Jacques le Moyne
Jacques le Moyne de Morgues was a French artist and member of Jean Ribault's expedition to the New World. His depictions of Native American life and culture, colonial life, plants are of extraordinary historical importance; until well into the 20th century, knowledge of Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues was limited, confined to the footnotes of inaccessible ethnographic bibliographies, where he figures as the writer and illustrator of a short history of Laudonniere's attempt in 1564-5 to establish a Huguenot settlement in Florida. In 1922, Spencer Savage, librarian of the Linnean Society, made a discovery that opened the way to the subsequent definition of Le Moyne as an artistic personality. Savage's publications relating to this discovery prepared the way for subsequent attribution to the artist of other important groups of drawings and watercolors, which form the core of his known oeuvre. Le Moyne was born about 1533, in Morgues, some 7 miles east of Châteaudun, in the Loire Valley, France; the first thirty years of his life are undocumented, but it seems reasonable to suppose that he trained as an artist in his native town, at the time a notable center both for cartography and for illumination.
Le Moyne worked at the court of King Charles IX of France, although there is no documentary record to that effect, nor are there any surviving works by the artist dating from before his departure for Florida in 1564. Le Moyne accompanied the French expedition of Jean Ribault and René Laudonnière in an ill-fated attempt to colonize northern Florida, they arrived at the St. Johns River in 1564, soon founded Fort Caroline near present-day Jacksonville. Painting in the Calvinist style, he is known for his artistic depictions of the landscape, fauna, most the inhabitants of the New World, his drawings of the cultures referred to as the Timucua are regarded as some of the most accessible data about the cultures of the Southeastern Coastal United States. During this expedition he became known as a cartographer and an illustrator as he painted landscapes and reliefs of the land they crossed. Ribault explored the mouth of the St. Johns River in Florida and erected a stone monument there before leading the party north and establishing an outpost of two dozen or so soldiers on Parris Island, South Carolina.
He sailed back to France for supplies and settlers. However, he was not able to reinforce the fort because while he had been gone, civil war had broken out in France. A truce in 1564 allowed Laudonniere to lead a new expedition, which founded Fort Caroline on the St. Johns Bluff in what is now Jacksonville. Many of the DeBry engravings depict the French fort and the local Saturiwa tribe, the Timucua group who lived at the mouth of the St. Johns in the area of Fort Caroline. Le Moyne accompanied several inland expeditions from Ft. Caroline, he made illustrations of many of the scenes he witnessed. Laudonniere's expedition, though resulting in the production of the fascinating Le Moyne/de Bry publication and an important map of the coastal regions of Florida, was a disaster; the final coup de grâce came a year when a Spanish force from the Spanish colony of St. Augustine thirty miles to the south, attacked Laudonniere's stronghold at Fort Caroline; the Spanish, under the leadership of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, stormed the colony and killed most of the Huguenots, though Laudonnière, Le Moyne and about two dozen others escaped and were rescued to England.
Having lost their way on the return, they sailed half starved into Swansea Bay, England in mid-November 1565, reached Paris early in 1566. Le Moyne's important account of this transatlantic voyage, known today from a Latin edition published in Frankfurt in 1591 by Theodore de Bry under the title'Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida Americai provincia Gallis acciderunt,' indicates that it was the King who instructed the artist to accompany the expedition, headed by Jean Ribault and Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere, as official recording artist and cartographer. Although only one original drawing by Le Moyne of an American subject is known today—the depiction of'Athore showing Laudonniere the Marker Column set up by Ribault,' executed in watercolor and gouache on vellum, now in the New York Public Library—the'Brevis narratio,' published by de Bry as the second volume of his great series of publications on voyages to the New World, contains forty-two engraved illustrations and maps alleged to have been made on the spot by Le Moyne.
The text by de Bry describes and analyses these images, his book constitutes a major landmark in the literature of the early exploration of the Americas. Le Moyne fled France after the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of Huguenots in 1572 settling in England. Le Moyne ended his career as a regarded botanical artist in Elizabethan London, where his patrons included Sir Walter Raleigh and Lady Mary Sidney. All but one of Le Moyne's original drawings were destroyed in the Spanish attack on Fort Caroline.
John White (colonist and artist)
John White was a settler among those who sailed with Richard Grenville to present-day North Carolina in 1585, acting as artist and mapmaker to the expedition. During his time at Roanoke Island he made a number of watercolor sketches of the surrounding landscape and the native Algonkin peoples; these works are significant as they are the most informative illustrations of a Native American society of the Eastern seaboard. In 1587, White became governor of Sir Walter Raleigh's failed attempt at a permanent settlement on Roanoke Island, known to history as the "Lost Colony"; this was the earliest effort. White's granddaughter Virginia Dare was the first English child born in the Americas. After the failure of the colony, White retired to Raleigh's estates in Ireland, reflecting upon the "evils and unfortunate events" which had ruined his hopes in America, though never giving up hope that his daughter and granddaughter were still alive. John White's exact date of birth is unknown but it seems he was born sometime between 1549 and 1550.
There is a record dated 22 February 1539, of a christening in the Church of St Augustine, London, of a "John White" on that same day. White is known to have attended church in the parish of St. Martin Ludgate in London. In 1566 he married Tomasyn Cooper. Little is known of White's training as an artist but it is possible that he apprenticed as an illustrator under a London master. In the late sixteenth century efforts to establish an English colony in the New World began to gain momentum, White soon became an enthusiastic supporter. In 1585 White accompanied the expedition led by Sir Ralph Lane to attempt to found the first English colony in North America. White was sent by Sir Walter Raleigh as Sir Richard Grenville's artist-illustrator on his first voyage to the New World. In 1585 White had been commissioned to "draw to life" the inhabitants of the New World and their surroundings. During White's time at Roanoke Island, he completed numerous watercolor drawings of the surrounding landscape and native peoples.
These works are significant as they are the most informative illustrations of a Native American society of the Eastern seaboard, predate the first body of "discovery voyage art" created in the late 18th century by the artists who sailed with Captain James Cook. They represent the sole-surviving visual record of the native inhabitants of America encountered by England's first settlers. White's enthusiasm for watercolor was unusual – most contemporary painters preferred to use oil-based paints. White's watercolors would soon become a sensation in Europe. Through the medium of print, the illustrations became known and distributed. After Lane's colonists returned to England in 1586, Sir Walter Raleigh, who held the land patent for the proposed English colony of Virginia, tasked White with the job of organising a new settlement in the Chesapeake Bay area, one which would be self-sustaining and which would include women and children. During 1586 White was able to persuade 113 prospective colonists to join Raleigh's expedition, including his daughter Eleanor and his son-in-law Ananias Dare married at St Bride's Church in Fleet Street.
His efforts did not go unrewarded. White, with thirteen others, were incorporated under the name of "The Governor and Assistants of the Cities of Raleigh of Virginia". In May 1587 White's colonists sailed for Virgina in the Lion, they were guided by the Portuguese navigator Simon Fernandez, the same pilot who had led the 1585 expedition and, given by his fellow sailors the unhappy nickname of "the swine." The settlers' chosen destination was not Roanoke but the Chesapeake Bay. But, upon reaching Roanoke in late July, allowing the colonists to disembark, Fernandez refused to let White's men re-board ship. According to White's journal, Fernandez's deputy "called to the sailors in the pinesse, charging them not to bring any of the planters back againe, but leave them on the island." Faced with what amounted to a mutiny by his navigator, White appears to have backed down and acquiesced in this sudden change of plan. Despite the governor's protests, Fernandez held that "summer was farre spent, wherefore hee would land all the planters in no other place."This second colony at Roanoke set about repairing the structures left behind in 1585.
They searched for the fifteen men left behind by the previous expedition, but found only bones. From an early stage there were tensions with the local Algonkin Indians, though things went well. White made contact with friendly natives led by Chief Manteo, who explained to him that the lost fifteen had been killed by hostile Secotan and Dasamongueponke warriors, choosing a time and place of attack "of great advantage to the savages." On 8 August 1587, White led a dawn attack on the Dasamongueponkes. White and his soldiers entered the Dasamongueponke village in the morning "so early that it was yet dark," but mistakenly attacked a group of hitherto friendly Indians, killing one and wounding many. "We were deceaved," wrote White in his journal, "for the savages were our friendes." Henceforth
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
The Picts were a confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of Brittonic place name elements and Pictish stones; the name Picts appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, spoke the Pictish language, related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them. Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy. Pictland called Pictavia by some sources merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba. Alba expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian Lothian, by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots" amalgamation of peoples.
Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age societies in northern Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts. While little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, saints' lives such as that of Columba by Adomnán, various Irish annals; the term Pict is thought to have originated as a generic exonym used by the Romans in relation to people living north of the Forth–Clyde isthmus. The Latin word Picti first occurs in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken to mean "painted or tattooed people". Pict is Peohta in Old English, Pecht in Scots and Peithwyr in Welsh; some think. In writings from Ireland, the name Cruthin, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini was used to refer both to the Picts and to another group of people who lived alongside the Ulaid in eastern Ulster.
It is accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons. What the Picts called themselves is unknown, it has been proposed that they called themselves Albidosi, a name found in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, but this idea has been disputed. A unified "Pictish" identity may have consolidated with the Verturian hegemony established following the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685 AD. A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity from a number of tribes—how and why is not known; some scholars have speculated that it was in response to the growth of the Roman Empire. The Chronicon Pictum, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the early histographers such as Isidore of Seville, Bede, Geoffrey of Monmouth, etc. all present the Picts as conquerors of Alba from Scythia. However, little credence is now given to that view. Pictland had been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii.
These Romans used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones and Venicones. But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups. Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages. At that time, the Gaels of Dál Riata controlled what is now Argyll, as part of a kingdom straddling the sea between Britain and Ireland; the Angles of Bernicia, which merged with Deira to form Northumbria, overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, for much of the 7th century Northumbria was the most powerful kingdom in Britain. The Picts were tributary to Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli, when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion; the Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland for the remainder of the Pictish period. Dál Riata was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during his reign, though it had its own kings beginning in the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence from the Picts.
A Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa, placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata. Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut were not successful; the Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland than elsewhere, with the Vikings conquering and settling the islands and various mainland areas, including Caithness and Galloway. In the middle of the 9th century Ketil Flatnose is said to have founded the Kingdom of the Isles, governing many of these territories, by the end of that century the Vikings had destroyed the Kingdom of Northumbria weakened the Kingdom of Strathclyde, founded the Kingdom of York. In a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the King of Fortriu, Eógan mac Óengusa, the King of Dál Riata Áed mac Boanta, many others. In the aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín became king of the Picts. During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the Kingdom of Alba rather than the Kingdom of the Picts, but it is not known whether this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was a closer
Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold, baptised Charles Martin, was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. He was the last Duke of Burgundy from the House of Valois, his early death at the Battle of Nancy at the hands of Swiss mercenaries fighting for René II, Duke of Lorraine, was of great consequence in European history. The Burgundian domains, long wedged between the growing powers of France and the Habsburg Empire, were divided, but the precise disposition of the vast and disparate territorial possessions involved was disputed among the European powers for centuries. Charles the Bold was born in the son of Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal. Before the death of his father in 1467, he bore the title of Count of Charolais, he was made a Knight of the Golden Fleece just twenty days after his birth, invested by Charles I, Count of Nevers, the seigneur de Croÿ. Charles was brought up under the direction of Jean d'Auxy and early showed great application alike to academic studies and warlike exercises, his father's court was the most extravagant in Europe at the time, a centre for the arts and commerce.
While he was growing up, Charles witnessed his father's efforts to unite his far-flung and ethnically diverse dominions into a single state, his own efforts centered on continuing and securing his father's successes in this endeavor. In 1440, at the age of seven, Charles was married to Catherine, daughter of King Charles VII of France and sister of the Dauphin, she was five years older than her husband, she died in 1446 at the age of 18. They had no children. In 1454, at the age of 21, Charles married a second time, he wanted to marry a daughter of his distant cousin Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, but under terms of the Treaty of Arras of 1435, he was required to marry a French princess. His father chose Isabella of Bourbon, three years younger than he was. Isabella was the daughter of Philip the Good's sister Agnes and a distant cousin of Charles VII of France. Isabella died in 1465, their daughter Mary of Burgundy was Charles' only surviving child. Charles was on friendly terms with his brother-in-law Louis, the Dauphin of France, a refugee at the court of Burgundy from 1456 until he succeeded his father as king of France in 1461.
But Louis began to pursue some of the same policies as his father, for example Louis's repurchase of the towns on the Somme River that Louis's father had ceded in 1435 to Charles's father in the Treaty of Arras, which Charles viewed with chagrin. When his father's failing health enabled him to assume the reins of government, he initiated a policy of hostility toward Louis XI that led to the Burgundian Wars, he became one of the principal leaders of the League of the Public Weal, an alliance of west European nobles opposed to policies of Louis XI that sought to centralize the royal authority within France. For his third wife, Charles was offered the hand of Louis XI's daughter Anne; the wife he chose, was his second cousin Margaret of York. Upon the death of his father in 1467, Charles was no longer bound by the terms of the Treaty of Arras, he decided to ally himself with Burgundy's old ally England. Louis did his best to prevent or delay the marriage with Margaret, but in the summer of 1468, it was celebrated sumptuously at Bruges, Charles was made a Knight of the Garter.
The couple had no children. After Mary's death many years she kept Mary's two infant children as long as she was allowed. On 12 April 1465, Philip relinquished control of the government of his domains to Charles, who spent the next summer prosecuting the War of the Public Weal against Louis XI. Charles was left master of the field at the Battle of Montlhéry on 13 July 1465, but this neither prevented the king from re-entering Paris nor did it assure Charles of a decisive victory, he succeeded, however, in forcing upon Louis the Treaty of Conflans of 4 October 1465, by which the king restored to him certain towns on the Somme River, the counties of Boulogne and Guînes, various other small territories. During the negotiations for the treaty, his wife Isabella died at Les Quesnoy on 25 September, making a political marriage possible; as part of the treaty, Louis promised him the hand of his infant daughter Anne, with the territories of Champagne and Ponthieu as a dowry, but no marriage took place.
In the meanwhile, Charles obtained the surrender of Ponthieu. Charles' concentration on the affairs of France was diverted by the Revolt of Liège against his father and the bishop of Liège and a desire to punish the town of Dinant in the province of Namur. During the wars of the summer of 1465, Dinant celebrated a false rumour that Charles had been defeated at Montlhéry by burning him in effigy and chanting that he was the bastard child of his mother Isabella of Portugal and John of Heinsburg, the previous Bishop of Liège. On 25 August 1466, Charles marched into Dinant, determined to avenge this slur on the honour of his mother, sacked the city, killing every man and child within. After the death of Charles' father Philip the Good in 1467, the Bishopric of Liège renewed hostilities, bu
Liège is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands and with Germany. At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe; the city is part of the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal cultural centre of the region; the Liège municipality includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants; the metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, the fourth municipality after Antwerp and Charleroi; the name is Germanic in origin and is reconstructible as *liudik-, from the Germanic word *liudiz "people", found in for example Dutch lui, German Leute, Old English lēod and Icelandic lýður.
It is found in Lithuanian as liaudis, in Russian as liudi, in Latin as Leodicum or Leodium, in Middle Dutch as ludic or ludeke. Until 17 September 1946, the city's name was written Liége, with the acute accent instead of a grave accent. In French, Liège is associated with the epithet la cité ardente; this term, which emerged around 1905 referred to the city's history of rebellions against Burgundian rule, but was appropriated to refer to its economic dynamism during the Industrial Revolution. Although settlements existed in Roman times, the first references to Liège are from 558, when it was known as Vicus Leudicus. Around 705, Saint Lambert of Maastricht is credited with completing the Christianization of the region, indicating that up to the early 8th century the religious practices of antiquity had survived in some form. Christian conversion may still not have been quite universal, since Lambert was murdered in Liège and thereafter regarded as a martyr for his faith. To enshrine St. Lambert's relics, his successor, built a basilica near the bishop's residence which became the true nucleus of the city.
A few centuries the city became the capital of a prince-bishopric, which lasted from 985 till 1794. The first prince-bishop, transformed the city into a major intellectual and ecclesiastical centre, which maintained its cultural importance during the Middle Ages. Pope Clement VI recruited several musicians from Liège to perform in the Papal court at Avignon, thereby sanctioning the practice of polyphony in the religious realm; the city was renowned for its many churches, the oldest of which, St Martin's, dates from 682. Although nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire, in practice it possessed a large degree of independence; the strategic position of Liège has made it a frequent target of armies and insurgencies over the centuries. It was fortified early on with a castle on the steep hill. During this medieval period, three women from the Liège region made significant contributions to Christian spirituality: Elizabeth Spaakbeek, Christina the Astonishing, Marie of Oignies. In 1345, the citizens of Liège rebelled against Prince-Bishop Engelbert III de la Marck, their ruler at the time, defeated him in battle near the city.
Shortly after, a unique political system formed in Liège, whereby the city's 32 guilds shared sole political control of the municipal government. Each person on the register of each guild was eligible to participate, each guild's voice was equal, making it the most democratic system that the Low Countries had known; the system spread to Utrecht, left a democratic spirit in Liège that survived the Middle Ages. At the end of the Liège Wars, a rebellion against rule from Burgundy that figured prominently in the plot of Sir Walter Scott's 1823 novel Quentin Durward, Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, witnessed by King Louis XI of France and destroyed the city in 1468, after a bitter siege, ended with a successful surprise attack; the Prince-Bishopric of Liège was technically part of the Holy Roman Empire which, after 1477, came under the rule of the Habsburgs. The reign of prince-bishop Erard de la Marck coincides with the dawn of the Renaissance. During the Counter-Reformation, the diocese of Liège was split and progressively lost its role as a regional power.
In the 17th century, many prince-bishops came from the royal house of Wittelsbach. They ruled over other bishoprics in the northwest of the Holy Roman Empire as well. In 1636, during the Thirty Years' War, the city was besieged by Imperial forces under Johann von Werth from April to July; the army consisting of mercenaries and viciously plundered the surrounding bishopric during the siege. The Duke of Marlborough captured the city from the Bavarian prince-bishop and his French allies in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In the middle of the eighteenth century the ideas of the French Encyclopédistes began to gain popularity in the region. Bishop de Velbruck, encouraged their propagation, thus prepared the way for the Liège Revolution which started in the episcopal city on 18 August 1789 and led to the creation of the Republic of Liège before it was invaded by counter-revolutionary forces of the Habsbu
Fort Caroline was an attempted French colonial settlement in Florida, located on the banks of the St. Johns River in present-day Duval County, it was established under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière on June 22, 1564, as a new territorial claim in French Florida and a safe haven for Huguenots. The French colony came into conflict with the Spanish, who established St. Augustine in September 1565, Fort Caroline was sacked by Spanish troops under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés on September 20; the Spanish continued to occupy the site as San Mateo until 1569. The exact location where the fort once stood is unknown. In 1953 the National Park Service established the Fort Caroline National Memorial along the southern bank of the St. John's River near the point that commemorates Laudonnière's first landing; this is accepted by scholars as being in the vicinity of the original fort, though not the exact location. The memorial is now managed as a part of the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve although it remains a distinct National Park Service entity.
A French expedition, organized by Protestant leader Admiral Gaspard de Coligny and led by the French Explorer Jean Ribault, had landed at the site on the May River in February 1562, where Ribault encountered the Timucuans who were led by Chief Saturiwa. Ribault traveled to present-day South Carolina and with twenty-eight men built a settlement known as Charlesfort. Ribault returned to Europe to arrange supplies for the new colony, but was imprisoned in England on suspicion of spying as a result of the French Wars of Religion, which prevented his return to Florida. Without supplies or leadership, beset by hostility from the native populations, all but one of the colonists sailed back to Europe after only a year. During their voyage in an open boat, they were reduced to cannibalism before the survivors were rescued in English waters. Meanwhile, René Goulaine de Laudonnière, Ribault's second-in-command on the 1562 expedition, led a contingent of around 200 new settlers back to Florida, where they founded Fort Caroline on a small plain formed by the western slope of the high steep bank called St. Johns Bluff on June 22, 1564.
The fort was named for King Charles IX of France. For just over a year, this settlement was beset by hunger, Indian attacks, mutiny, attracted the attention of Spanish authorities who considered it a challenge to their control over the area. On July 20, 1565, the English adventurer John Hawkins arrived at the fort with his fleet looking for fresh water; the ship and provisions gained from Hawkins enabled the French to survive and prepare to move back to France as soon as possible. As Laudonnière writes: "I may saye that wee receaved as manye courtesies of the Generall, as it was possible to receive of any man living. Wherein doubtlesse hee hath wonne the reputation of a good and charitable man, deserving to be esteemed as much of us all as if hee had saved all our lives." The French introduced Hawkins to tobacco, which they all were using, in turn he introduced it to England upon his return. In late August, released from English custody in June 1565 and sent by Coligny back to Florida, arrived at Fort Caroline with a large fleet and hundreds of soldiers and settlers, taking command of the colony.
However, the appointed Spanish Governor of Florida, Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, had been dispatched from Spain with orders to remove the French outpost, arrived within days of Ribault's landing. After a brief skirmish between Ribault's ships and Menéndez's ships, the latter retreated 35 miles southward, where they established the settlement of St. Augustine. Ribault pursued the Spanish with several of his ships and most of his troops, but he was surprised at sea by a violent storm lasting several days. Meanwhile, Menéndez launched an assault on Fort Caroline by marching his forces overland during the storm, leading a surprise dawn attack on Fort Caroline on September 20. At this time, the garrison contained 200 to 250 people; the only survivors were about 50 women and children who were taken prisoner and a few defenders, including Laudonnière, who managed to escape. As for Ribault's fleet, all of the ships either sank or ran aground south of St. Augustine during the storm, many of the Frenchmen on board were lost at sea.
Ribault and his marooned sailors marched northwards and were located by Menéndez with his troops and summoned to surrender. Believing that his men would be well treated, Ribault capitulated. Menéndez executed Ribault and several hundred Huguenots as heretics at what is now known as the Matanzas Inlet; the atrocity shocked Europeans in that bloody era of religious strife. A fort built much Fort Matanzas, is in the vicinity of the site; this massacre put an end to France's attempts at colonization of the southeastern Atlantic coast of North America. The Spanish built their own fort on the same site. In April 1568, Dominique de Gourgues led a French force which attacked and burned the fort, he slaughtered the Spanish prisoners in revenge for the 1565 massacre. The Spanish permanently abandoned the fort the following year; the exact location of the fort is not known. The original site of Fort de la Caroline has never been determined, but it is believed to have been located near the present day Fort Caroline National Memorial.
The National Park Service constructed an outdoor exhibit of the original fort in 1964, but it was destroyed by Hurricane Dora in the