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Theodora (6th century)

Theodora was empress of the Eastern Roman Empire by marriage to Emperor Justinian I. She was one of the most influential and powerful of the Eastern Roman empresses, albeit from a humble background. Along with her spouse, she is a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, commemorated on November 14; the main historical sources for her life are the works of her contemporary Procopius. The historian offered three contradictory portrayals of the Empress; the Wars of Justinian completed in 545, paints a picture of a courageous and influential empress who saved the throne for Justinian. He wrote the Secret History, which survives in only one manuscript suggesting it was not read during the Byzantine era; the work has sometimes been interpreted as representing a deep disillusionment with the emperor Justinian, the empress, his patron Belisarius. Justinian is depicted as cruel, venal and incompetent. Alternatively, scholars versed in political rhetoric of the era have viewed these statements from the Secret History as formulaic expressions within the tradition of invective.

Procopius' Buildings of Justinian, written about the same time as the Secret History, is a panegyric which paints Justinian and Theodora as a pious couple and presents flattering portrayals of them. Besides her piety, her beauty is praised within the conventional language of the text's rhetorical form. Although Theodora was dead when this work was published, Justinian was alive, commissioned the work, her contemporary John of Ephesus writes about Theodora in his Lives of the Eastern Saints as the daughter of a pious Monophysite priest. He mentions an illegitimate daughter not named by Procopius. Various other historians presented additional information on her life. Theophanes the Confessor mentions some familial relations of Theodora to figures not mentioned by Procopius. Victor Tonnennensis notes her familial relation to Sophia. Michael the Syrian, the Chronicle of 1234 and Bar-Hebraeus place her origin in the city of Daman, near Kallinikos, Syria, they contradict Procopius by making Theodora the daughter of a priest, trained in the pious practices of Miaphysitism since birth.

These are late Miaphysite sources. The Miaphysites have tended to regard Theodora as one of their own and the tradition may have been invented as a way to improve her reputation and is in conflict with what is told by the contemporary Miaphysite historian John of Ephesus; these accounts are thus ignored in favor of Procopius. Theodora, according to Michael Grant, was of Greek Cypriot descent. There are several indications of her possible birthplace. According to Michael the Syrian her birthplace was in Syria, she was born c. 500 AD. Her father, was a bear trainer of the hippodrome's Green faction in Constantinople, her mother, whose name is not recorded, was an actress. Her parents had two more daughters. After her father's death, when Theodora was four, her mother brought her children wearing garlands into the hippodrome and presented them as suppliants to the Blue faction. From on Theodora would be their supporter. Procopius relates that Theodora from an early age followed her sister Komito's example and worked in a Constantinople brothel serving low-status customers.

Theodora, in Procopius's account, made a name for herself with her salacious portrayal of Leda and the Swan. Employment as an actress at the time would include both "indecent exhibitions on stage" and providing sexual services off stage. During this time she met the future wife of Belisarius, who would become a part of the women's court led by Theodora. At the age of 16, she traveled to North Africa as the companion of a Syrian official named Hecebolus when he went to the Libyan Pentapolis as governor, she stayed with him for four years before returning to Constantinople. Abandoned and maltreated by Hecebolus, on her way back to the capital of the Byzantine Empire, she settled for a while in Alexandria, Egypt, she is said to have met Patriarch Timothy III in Alexandria, Miaphysite, it was at that time that she converted to Miaphysite Christianity. From Alexandria she went to Antioch, where she met a Blue faction's dancer, an informer of Justinian, she returned to Constantinople in 522 and, according to John of Ephesus, gave up her former lifestyle, settling as a wool spinner in a house near the palace.

The extreme and conventional nature of the negative rhetoric of Procopius and the positive rhetoric of John of Ephesus has led most scholars to conclude that the veracity of both sources might be questioned. When Justinian sought to marry Theodora, he could not: he was heir of the throne of his uncle, Emperor Justin I, a Roman law from Constantine's time prevented anyone of senatorial rank from marrying actresses. In 525, Justin repealed the law, Justinian married Theodora. By this point, she had a daughter. Justinian treated the daughter and the daughter's son Athanasius as legitimate, although sources disagree whether Justinian was the girl's father; when Justinian succeeded to the throne in 527, two years after the marriage, Theodora became Empress of the Eastern Rom

Real ear measurement

Real ear measurement is the measurement of sound pressure level in a patient's ear canal developed when a hearing aid is worn. It is measured with the use of a silicone probe tube inserted in the canal connected to a microphone outside the ear and is done to verify that the hearing aid is providing suitable amplification for a patient's hearing loss; the American Speech–Language–Hearing Association and American Academy of Audiology recommend real ear measures as the preferred method of verifying the performance of hearing aids. Used by audiologists and other hearing healthcare practitioners in the process of hearing aid fitting, real ear measures are the most reliable and efficient method for assessing the benefit provided by the amplification. Measurement of the sound level in the ear canal allows the clinician to make informed judgements on audibility of sound in the ear and the effectiveness of hearing aid treatment; the use of real ear measurement to assess the performance of hearing aids is covered in the ANSI specification Methods of Measurement of Real-Ear Performance Characteristics of Hearing Aids, ANSI S3.46-2013.

The first commercially produced real ear measurement available was made by Rastronics. Help soon arrived. In the early 1980s, the first computerized probe-tube microphone system, the Rastronics CCI-10, entered the U. S. market. This system had a silicone tube attached to the microphone, which eliminated the need to place the microphone itself in the ear canal. By early 1985, three or four different manufactures had introduced this new type of computerized probemicrophone equipment, this hearing aid verification procedure became part of the standard protocol for many audiology clinics. First, the clinician will examine the ear canal with the use of an otoscope to ensure no wax or other debris will interfere with the positioning of the probe tube; the probe tube is placed with the tip 6 mm from the tympanic membrane. Next the hearing aid is put in place; the REM system will produce a test stimulus from a loudspeaker situated 12–15 inches from the patient's head and measure the output in the ear canal to determine how much amplification the hearing aid is providing.

The traditional method of real ear measurement is known as insertion gain, the difference between the sound pressure level measured near the ear drum with a hearing aid in place, the sound pressure level measured in the unaided ear. First a measurement is made with the probe tube in the open ear a second one is made using the same test signal with the hearing aid in place and turned on; the difference between these two results is the insertion gain. This gain can be matched to targets produced by various prescriptive formula based on the patient's audiogram or individual hearing loss. Speech mapping involves testing with speech-like signal; the hearing aid is adjusted so that the speech is amplified to the approximate middle of the patient's residual auditory area while observing a real-time spectrum display of the speech in the patient's ear canal. Many multi-channel hearing aids allow each frequency channel to be adjusted separately; the aim is to find a good compromise between loudness discomfort.

This approach to hearing aid testing is implemented in most current real ear systems and there has been a significant increase in audiologists selecting to verify using the output method. Using a real speech signal to test a hearing aid has the advantage that features that may need to be disabled in other test approaches can be left active, the effects of these features in normal use are included in the test. Audiometry Hearing impairment

Heard It All Before (Sunshine Anderson song)

"Heard It All Before" is a song by American recording artist Sunshine Anderson, from her debut studio album Your Woman. It was written by Anderson, Rayshawn Sherrer, Chris Dawley, Mike City, produced by the latter. Released as the album's lead single, it reached the top ten on both the UK Singles Chart and the US Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart, while peaking at the number 18 on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2006, a remix version of "Heard It All Before" featuring fellow R&B singer Brandy was leaked onto the internet; the duet was recorded during a session when producer Mike City was working with both singers in 2001, but remained unused. In March 2016, City released a high quality version of the duet to his SoundCloud account. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Your Woman. Engineering - Jesse "Biz" Stewart, Ryan Wirthlin Mastering - Brian Gardner Mixing – Larry Furgerrson, Manny Marroquin Mixing assistance - Andy Gunn, Ian Blanch Production – Mike City Sunshine Anderson on Facebook