René Goulaine de Laudonnière
Rene Goulaine de Laudonnière was a French Huguenot explorer and the founder of the French colony of Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville, Florida. Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, a Huguenot, sent Jean Ribault and Laudonnière to explore potential sites in Florida suitable for settlement by the French Protestants. Laudonnière was a Huguenot merchant mariner from Poitou, France, his birthdate and family origins are unknown. One school of historians attaches him to a branch of the Goulaine family seated at Laudonnière, near Nantes. A competing claim insists. No contemporary records have been published to substantiate either theory. In 1562, Laudonnière was appointed second in command of the Huguenot expedition to Florida under Jean Ribault. Leaving in February 1562, the expedition returned home in July after establishing the small settlement of Charlesfort in present-day South Carolina. After the French Wars of Religion broke out between French Catholics and Huguenots, Ribault fled France and sought refuge in England.
Meanwhile, the Huguenots planned another expedition to Florida and Laudonnière was placed in command in Ribault's absence. In 1564 Laudonniere received 50,000 crowns from Charles IX and returned to Florida with three ships and 300 Huguenot colonists. Laudonnière arrived at the mouth of the May River on 22 June 1564, he sailed up the river where he founded Fort Caroline, which they named for King Charles, in what is now Jacksonville. He made contact with the Saturiwa, a Timucua chiefdom who were friendly to the colonists and showed them a shrine they had built around a monument left behind by Ribault; when some of the men complained about the manual labor, Laudonnière sent them back to France. The colony had to get food from the Timucua. Colonists complained and a small group seized a ship and sailed to the Gulf of Mexico to become pirates. Deserters from the colony angered the Timucua. Colonists had to rely on acorns and roots and rebelled. On 3 August 1565 Laudonnière bought food and a ship from passing privateer John Hawkins so he could ship the colonists back to France.
While he was waiting for a favorable wind, Jean Ribault arrived with 600 more settlers and soldiers on September 10. Ribault informed Laudonnière that he had been relieved of his authority, but offered him an informal co-regency over the colony; this arrangement was unacceptable to Laudonnière. Events interrupted Laudonnière's departure when a Spanish fleet commanded by Adelantado Pedro Menéndez de Avilés appeared. Spain based her long-standing claim to Florida on the voyage of discovery of Juan Ponce de León in 1513, as well as four other expeditions of exploration. Menéndez, one of the foremost naval officers of his day, had been sent out by King Philip II of Spain with a fleet and 800 Spanish settlers with specific instructions to remove the French Protestants from Florida. Menéndez's fleet attempted to grapple and board Ribault's ships just off the mouth of the St. Johns River, but sea conditions denied success to both combatants; the Spanish admiral sailed 40 miles south to the next deep inlet on the Atlantic Florida coast.
Spanish troops disembarked on 28 August 1565 near the Timucua Indian village of Seloy and hastily threw up some field fortifications, anticipating a French attack. Ribault set sail southward on 10 September 1565, taking most of the soldiers with him to attack the newly established Spanish earthworks-and-palm-log camp at St Augustine, he left Laudonnière with 100 men but only 20 soldiers. During a hurricane, Ménendez had sent Spanish troops marching 40 miles north overland to attack Fort Caroline on 20 September, they overwhelmed the defended Huguenot garrison and killed most of the male colonists, about 140. Laudonnière and 40-50 others managed to escape, he made his way to the river's mouth. He set sail in the younger Ribault's company but headed home on a lone vessel, unexpectedly landing in Wales. Meanwhile, Jean Ribault's fleet ran into the same hurricane that had bedeviled the Spanish approach to Fort Caroline; the storm drove the French squadron many miles south toward present-day Daytona Beach, destroying all the warships.
Ribault and hundreds of other survivors washed ashore, began to walk north along the beach. At Matanzas Inlet, a Spanish patrol encountered the remnants of the French force, took them prisoner. Following the king of Spain's express edict, all heretics were taken behind a sand dune and put to the sword; the few confessing Catholics and the young musicians were spared their lives. Ribault was executed, along with about 350 of his men. By mid-October 1565, the military power of France on the Florida coast had been obliterated, in accord with the wishes of Philip II of Spain. Traveling overland via Bristol and London, Laudonnière reached Paris in December 1565. After reporting to the royal Court at Moulins, Laudonnière faded from the historical picture. Several years he emerged as a merchant mariner in 1572 at La Rochelle, he evaded the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of Huguenots, died at St. Germain-en-Laye in 1574, his memoirs, L'histoire notable de la Floride, contenant les trois voyages faits en icelles par des capitaines et pilotes français, were published in 1586.
"Laudonnière, René de". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1892
Wars of Liège
The Wars of Liège were a series of three rebellions by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, in the town of Liège in modern-day Belgium, against the expanding Duchy of Burgundy between 1465 and 1468. On each occasion, the rebels were defeated by Burgundian forces commanded by Charles the Bold and the city was twice burned to the ground. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy had become ruler of large parts of the Low Countries in the first half of the 15th century, to that extent that these were now called the Burgundian Netherlands. In 1456, Philip tried to expand his influence to the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. Through his excellent relations with Pope Callixtus III, he had Prince-Bishop John of Heinsberg deposed, replaced by his 18-year-old nephew Louis de Bourbon. De Bourbon continued his studies at the University of Leuven for 7 more years, while Philip ruled de facto over Liège. In the meantime, the resistance to the Burgundians in Prince-Bishopric grew; the leader was bailiff of Heers. He contacted King Louis XI of France.
When Louis de Bourbon took up his functions in the Prince-Bishopric in 1465, he was deposed by the States of Liège. Raes van Heers was unable to control the rebellious populace, which plundered Lands of Overmaas which belonged to the Duke of Burgundy. Philip the Good sent an army, under command of his son Charles the Bold, to Liège to restore his authority. Raes van Heers assembled an army of 4,000 men civilians and confronted Charles the Bold at the Battle of Montenaken on 20 October 1465; the battle was a clear victory for the Burgundians. Burgundian forces went on to occupy Sint-Truiden. Under the terms of the agreement, Liège lost all its rights and Louis of Bourbon was reinstated as Prince-Bishop; the unrest in Liège did not abate. In 1466, the city of Dinant, to the south-west and Philip the Good again sent troops, commanded by Charles the Bold, who punished the city by casting 800 burghers into the river Meuse and burnt the city; when Philip died in 1467, unrest broke out in the city of Liège and Louis of Bourbon was forced to flee to Huy, to the west.
There, his position was not secure and he was forced to flee the Prince-Bishopric together with all the Burgundians. Again, Raes van Heers and Count Jan de Wilde of Kessenich raised an army to confront Charles the Bold; the reinforcements promised by Louis XI of France again didn't materialise, the troops of Liège were decisively defeated in the Battle of Brustem on 28 October 1467. After the battle, Charles forced the city to surrender on 12 November; the Prince-Bishopric became a Burgundian protectorate under Guy of Humbercourt, all cities in the County of Loon were forced to tear down their defences. Still, the people of Liège refused to accept Burgundian rule. In October 1468, 240 rebels, under Jean de Wilde, Vincent de Bueren and Gosuin de Streel, invaded the city. In the confusion, Guy of Humbercourt and the entire Burgundian garrison fled. Liège was free again and Jean de Wilde occupied the Prince-Bishops' palace. One night, a Liège militia killed all Burgundians there. After this, Jean de Wilde opened negotiations with Guy of Humbercourt.
But Charles the Bold had other plans: he led an army towards Liège to deal once and for all with the rebellious city. He was accompanied by Louis XI of France. Several cities on their path were plundered, including Tongeren. On 22 October, a 500-strong militia that tried to stop the Burgundians at the village of Lantin were driven into the church and burned alive. Vincent de Bueren organised the defence of the city of Liège and achieved some successes with hit-and-run sorties. Jean de Wilde died two days later. Best known is the attack by the six hundred Franchimontois in the night of 29–30 October, who sneaked out of the city and attacked the sleeping Burgundians, with the aim of killing the Duke and the King; the plan failed and all 600, including Vincent de Bueren and Gosuin de Streel, were killed. The next day, Liège surrendered, at the command of Charles the Bold, hundreds of Liègois were tied together and thrown into the Meuse river; the city is said to have burned for seven weeks. In 1477, Charles the Bold was killed in the Battle of Nancy and was succeeded by his only heir, his nineteen-year-old daughter Mary of Burgundy.
Mary was attacked by France and turned for help to the States-General of the Netherlands. The help was given, but Mary had to concede the Great Privilege, abandoning the centralized policies of her father and grandfather. Liège benefited from this, Mary renounced her rights to the Prince-Bishopric on 19 March 1477. Louis of Bourbon remained Prince-Bishop until he was murdered on 30 August 1482 by William de La Marck, supported by Louis XI of France; the Wars of Liège were re-worked in historiography to reflect a struggle for local freedoms and autonomy, reflected in the Perron of Liège and its inclusion into the coat of arms of the town. The failed attack of the 600 Franchimontois was mythologized and celebrated as an example of Walloon heroism, equivalent to the Flemish defeat of the Kingdom of France at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302. Couque de Dinant - a biscuit said to have originated in the 1466 sacking of Dinant. Pirenne, Henri. "Le conflit Liégeois-Bourguignon et le Perron Liégeois".
Annales du congrès de Liége. WHKLMLA: Burgundian War on the Princebishopric of Liege, 1465–1468 Jean de Wilde La compagnie de la Verte Tente
Johann Theodor de Bry
Johann Theodor de Bry was an engraver and publisher. De Bry was born in the elder son and pupil of Dirk de Bry, he assisted his father in works such as, the Florilegium novum, published at Frankfort in 1612, with the assistance of his brother Johannes Israel, he completed the two volumes of Boissard's'Romanae urbis Topographia et Antiquitates,' which were left unfinished at his father's death. He published'Emblemata secularia,' 1596, added to the collection of Portraits of Illustrious Persons, begun by his father, his pupil was Frederik van Hulsen. He died at Frankfort in 1623, his prints are signed with a monogram. He made the following prints: Portrait of Gerard Mercator, geographer. Portrait of Daniel Specklin. Four plates of the Elements; the Marriage of Rebekah. A March of Soldiers. Another March of Soldiers, conducting Prisoners, with Death riding on a Horse; the Little Village Fair. The Fountain of Youth; the Triumph of Bacchus. The Venetian Ball; the Golden Age. After his father's death in 1598, Johann Theodore took over the family's printing house.
Sometimes before 1613, he moved the enterprise from Frankfurt to Oppenheim, where the firm published important works by the English Paracelcist physician Robert Fludd, the Bohemian Michael Maier who had served as physician to Emperor Rudolph II. Many of the works printed by De Bry featured engravings by his son-in-law Matthieu Merian, for example A Hundred Ethico-Political Emblems by Julius Gulielmus Zincgreff, dedicated to and celebrates the Elector Palatine Frederick V. Historian Frances Yates suggests the De Bry publishing house had close ties to the Elector's court at Heidelberg given that it printed works by supporters of Frederick and the short-lived attempt to have him installed as King of Bohemia, she points out the important role it played in publishing works in defense of the Fraternity of Rosicrucians. After the capture of Oppenheim in 1620, De Bry moved the printing house back to Frankfurt. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bryan, Michael.
"De Bry, Johannes Theodorus". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons
Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina. It is regarded as the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, bounded on the north by the Martial mountain range, on the south by the Beagle Channel, it is the only municipality in the Department of Ushuaia, which has an area of 9,390 km2. It was founded October 12 of 1884 by Augusto Lasserre and is located on the shores of the Beagle Channel surrounded by the mountain range of the Martial Glacier, in the Bay of Ushuaia. Besides being an administrative center, it is a light industrial tourist hub; the word Ushuaia comes from the Yaghan language: ush and waia and means "deep bay" or "bay to background". The act creating the subprefecture in 1884 cites the name "Oshovia", one of the many orthographic variations of the word, its demonym is "Ushuaiense". The name is pronounced "u-sua-ia", an exception to the orthographic rules of Spanish, since the's' forms a syllable with the following'u' despite the intervening'h'.
The pronunciation "Usuaía" is erroneous: the prosodic accent is on the first'a', why the word is written without an accent mark. Shield The municipality carried out a contest for the election of the image of the City Shield, approving by decree nº28, in 1971, the design of Vicente Gómez. Motto Ushuaia, end of the world, beginning of everything The Selk’nam Indians called the Ona, first arrived in Tierra del Fuego about 10,000 years ago; the southern group of people indigenous to the area, The Yaghan, occupied what is now Ushuaia, lived in continual conflict with the northern inhabitants of the island. For much of the latter half of the 19th century, the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego was populated by a substantial majority of nationals who were not Argentine citizens, including a number of British subjects. Ushuaia was founded informally by British missionaries, following previous British surveys, long before Argentine nationals or government representatives arrived there on a permanent basis.
The British ship HMS Beagle, under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy, first reached the channel on January 29, 1833, during its maiden voyage surveying Tierra del Fuego. The city was named by early British missionaries using the native Yámana name for the area. Much of the early history of the city and its hinterland is described in Lucas Bridges’s book Uttermost Part of the Earth; the name Ushuaia first appears in letters and reports of the South American Mission Society in England. The British missionary Waite Hockin Stirling became the first European to live in Ushuaia when he stayed with the Yámana people between 18 January and mid-September 1869. In 1870 more British missionaries arrived to establish a small settlement; the following year the first marriage was performed. During 1872, 36 baptisms and 7 marriages and the first European birth in Tierra del Fuego were registered; the first house constructed in Ushuaia was a pre-assembled 3 room home prepared in the Falkland Islands in 1870 for Reverend Thomas Bridges.
One room was for the Bridges family, a second was for a Yámana married couple, while the third served as the chapel. Thomas Bridges was a fluent speaker. To a lesser extent he was able to communicate in the Ona language, his missionary work was directed at the Yaghans. The word Yamana means "people" in the Yaghan language, he wrote a dictionary of the Yaghan language, the original manuscript of, in the British Museum. As the Yaghans had no ability nor means to write, Thomas Bridges had to construct an alphabet, suited to the phonetics of the language; the original manuscript was lost three times but recovered and published under an incorrect name. More than one alphabet has been used over the years in the rendering of this dictionary; the odyssey of the manuscript covered nearly half a century before it was published. Natalie Goodall was instrumental in reprinting the dictionary in 1987 and providing valuable insights into the history of Thomas Bridges' work. Copies of the dictionary provide material on the letters and pronunciations used which in many respects differ from the alphabet used in the English language..
During 1873, Juan and Clara Lawrence, the first Argentine citizens to visit Ushuaia, arrived to teach school. That same year Julio Argentino Roca, who served as Argentine President twice, promoted the establishment of a penal colony for re-offenders, modeled after one in Tasmania, Australia, in an effort to secure permanent residents from Argentina and to help establish Argentine sovereignty over all of Tierra del Fuego, but only after the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina did formal efforts get under way to establish the township and its prison. During the 1880s, many gold prospectors came to Ushuaia following rumors of large gold fields, which proved to be false. On 12 October 1884, as part of the South Atlantic Expedition, Commodore Augusto Lasserre established the sub-division of Ushuaia, with the missionaries and naval officers signing the Act of Ceremony. Don Feliz M Paz was named Governor in 1885 named Ushuaia as its capital. In 1885 the territory police was organized under Antonio A. Romero with headquarters in Ushuaia.
But it was not until 1904 that the Federal Government of Argentina recognized Ushuaia as the capital of Tierra del Fuego. Ushuaia suffered several epidemics, including typhus and measles, that much reduced the native pop
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition known as the Spanish Inquisition, was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, under Papal control, it became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly, operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, all Spanish possessions in North and South America. According to modern estimates, around 150,000 were prosecuted for various offenses during the three centuries of duration of the Spanish Inquisition, out of which between 3,000 and 5,000 were executed; the Inquisition was intended to identify heretics among those who converted from Judaism and Islam to Catholicism.
The regulation of the faith of newly converted Catholics was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1502 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert to Catholicism or leave Castile. The Inquisition was not definitively abolished until 1834, during the reign of Isabella II, after a period of declining influence in the preceding century; the Spanish Inquisition is cited in popular literature and history as an example of religious intolerance and repression. Some historians have come to conclude that many of the charges levied against the Inquisition are exaggerated, are a result of the Black Legend produced by political and religious enemies of Spain England; the Inquisition was created through papal bull, Ad Abolendam, issued at the end of the 12th century by Pope Lucius III to combat the Albigensian heresy in southern France. There were a large number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages through different diplomatic and political means.
In the Kingdom of Aragon, a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition was established by the statute of Excommunicamus of Pope Gregory IX, in 1232, during the era of the Albigensian heresy, as a condition for peace with Aragon. The Inquisition was ill-received by the Aragonese, which led to prohibitions against insults or attacks on it. Rome was concerned about the'heretical' influence of the Iberian peninsula's large Muslim and Jewish population on the Catholic, it pressed the kingdoms to accept the Papal Inquisition after Aragon. Navarra conceded in the 13th century and Portugal by the end of the 14th, however its'Roman Inquisition' was famously inactive. Castile refused trusting on its prominent position in Europe and its military power to keep the Pope's interventionism in check. By the end of the Middle Ages, due to distance and voluntary compliance, Castile due to resistance and power, were the only Western European kingdoms to resist establishment of the Inquisition in their realms. Although Raymond of Penyafort was not an inquisitor, as a canon lawyer and the king's advisor, James I of Aragon, had consulted him on questions of law regarding the practices of the Inquisition in the king's domains.
"...he lawyer's deep sense of justice and equity, combined with the worthy Dominican's sense of compassion, allowed him to steer clear of the excesses that were found elsewhere in the formative years of the inquisitions into heresy."Despite its early implantation, the Papal inquisition was resisted within the crown of Aragon by both population and monarchs. With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the fifteenth century, it was forgotten although still there according to the law. Regarding the living conditions of minorities, the kings of Aragon and other monarchies imposed some discriminatory taxation of religious minorities, so false conversions were a way of tax evasion. In addition to said discriminatory legislation, Aragon had laws targeted at protecting minorities. For example, crusades attacking Jewish or Muslim subjects of the King of Aragon while on their way to fight in the reconquest were punished with death by hanging. Up to the 14th century, the census and weddings records show an absolute lack of concern with avoiding intermarriage or blood mixture.
Said laws were now common in most of central Europe. Both the Roman Inquisition and neighbouring Christian powers showed discomfort with Aragonese law and lack of concern with ethnicity, but to little effect. High-ranking officials of Jewish religion were not as common as in Castile, but were not unheard of either. Abraham Zacuto was a professor in the university of Cartagena. Vidal Astori was the royal silversmith for Ferdinand II of Aragon and conducted business in his name, and King Ferdinand himself was said to have Jewish ancestry on his mother's side. There was never a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition in Castile, nor any inquisition during the Middle Ages. Members of the episcopate were charged with surveillance of the faithful and punishment of transgressors, always under the direction of the king. During the Middle Ages, in Castile, little to no attention was paid to heresy by the Catholic ruling class, or by the population. Castile didn´t see proliferation of anti-Jew pamphlets like England and France did during the 13th and 14th century, those who have been found had modified, somehow watered down versions form the original stories.
Jews and Muslims were tolerated and allowed to follow their traditional customs in domestic matters. The legislation regarding Muslims and Jews in Castilian territory varied becoming m
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the river's Westerschelde estuary, it is about 40 kilometres north of Brussels, about 15 kilometres south of the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally; the city is known for its diamond industry and trade. Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries before and during the Spanish Fury and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt. Antwerp was the place of the world's oldest stock exchange building built in 1531 and re-built in 1872; the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century.
The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. According to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river, he extracted a toll from passing boatmen, for those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river. The giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, which has evolved to today's warp. A longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different track; this must have coincided with the current ringway south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river.
However, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named'Antverpia', but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, that Antwerp's name derives from "anda" and "werpum" to give an't werf. Aan't werp is possible; this "warp" is a man-made hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a construction could be built that would remain dry. Another word for werp is pol hence polders. Alfred Michiels has suggested that derivations based on hand werpen, Antverpia, "on the wharf", or "at the warp" lack historical backing in the form of recorded past spellings of the placename, he points instead to Dado's Life of St. Eligius from the 7th century, which records the form Andoverpis, he sees in it a Celtic origin indicating "those who live on both banks". Historical Antwerp had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century.
The earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century. In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named; the Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century. At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto II, a border province facing the County of Flanders. In the 11th century, the best-known leader of the First Crusade, Godfrey of Bouillon, was Margrave of Antwerp, from 1076 until his death in 1100, though he was also Duke of Lower Lorraine and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp was the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, his son Lionel, the Duke of Clarence, was born there in 1338. After the silting-up of the Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp part of the Duchy of Brabant, grew in importance.
At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, the building assigned to the English nation is mentioned in 1510. Antwerp became the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations; the city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, shipped their refined product to Germany Cologne. Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London bankers were too small to operate on that scale, Antwerp had a efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s, the city's banking business declined: England ended its borrowing in Antwerp in 1574. Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the centre of the entire international economy, something Bruges had never been at its height." Antwerp was the richest city in Europe at this time. Antwerp's golden age is l