Conch, was a slang term for native Bahamians of European descent. After the American Revolution, many loyalists migrated to the Bahamas; some of the loyalists looked down on the original white Bahamians and called them "conchs" because shellfish was a prominent part of their diet. Some other theories that have been proposed for the origin of the term are: The Bahamians told the British authorities that they would "eat conch" before paying taxes levied by the Crown; the adventurers from St. Augustine, Florida who recaptured Nassau from the Spanish in 1782 hoisted a flag with a shell rampant on a field of canvas; the first regiment of militia in Nassau adopted a regimental flag with a gold conch shell on a blue field. By extension, the term "Conch" has been applied to the descendants of Bahamian immigrants in Florida. Bahamians began visiting the Florida Keys in the 18th century to catch turtles, cut timber, salvage wrecks. During the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, most of the permanent residents in the Florida Keys outside of Key West, many in Key West, were Bahamian in origin.
"Conch" was reported to be a term of "distinction" for Bahamians in Key West in the 1880s. The white Bahamians in the keys continued to be known as "conchs". A WPA produced Guide to Florida noted that both'Conchs' and black Bahamians in Key West spoke with a "Cockney accent". Other residents of the Florida Keys in Key West, began applying the term "Conch" to themselves, it is now applied to all residents of Key West. See: Conch Republic. To distinguish between natives and non-natives, the terms "Salt Water Conch" and "Fresh Water Conch" have been used. Newcomers become "Fresh Water Conchs" after seven years. Riviera Beach, was known as "Conchtown" in the first half of the 20th century because of the number of Bahamian immigrants who settled there. Unlike the situation in Key West and the rest of the Florida Keys, where being "Conch" became a matter of pride and community identification, "Conch" was used by outsiders in a pejorative manner to describe the Bahamian community in Riviera Beach; the usage there carried the connotation that at least some of the "Conchs" were of mixed racial heritage.
As a result, some of the Bahamians in Riviera Beach denied being "Conchs" when interviewed by the Works Progress Administration Florida Writers Project in the late 1930s. WPA worker Veronica Huss and photographer Charles Foster wrote a book on the Conchs and their culture entitled Conch Town, but the WPA chose not to publish it. Many Bahamians settled in Miami in the Coconut Grove neighborhood, in Tarpon Springs; the term "Conchy Joe" or "Conky Joe" is a pejorative term used to refer to a native Bahamian of European descent. Caracoles, the "Conch" people of the Bay Islands, Honduras Conch house, an architectural style derived from Bahamian and other traditions Online version of a 1939 WPA exhibit, "Conch Town," on the Conchs of Florida by Charles Foster and Veronica Huss - Accessed July 7, 2018. Key West Population Half Bahamas Negroes and One-Quarter "Conchs" 1888 - Accessed July 7, 2018
Florida Atlantic University
Florida Atlantic University is a public university in Boca Raton, with five satellite campuses in the Florida cities of Dania Beach, Fort Lauderdale, in Fort Pierce at the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. FAU belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida and serves South Florida, which has more than five million people and spans more than 100 miles of coastline. Florida Atlantic University is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with high research activity; the university offers more than 170 undergraduate and graduate degree programs within its 10 colleges. Programs of study cover arts and humanities, the sciences, nursing, business, public administration, social work, architecture and computer science. Florida Atlantic opened in 1964 as the first public university in southeast Florida, offering only upper-division and graduate level courses. Initial enrollment was only 867 students, increasing in 1984 when the university admitted its first lower-division undergraduate students.
As of 2018, enrollment has grown to over 30,000 students representing 140 countries, 50 states, the District of Columbia. Since its inception, Florida Atlantic has awarded more than 110,000 degrees to nearly 153,160 alumni. In recent years, FAU has undertaken an effort to increase its academic and research standings while evolving into a more traditional university; the university has raised admissions standards, increased research funding, built new facilities, established notable partnerships with major research institutions. Changes include an on-campus stadium, additional on-campus housing, the establishment of a College of Medicine in 2010. On July 15, 1961, to meet the burgeoning educational demands of South Florida, the state legislature passed an act authorizing the establishment of a new university in the City of Boca Raton. Florida Atlantic University was built on a 1940s-era army airbase. During World War II, the airfield served as the Army Air Corps' sole radar training facility; the base was built on 5,860 acres of adjacent land.
A majority of the land was acquired from Japanese-American farmers from the failing Yamato Colony. The land was seized through eminent domain, leaving many Japanese-Americans little recourse in the early days of World War II; the airbase was used for radar training, anti-submarine patrols along the coast, as a stop-over point for planes being ferried to Africa and Europe via South America. The airfield was composed of four runways, still visible on the Boca Campus today and used for parking. By early 1947, the military decided to transfer future radar training operations to Keesler Air Force Base in Mississippi; the departure of the air force in 1947 would leave Boca Raton Army Airfield abandoned. Florida Atlantic University opened on September 14, 1964, with an initial student body of 867 students in five colleges; the first degree awarded was an honorary doctorate given to President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 25, 1964, at the dedication and opening of the university. At the time of its opening, there were 120 faculty out of a total of 350 employees.
On-campus housing for students was first added in September 1965. Florida Atlantic's history is one of continuing expansion as the university's service population has grown; the university served only upper-division and graduate level students, because Florida intended the institution "to complement the state's community college system, accepting students who had earned their associate degrees from those institutions."Florida Atlantic began its expansion beyond a one-campus university in 1971, when it opened its Commercial Boulevard campus in Fort Lauderdale. Due to a expanding population in South Florida, in 1984 Florida Atlantic opened its doors to lower-division undergraduate students; the following year, the university added its third campus, in downtown Fort Lauderdale on Las Olas Boulevard. In 1989, the Florida Legislature recognized demands for higher education in South Florida by designating Florida Atlantic as the lead state university serving Broward County. To fill this role, the university would establish a campus in Dania Beach in 1997 and another campus in the City of Davie in western Broward County in 1990.
Florida Atlantic purchased 50 acres of land in Port St. Lucie in 1994 to establish a campus on the Treasure Coast; this would be the institution's fifth campus. The university continued its expansion in 1999 when it opened its Jupiter Campus, named for the late John D. MacArthur; this campus houses the university's honors college. Florida Atlantic University and the University of Miami's Miller School of Medicine established a medical training program within the Charles E. Schmidt College of Biomedical Science in 2004. Plans called for the construction of a new teaching hospital in coordination with Boca Raton Community Hospital on the main campus. Following successive budgets deficits in 2007, the hospital delayed its participation indefinitely. However, Florida Atlantic established its own College of Medicine in 2010; the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution joined the university in 2007, creating Florida Atlantic's seventh campus. To bring HBOI into the university family the Florida Legislature allocated $44 million to Florida Atlantic to acquire the institution.
Florida Atlantic has changed since its opening in 1964. As of 2013, there were more than 30,000 students attending classes on seven campuses spread across 120 miles; the university employs more than 3,200 faculty and staff. The unive
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Barefoot Mailman
The Barefoot Mailman is a comedy-adventure film starring Robert Cummings and distributed by Columbia Pictures in 1951. The film was based on the 1943 novel The Barefoot Mailman by Theodore Pratt. Filmed in Super Cinecolor on location in Florida where the events take place, it features many elements of the Western. Set in 1895, Robert Cummings plays a con man, Sylvanus Hurley, trying to raise the selling price of land he owns by convincing the residents of Miami that a railroad is coming to town. Jerome Courtland plays the barefoot mailman, Steven Pierton, who leads Sylvanus along the beach from Palm Beach to Miami, and, skeptical of Sylvanus's scheme. Terry Moore is a run-away teenager, Adie Titus, who joins Sylvanus and Steven on their walk by impersonating a child. John Russell plays a swamp gang leader who tries to carry Adie away. Will Geer plays a newspaper editor and the mayor of Miami; the Barefoot Mailman on IMDb
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
New Rochelle, New York
New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state. In 2007, the city had a population of 73,260, making it the seventh-largest in the state of New York; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population had increased to 77,062. In November 2008 Business Week magazine listed New Rochelle as the best city in New York State, one of the best places nationally, to raise children. In 2014, based on analysis of 550 U. S. cities, New Rochelle was voted the 13th best city to live in. The European settlement was started by refugee Huguenots in 1688, who were fleeing religious persecution in France after the revocation by the king of the Edict of Nantes. Many of the settlers were artisans and craftsmen from the city of La Rochelle, thus influencing the choice of the name of "New Rochelle"; some 33 families established the community of la Nouvelle-Rochelle in 1688. A monument containing the names of these settlers stands in Hudson Park, the original landing point of the Huguenots.
Thirty-one years earlier, the Siwanoy Indians, a band of Algonquian-speaking Lenape sold their land to Thomas Pell. In 1689 Pell deeded 6,100 acres for the establishment of a Huguenot community. Jacob Leisler is an important figure in the early histories of the nation, he arrived in America as a mercenary in the British army and became one of the most prominent merchants in New York. He was subsequently appointed acting-governor of the province, it was during this time that he acted on behalf of the Huguenots. Of all the Huguenot settlements in America founded with the intention of being distinctly French colonies, New Rochelle most conformed to the plans of its founders; the colony continued to attract French refugees until as late as 1760. The choice of name for the city reflected the importance of the city of La Rochelle and of the new settlement in Huguenot history and distinctly French character of the community. French was spoken, it was common practice for people in neighboring areas to send their children to New Rochelle to learn the language.
In 1775, General George Washington stopped in New Rochelle on his way to assume command of the Army of the United Colonies in Massachusetts. The British Army occupied sections of New Rochelle and Larchmont in 1776. Following British victory in the Battle of White Plains, New Rochelle became part of a "Neutral Ground" for General Washington to regroup his troops. After the Revolutionary War ended in 1784, patriot Thomas Paine was given a farm in New Rochelle for his service to the cause of independence; the farm, totaling about 300 acres, had been confiscated from its owners by state of New York due to their Tory activities. The first national census of 1790 shows New Rochelle with 692 residents. 136 were African American, including 36 who were the remainder slaves. Through the 18th century, New Rochelle had remained a modest village that retained an abundance of agricultural land. During the 19th century, New York City was a destination from the mid-century on by waves of immigration, principally from Ireland and Germany.
More established American families moved into this area. Although the original Huguenot population was shrinking in relative size, through ownership of land, businesses and small manufactures, they retained a predominant hold on the political and social life of the town; the 1820 Census showed 150 African-Americans residing in New Rochelle, six of whom were still slaves. The state abolished slavery by degrees: children of slave mothers were born free, all slaves were freed by 1827. In 1857 the Village of New Rochelle was established within the borders of the Town of New Rochelle. A group of volunteers created the first fire service in 1861. In 1899, a bill creating the New Rochelle City Charter was signed by Governor Theodore Roosevelt, it was through this bill that the Village and Town of New Rochelle were joined into one municipality. In 1899, Michael J. Dillon narrowly defeated Hugh A. Harmer to become New Rochelle's first mayor; the established city charter designated a board of aldermen as the legislative unit with two members to be elected from each of four wards and 10 elected from the city at-large.
By 1900 New Rochelle had a population of 14,720. Throughout the city, farms and wooded homesteads were bought up by realty and development companies. Planned residential neighborhoods such as Rochelle Park, one of the first planned communities in the country, soon spread across the city, earning New Rochelle the sobriquet "City of Homes". In 1909, Edwin Thanhouser established Thanhouser Film Corporation. Thanhouser's Million Dollar Mystery was one of the first serial motion pictures. In 1923, New Rochelle resident Anna Jones became the first African-American woman to be admitted to the New York State Bar. Poet and resident James J. Montague captured the image of New Rochelle in his 1926 poem "Queen City of the Sound".: No stern and rock bound coast is here, peaceful and at ease The quiet sea lies blue and clear Beside the spreading trees. Afar from din of marts and mills A happy people dwell Among the placid, green clad hills Of lovely New Rochelle... When Nature, seeking upon men To cast a magic spell, She looked the world around – and She fashioned New Rochelle.
In 1930, New Rochelle recorded a population of 54,000, up from 36,213 only ten years earlier. During the 1930s, New Rochelle was the wealthiest city per capita in New York state and the third wealthiest in the country. By the end of the century, the Metro North railroad station was rebuilt along with a $190 million entertainment complex, nicknamed New Roc City, which fe