Three O'Clock in the Morning
"Three O’Clock in the Morning" is a waltz composed by Julián Robledo, popular in the 1920s. Robledo published the music as a piano solo in 1919, two years Dorothy Terriss wrote the lyrics. Paul Whiteman’s instrumental recording in 1922 became one of the first 20 recordings in history to sell over 1 million copies. Julián Robledo, an Argentine composer born in Spain, published the music for “Three O’Clock in the Morning” in New Orleans in 1919. In 1920 the song was published in England and Germany, lyrics were added in 1921 by Dorothy Terriss; the song opens with chimes playing Westminster Quarters followed by three strikes of the chimes to indicate three o'clock. The lyrics begin: It's three o'clock in the morning, we've danced the whole night through; this “Waltz Song with Chimes” created a sensation when it was performed in the final scene of the Greenwich Village Follies of 1921. In this performance Richard Bold and Rosalind Fuller sang the song while ballet dancers Margaret Petit and Valodia Vestoff rang the chimes.
Frank Crumit recorded the song for Columbia Records in 1921, but its biggest success came in 1922 when Paul Whiteman released a recording on the Victor label, selling over 3.5 million copies of the record, fueling the sale of over 1 million copies of the sheet music. The song has been recorded by some of the most renowned orchestras of the 20th century, including Frank De Vol and his Orchestra, Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians, Mitch Miller and the Gang, Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra, Living Strings; the song has become a jazz standard with notable recordings by Dizzy Gillespie, Oscar Peterson, Dexter Gordon, Harry James, Thelonious Monk. The song was repatriated to the home country of the composer, where it was published as “Las Tres de la Mañana” by G. Ricordi & C. and interpreted as a tango vals by the orchestra of Enrique Rodriguez in 1946. F. Scott Fitzgerald references "Three O’Clock in the Morning" in chapter 6 of his book The Great Gatsby; the song is played at a party, Fitzgerald uses it to reflect the thoughts of a character in the novel.“Three O’Clock in the Morning" has appeared in many movies.
Judy Garland sang the song in Presenting Lily Mars. The song has appeared in Margie, That Midnight Kiss, Belles on Their Toes, The Eddy Duchin Story, The Great Gatsby, When Brendan Met Trudy, The Man Who Wasn't There
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Marshall Ambrose "Mickey" Neilan was an American motion picture actor, film director, producer. Born in San Bernardino, Neilan was known by most as "Mickey." Following the death of his father, the eleven-year-old Mickey Neilan had to give up on school to work at whatever he could find in order to help support his mother. As a teenager, he began acting in bit parts in live theatre, in 1910 he got a job as chauffeur, driving Biograph Studios executives around Los Angeles to determine the suitability of the West Coast as a place for a permanent studio. Neilan made his film debut as part of the acting cast on the American Film Manufacturing Company Western The Stranger at Coyote. Hired by Kalem Studios for their Western film production facility in Santa Monica, Neilan was first cast opposite Ruth Roland. Described as confident, but egotistical at times, Neilan's talent saw him directing films within a year of joining Kalem. After acting in more than seventy silent film shorts for Kalem and directing more than thirty others, Neilan was hired by the Selig Polyscope Company Bison Motion Pictures and Famous Players-Lasky Corporation.
In 1915, Neilan was one of the founding members of the Motion Picture Directors Association along with directors such as Cecil B. DeMille, Allan Dwan, William Desmond Taylor. At the end of 1916, Neilan was hired by Mary Pickford Films where he directed Pickford in several productions including Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm and The Little Princess in 1917, plus Stella Maris in 1918, Amarilly of Clothes-Line Alley, M'Liss in 1918, Daddy-Long-Legs in 1919. Having all but given up acting, Neilan's directing successes led to him creating his own production company and between 1920 and 1926, Marshall Neilan Productions made eleven feature-length films all of which were distributed through First National Pictures, he received critical acclaim for directing and producing such films as Bits of Life and The Lotus Eater. In 1929, he was hired by RKO Radio Pictures. Contrary to the legend that the film was a commercial and critical failure, the film was a hit, making a profit of $335,000, was one of four top hits for RKO in 1929.
Early in his career Neilan had done as most others in the pioneering days of film and helped out in many areas of filmmaking through performing and writing. A talented screenwriter, in 1927 he wrote the original story for the Howard Hughes film, Hell's Angels, he had been hired as the film's director, back when it was still a silent, but Hughes' overbearing style forced him to drop out, he was replaced a few weeks into production by a more pliable director, Edmund Goulding. He was hired by Hal Roach Studios, for whom he directed a few films in 1930, he made his final directorial effort in 1937. Having battled alcoholism for a large part of his adult life, twenty years after he made his last film, Neilan returned to acting on the screen in a small role portraying an aging and less than enlightened United States Senator in the Elia Kazan film, A Face in the Crowd. In 1955, Neilan was awarded The George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film.
In recognition of his contribution to the motion picture industry, in 1940 the Directors Guild of America conferred on him an "Honorary Life Member Award." He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6233 Hollywood Blvd. Marshall Neilan had married actress Gertrude Bambrick in 1913 with whom he had a son with, Marshall Neilan, Jr.. Neilan's marriage to Bambrick ended in 1921. A year he married actress Blanche Sweet, whom he directed on several occasions, they divorced in 1929. Neilan died in Los Angeles in 1958 of throat cancer, he is interred in Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. Works by or about Marshall Neilan at Internet Archive Marshall Neilan on IMDb Marshall Neilan at Find a Grave Marshall Neilan at Virtual History
Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The name referred to a specific place: West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues in the Flower District of Manhattan. In 2019 the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission took up the question of preserving five buildings on the north side of the street as a Tin Pan Alley Historic District; the start of Tin Pan Alley is dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of Tin Pan Alley is less clear cut; some date it to the start of the Great Depression in the 1930s when the phonograph and motion pictures supplanted sheet music as the driving force of American popular music, while others consider Tin Pan Alley to have continued into the 1950s when earlier styles of American popular music were upstaged by the rise of rock & roll, centered on the Brill Building.
The origins of the name "Tin Pan Alley" are unclear. One account claims. Others claim. After many years, the term came to refer to the U. S. music industry in general. Various explanations have been advanced to account for the origins of the term "Tin Pan Alley"; the most popular account holds that it was a derogatory reference by Monroe H. Rosenfeld in the New York Herald to the collective sound made by many "cheap upright pianos" all playing different tunes being reminiscent of the banging of tin pans in an alleyway; this article has not been found. Simon Napier-Bell quotes an account of the origin of the name, published in a 1930 book about the music business. In this version, popular songwriter Harry von Tilzer was being interviewed about the area around 28th Street and Fifth Avenue, where many music publishers had their offices. Von Tilzer had modified his expensive Kindler & Collins piano by placing strips of paper down the strings to give the instrument a more percussive sound; the journalist told von Tilzer, "Your Kindler & Collins sounds like a tin can.
I'll call the article'Tin Pan Alley'."With time, this nickname was popularly embraced and came to describe the American music publishing industry in general. The term spread to the United Kingdom, where "Tin Pan Alley" is used to describe Denmark Street in London's West End. In the 1920s the street became known as "Britain's Tin Pan Alley" because of its large number of music shops. In the mid-19th century, copyright control of melodies was not as strict, publishers would print their own versions of the songs popular at the time. With stronger copyright protection laws late in the century, composers and publishers started working together for their mutual financial benefit. Songwriters would bang on the doors of Tin Pan Alley businesses to get new material; the commercial center of the popular music publishing industry changed during the course of the 19th century, starting in Boston and moving to Philadelphia and Cincinnati before settling in New York City under the influence of new and vigorous publishers which concentrated on vocal music.
The two most enterprising New York publishers were Willis Woodard and T. B. Harms, the first companies to specialize in popular songs rather than hymns or classical music; these firms were located in the entertainment district, which, at the time, was centered on Union Square. Witmark was the first publishing house to move to West 28th Street as the entertainment district shifted uptown, by the late 1890s most publishers had followed their lead; the biggest music houses established themselves in New York City, but small local publishers – connected with commercial printers or music stores – continued to flourish throughout the country, there were important regional music publishing centers in Chicago, New Orleans, St. Louis, Boston; when a tune became a significant local hit, rights to it were purchased from the local publisher by one of the big New York firms. The song publishers who created Tin Pan Alley had backgrounds as salesmen; the background of Isadore Witmark was selling water filters.
Leo Feist had sold corsets, Joe Stern and Edward B. Marks had sold buttons respectively; the music houses in lower Manhattan were lively places, with a steady stream of songwriters and Broadway performers, "song pluggers" coming and going. Aspiring songwriters came to demonstrate tunes; when tunes were purchased from unknowns with no previous hits, the name of someone with the firm was added as co-composer, or all rights to the song were purchased outright for a flat fee. An extraordinary number of Jewish East European immigrants became the music publishers and song writers on Tin Pan Alley – the most famous being Irving Berlin. Songwriters who became established producers of successful songs were hired to be on the staff of the music houses. "Song pluggers" were pianists and singers who represented the music publishers, making their living demonstrating songs to promote sales of sheet music. Most music stores had song pluggers on staff. Other pluggers were employed by the publishers to travel and familiarize the public with their new publications.
Among the ranks of song pluggers were George Gershw
Julián Robledo was a composer best known for the song "Three O'Clock in the Morning". Robledo lived in Buenos Aires, Argentina in the early 1900s where he played piano in tango orchestras and composed some of the earliest published tangos. "Three O'Clock in the Morning" was published in the United States in 1919. The song was recorded by Paul Whiteman in 1922 and became one of the first 20 recordings in history to achieve sales of over one million records; the piece features prominently in the December 1950 episode of radio's The Harold Peary Show. Julián Robledo was born in Ávila, Castilla y León, Spain in 1887, he emigrated to Argentina in the early 1900s where he worked with some of the best known orchestras of the day. When the orquesta típica of Genaro Espósito was signed by the Victor record label in 1912, their first recording was the tango "Ya vengo", by Julián Robledo. Other tangos composed by Robledo include "La Pianola", "Golf' and “Chirulote”. Julián Robledo played piano with the orchestras of Eleuterio Yribarren, recording on the labels Electra and Odeón.
Robledo composed "Three O'Clock in the Morning" in 1919. Lyrics were added by Dorothy Terriss in 1921, the song created a sensation when it was performed in New York in the Greenwich Village Follies of 1921. Paul Whiteman released a recording on the Victor label in 1922, resulting in sales of over 3.5 million copies of the record, over 1 million copies of the sheet music. In Buenos Aires, Robledo was active in promoting and protecting the rights of musicians and composers, he was spokesperson for the "Federación de Profesores de Música" and was a founder of the "Comisión de Defensa de los Derechos de Autor."Julián Robledo died in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1940
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog