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, the Critique of Judgment, which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter. Kant's father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city. Kant believed. While scholars of Kant's life long accepted the claim, there is no evidence that Kant's paternal line was Scottish and it is more that the Kants got their name from the village of Kantwaggen and were of Curonian origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children. Kant was born on 22 April 1724 into a Prussian German family of Lutheran Protestant faith in Königsberg, East Prussia. Baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew, he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science. Kant maintained Christian ideals for some time, but struggled to reconcile the faith with his belief in science.
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, he reveals a belief in immortality as the necessary condition of humanity's approach to the highest morality possible. However, as Kant was skeptical about some of the arguments used prior to him in defence of theism and maintained that human understanding is limited and can never attain knowledge about God or the soul, various commentators have labelled him a philosophical agnostic. Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, it is held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life, leading to an oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks. He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author before starting on his major philosophical works, he had a circle of friends with whom he met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg.
A common myth is. In fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Groß-Arnsdorf. Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age, he first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740. In 1740, aged 16, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, he studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist, familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind", he dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th cent
Bernard Bosanquet (philosopher)
Bernard Bosanquet, FBA was a British philosopher and political theorist, an influential figure on matters of political and social policy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His work influenced but was subject to criticism by many thinkers, notably Bertrand Russell, John Dewey and William James. Bernard was the husband of Charity Organisation Society leader Helen Bosanquet. Born at Rock Hall near Alnwick, Bosanquet was the son of Robert William Bosanquet, a Church of England clergyman, he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. After graduation, he was elected to a Fellowship at University College, but, after receiving a substantial inheritance, resigned it in order to devote himself to philosophical research, he moved to London in 1881, where he became an active member of the London Ethical Society and the Charity Organisation Society. Both were positive demonstrations of Bosanquet's ethical philosophy. Bosanquet published on a wide range of topics, such as logic, metaphysics and politics.
In his metaphysics, he is regarded as a key representative of Absolute Idealism, although it is a term that he abandoned in favour of "speculative philosophy." He was one of the leaders of the so-called neo-Hegelian philosophical movement in Great Britain. He was influenced by the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, but by the German philosophers Immanuel Kant and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Among his best-known works are The Philosophical Theory of the State, his Gifford lectures, The Principle of Individuality and Value and The Value and Destiny of the Individual. Bosanquet was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1894 to 1898. In his Encyclopedia, Section 95, Hegel had written about "the ideality of the finite." This obscure meaningless, phrase was interpreted as implying that "what is finite is not real" because the ideal is understood as being the opposite of the real. Bosanquet was a follower of Hegel and the "central theme of Bosanquet's idealism was that every finite existence transcends itself and points toward other existences and to the whole.
Thus, he advocated a system close to that in which Hegel had argued for the ideality of the finite."The relation of the finite individual to the whole state in which he/she lives was investigated in Bosanquet's Philosophical Theory of the State. In this book, he "argued that the state is the real individual and that individual persons are unreal by comparison with it." But Bosanquet did not think that the state has a right to impose social control over its individual citizens. "On the contrary, he believed that if society is organic and individual its elements can cooperate apart from a centralised organ of control, the need for which presupposes that harmony has to be imposed upon something, unharmonious."The relationship between the individual and society was summarised in Bosanquet's preface to The Introduction to Hegel's Philosophy of Fine Art: Man's Freedom, in the sense thus contemplated, lies in the spiritual or supra-sensuous world by which his humanity is realized, in which his will finds fulfilment.
The family, for example and law are the first steps of man's freedom. In them the individual's will obtains and bestows recognition as an agent in a society whose bond of union is ideal — i.e. existing only in consciousness. It is in these that man finds something to live for, something in which and for the sake of which to assert himself; as society develops he lives on the whole more in the civilized or spiritual world, less in the savage or purely natural world. His will, himself, expands with the institutions and ideas that form its purpose, the history of this expansion is the history of human freedom. Nothing is more shallow,more barbarously irrational, than to regard the progress of civilization as the accumulation of restrictions. Laws and rules are a necessary aspect of extended capacities; the Principle of Individuality and Value, Macmillan, 1912. The Value and Destiny of the Individual, Macmillan, 1923; the Philosophical Theory of The State, Kitchener: Batoche Books Knowledge and Reality: A Criticism of Mr F H Bradley's Principles of Logic The Introduction to Hegel's Philosophy of Fine Art translated and edited Logic, or The Morphology of Knowledge in two volumes: Volume 1, Volume 2 The Essentials of Logic, being ten lectures on Judgment and Inference Essays and Addresses A History of Aesthetic The Civilization of Christendom, other studies A Companion to Plato's Republic for English readers The Education of the Young in the Republic of Plato translated from Books 2,3 and 4 Psychology of the Moral Self The Meaning of Teleology: a lecture read to the British Academy in 1906 The Distinction Between Mind And Its Objects Three Lectures on Aesthetic Social and International Ideals: being studies in patriotism Some Suggestions In Ethics Croce's Aesthetic: a lecture read to the British Academy in 1919 Implication and Linear Inference What Religion is The Meetings of Extremes in Contemporary Philosophy Review of Benno Erdmann's Logik.
Bd. 1. Logische Elementarlehre by Bosanquet in Mind, N. S. No. 2 "Bosanquet, Bernard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1922. Bernard Bosanquet – Encyclopædia Britannica, 1998 Sweet, William. "Bernard Bosanquet". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Bernard Bosanquet page Archives Hub: Bosan
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position. There are many definitions for empathy. Types of empathy include cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, somatic empathy; the English word empathy is derived from the Ancient Greek word εμπάθεια. This, in turn, comes from εν and πάθος; the term was adapted by Hermann Lotze and Robert Vischer to create the German word Einfühlung, translated by Edward B. Titchener into the English term empathy. However, in modern Greek, εμπάθεια means "malice", "hostility". Alexithymia is a word used to describe a deficiency in understanding, processing or describing emotions in oneself as opposed to in others; this term comes from the combination of two Ancient Greek words: ἀλέξω and θυμός. Thus alexithymia means "pushing away your emotions". Empathy definitions encompass a broad range of emotional states, including caring for other people and having a desire to help them.
It can be understood as having the separateness of defining oneself and another a blur. It is the ability to feel and share another person's emotions; some believe that empathy involves the ability to match another's emotions, while others believe that empathy involves being tenderhearted toward another person. Having empathy can include having the understanding that there are many factors that go into decision making and cognitive thought processes. Past experiences have an influence on the decision making of today. Understanding this allows a person to have empathy for individuals who sometimes make illogical decisions to a problem that most individuals would respond with an obvious response. Broken homes, childhood trauma, lack of parenting and many others factors can influence the connections in the brain which a person uses to make decisions in the future. Martin Hoffman is a psychologist. According to Hoffman everyone is born with the capability of feeling empathy. Compassion and sympathy are terms associated with empathy.
Definitions vary. Compassion is defined as an emotion we feel when others are in need, which motivates us to help them. Sympathy is a feeling of understanding for someone in need; some include in sympathy an empathic concern, a feeling of concern for another, in which some scholars include the wish to see them better off or happier. Empathy is distinct from pity and emotional contagion. Pity is a feeling that one feels towards others that might be in trouble or in need of help as they cannot fix their problems themselves described as "feeling sorry" for someone. Emotional contagion is when a person imitatively "catches" the emotions that others are showing without recognizing this is happening. Since empathy involves understanding the emotional states of other people, the way it is characterized is derived from the way emotions themselves are characterized. If, for example, emotions are taken to be centrally characterized by bodily feelings grasping the bodily feelings of another will be central to empathy.
On the other hand, if emotions are more centrally characterized by a combination of beliefs and desires grasping these beliefs and desires will be more essential to empathy. The ability to imagine oneself as another person is a sophisticated imaginative process. However, the basic capacity to recognize emotions is innate and may be achieved unconsciously, yet it can be achieved with various degrees of intensity or accuracy. Empathy has a "more or less" quality; the paradigm case of an empathic interaction, involves a person communicating an accurate recognition of the significance of another person's ongoing intentional actions, associated emotional states, personal characteristics in a manner that the recognized person can tolerate. Recognitions that are both accurate and tolerable are central features of empathy; the human capacity to recognize the bodily feelings of another is related to one's imitative capacities, seems to be grounded in an innate capacity to associate the bodily movements and facial expressions one sees in another with the proprioceptive feelings of producing those corresponding movements or expressions oneself.
Humans seem to make the same immediate connection between the tone of voice and other vocal expressions and inner feeling. In the field of positive psychology, empathy has been compared with altruism and egotism. Altruism is behavior, aimed at benefitting another person, while egotism is a behavior, acted out for personal gain. Sometimes, when someone is feeling empathetic towards another person, acts of altruism occur. However, many question. According to positive psychologists, people can be adequately moved by their empathies to be altruistic. Empathy is divided into two major components: Affective empathy called emotional empathy: the capacity to respond with an appropriate emotion to another's mental states. Our ability to empathize is based on emotional contagion: being affected by another's emotional or arousal state. Affective empathy can be subdivide
R. G. Collingwood
Robin George Collingwood was an English philosopher and archaeologist. He is best known for his philosophical works including The Principles of Art and the posthumously published The Idea of History. Collingwood was born 22 February 1889 in Cartmel, Grange-over-Sands, in Lancashire, the son of the artist and archaeologist W. G. Collingwood, who had acted as John Ruskin's private secretary in the final years of Ruskin's life. Collingwood's mother was an artist and a talented pianist, he was educated at Rugby School, at University College, where he gained a First in Classical Moderations in 1910 and a congratulatory First in Greats in 1912. Prior to graduation he was elected a fellow of Oxford. Collingwood was a fellow of Pembroke College, for some 15 years until becoming the Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy at Magdalen College, Oxford, he was taught by the historian and archaeologist F. J. Haverfield, at the time Camden Professor of Ancient History. Important influences on Collingwood were the Italian Idealists Benedetto Croce, Giovanni Gentile and Guido de Ruggiero, the last of whom was a close friend.
Other important influences were Hegel, Giambattista Vico, F. H. Bradley and J. A. Smith. After several years of debilitating strokes Collingwood died at Coniston, Lancashire, on 9 January 1943, he was a practising Anglican throughout his life. Collingwood is noted for The Idea of History, collated from various sources soon after his death by a student, T. M. Knox, it came to be a major inspiration for philosophy of history in the English-speaking world and is extensively cited, leading to an ironic remark by commentator Louis Mink that Collingwood is coming to be "the best known neglected thinker of our time". Collingwood categorized history as a science, defining a science as "any organized body of knowledge." However, he distinguished history from natural sciences because the concerns of these two branches are different: natural sciences are concerned with the physical world while history, in its most common usage, is concerned with social sciences and human affairs. Collingwood pointed out a fundamental difference between knowing things in the present and knowing history.
To come to know things in the present or about things in the natural sciences, "real" things can be observed, as they are in existence or that have substance right now. Since the internal thought processes of historical persons cannot be perceived with the physical senses and past historical events cannot be directly observed, history must be methodologically different from natural sciences. History, being a study of the human mind, is interested in the thoughts and motivations of the actors in history. Therefore, Collingwood suggested that a historian must "reconstruct" history by using "historical imagination" to "re-enact" the thought processes of historical persons based on information and evidence from historical sources. Re-enactment of thought refers to the idea that the historian can access not only a thought process similar to that of the historical actor, but the actual thought process itself. Consider Collingwood's words regarding the study of Plato: "In its immediacy, as an actual experience of his own, Plato's argument must undoubtedly have grown up out of a discussion of some sort, though I do not know what it was, been connected with such a discussion.
Yet if I not only read his argument but understand it, follow it in my own mind by re-arguing it with and for myself, the process of argument which I go through is not a process resembling Plato's, it is Plato's, so far as I understand him rightly."In Collingwood's understanding, a thought is a single entity accessible to the public and therefore, regardless of how many people have the same thought, it is still a singular thought. "Thoughts, in other words, are to be distinguished on the basis of purely qualitative criteria, if there are two people entertaining the same thought, there is only one thought since there is only one propositional content." Therefore, if historians follow the correct line of inquiry in response to a historical source and reason they can arrive at the same thought the author of their source had an, in so doing, "re-enact" that thought. Collingwood rejected what he deemed "scissors-and-paste history" in which the historian rejects a statement recorded by their subject either because it contradicts another historical statement or because it contradicts the historian's own understanding of the world.
As he states in Principles of History, sometimes a historian will encounter "a story which he cannot believe, a story characteristic of the suspersitions or prejudices of the author's time or the circle in which he lived, but not credible to a more enlightened age, therefore to be omitted." This, Collingwood argues, is an unacceptable way to do history. Sources which make claims that do not align with current understandings of the world were still created by rational humans who had reason for creating them. Therefore, these sources are valuable and ought to be investigated further in order to get at the historical context in which they were created and for what reason; the Principles of Art comprises Collingwood's most developed treatment of aesthetic questions. Collingwood held that works of art are expressions of emotion. For Collingwood, an important social role for artists is to clarify and articulate emotions from their community. Collingwood developed a position known as aesthetic expressivism (not to be confused with various other views called expressivism, a thesis firs
Martin Heidegger was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification". Heidegger's membership in and public support for the Nazi Party has been the subject of widespread controversy regarding the extent to which his Nazism influenced his philosophy, his first and best known book and Time, though unfinished, is one of the central philosophical works of the 20th century. In its first part, Heidegger attempted to turn away from "ontic" questions about beings to ontological questions about Being, recover the most fundamental philosophical question: the question of Being, of what it means for something to be.
Heidegger approached the question through an inquiry into the being that has an understanding of Being, asks the question about it, Human being, which he called Dasein. Heidegger argued that Dasein is defined by Care, its engaged and concernful mode of being-in-the-world, in opposition to such Rationalist thinkers as René Descartes who located the essence of man in his thinking abilities. For Heidegger thinking is thinking about things discovered in our everyday practical engagements; the consequence of this is that our capacity to think cannot be the most central quality of our being because thinking is a reflecting upon this more original way of discovering the world. In the second part of his book, Heidegger argues that human being is more fundamentally structured by its Temporality, or its concern with, relationship to time, existing as a structurally open "possibility-for-being", he emphasized the importance of Authenticity in human existence, involving a truthful relationship to our thrownness into a world which we are "always already" concerned with, to our being-towards-death, the Finitude of the time and being we are given, the closing down of our various possibilities for being through time.
Heidegger made critical contributions to philosophical conceptions of truth, arguing that its original meaning was unconcealment, to philosophical analyses of art as a site of the revelation of truth, to philosophical understanding of language as the "house of being." Heidegger's work includes criticisms of technology's instrumentalist understanding in the Western tradition as "enframing", treating all of Nature as a "standing reserve" on call for human purposes. Heidegger is a controversial figure for his affiliation with Nazism, as Rector of the University of Freiburg for 11 months, before his resignation in April 1934, for which he neither apologized nor publicly expressed regret. Heidegger was born in Baden-Württemberg, the son of Johanna and Friedrich Heidegger. Raised a Roman Catholic, he was the son of the sexton of the village church that adhered to the First Vatican Council of 1870, observed by the poorer class of Meßkirch, his family could not afford to send him to university, so he entered a Jesuit seminary, though he was turned away within weeks because of the health requirement and what the director and doctor of the seminary described as a psychosomatic heart condition.
Heidegger was sinewy, with dark piercing eyes. He enjoyed outdoor pursuits, being proficient at skiing. Studying theology at the University of Freiburg while supported by the church he switched his field of study to philosophy. Heidegger completed his doctoral thesis on psychologism in 1914, influenced by Neo-Thomism and Neo-Kantianism, directed by Arthur Schneider. In 1916, he finished his venia legendi with a habilitation thesis on Duns Scotus directed by Heinrich Rickert and influenced by Edmund Husserl's phenomenology. In the two years following, he worked first as an unsalaried Privatdozent served as a soldier during the final year of World War I. In 1923, Heidegger was elected to an extraordinary Professorship in Philosophy at the University of Marburg, his colleagues there included Rudolf Bultmann, Nicolai Hartmann, Paul Natorp. Heidegger's students at Marburg included Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Gerhard Krüger, Leo Strauss, Jacob Klein, Gunther Anders, Hans Jonas. Following on from Aristotle, he began to develop in his lectures the main theme of his philosophy: the question of the sense of being.
He extended the concept of subject to the dimension of history and concrete existence, which he found prefigured in such Christian thinkers as Saint Paul, Augustine of Hippo and Kierkegaard. He read the works of Wilhelm Dilthey, Max Scheler, Friedrich Nietzsche. In 1927, Heidegger published his main work Sein und Zeit; when Husserl retired as Professor of Philosophy in 1928, Heidegger accepted Freiburg's election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg. Heidegger remained at Freiburg im Breisgau for the rest of his life, declining a number of offers, including one from Humboldt University of Berlin, his students at Freiburg included Arendt, Günther Anders, Hans Jonas, Karl Löwith, Charles Malik, Herbert Marcuse and Ernst Nolte. Emmanuel Levinas attended his lecture courses during his stay in Freiburg in 1928. Heidegger was elected rector of the University on 21 April 1933, joined the National Socialist German Workers' Part