Silver Spring, Maryland
Silver Spring is an unincorporated community, large village, suburb of Washington, D. C. and census-designated place located inside the Capital Beltway in Montgomery County, United States. It had a population of 79,483, according to the 2017 official estimate by the United States Census Bureau, making it the fourth most populous place in Maryland, after Baltimore and Germantown, the second largest in Montgomery County after Germantown. Inner Silver Spring consists of the following neighborhoods: Downtown Silver Spring, East Silver Spring, North Woodside, Woodside Park, North Hills Sligo Park, Long Branch, Montgomery Knolls, Franklin Knolls, Indian Spring Terrace, Indian Spring Village, Clifton Park Village, New Hampshire Estates and Woodmoor. Outer Silver Spring consist of the following neighborhoods: Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sunset Terrace, Fairland and Kemp Mill; the urbanized and southernmost part of Silver Spring is a major business hub that lies at the north apex of Washington, D.
C. As of 2004, the Central Business District held 7,254,729 square feet of office space, 5216 dwelling units and 17.6 acres of parkland. The population density of this CBD area of Silver Spring was 15,600 per square mile all within 360 acres and 2.5 square miles in the CBD/downtown area. The community has undergone a significant renaissance, with the addition of major retail and office developments. Silver Spring takes its name from a mica-flecked spring discovered there in 1840, by Francis Preston Blair, who subsequently bought much of the surrounding land. Acorn Park, tucked away in an area of south Silver Spring away from the main downtown area, is believed to be the site of the original spring; as an unincorporated area, Silver Spring's boundaries are not defined. As of the 2010 Census the United States Census Bureau defines Silver Spring as a census-designated place with a total area of 7.92 square miles, all land. This definition is a 15% reduction from the 9.4 square miles used in previous years.
The United States Geological Survey locates the center of Silver Spring at 38°59′26″N 77°1′35″W, notably some distance from the Census Bureau's datum. By another definition, Silver Spring is located at 39°0′15″N 77°1′8″W; the definitions used by the Silver Spring Urban Planning District, the United States Postal Service, the Greater Silver Spring Chamber of Commerce, etc. are all different, each defining it for its own purposes. Residents of a large swath of southeastern Montgomery County have Silver Spring mailing addresses, including Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sandy Spring, Sunset Terrace, Lyttonsville, Kemp Mill, a portion of Langley Park, a portion of Adelphi; the area that has a Silver Spring mailing address is larger in area than any city in Maryland except Baltimore. Silver Spring's notable landmarks include the world headquarters of Discovery Communications, the AFI Silver Theatre, the world headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the headquarters of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the headquarters of the Food and Drug Administration, the national headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
Rock Creek Park passes along the west side of Silver Spring, offers hiking trails, picnic grounds, bicycling on weekends, when its main road, Beach Drive, is closed to motor vehicles. Sligo Creek Park follows Sligo Creek through Silver Spring; the latter is facilitated on weekends. The bike trails are slower than most in the region. Rocks have been spread along either side of the road, providing a hazardous bike ride, or skating leisure. Acorn Park in the downtown area of Silver Spring, is believed to be the site of the eponymous "silver spring."The 14.5-acre Jessup-Blair Park was renovated and features a soccer field, tennis courts, basketball courts, picnic area. Brookside Gardens is a 50-acre park within Wheaton Regional Park, in "greater" Silver Spring, it is located on the original site of Stadler Nursery. Northwest Branch Park is a 700-acre park surrounding the Northwest Branch of the Anacostia River; the park includes hiking and cycling trails on the Northwest Branch and Rachel Carson Greenway Trails.
This park extends farther within Montgomery County. Note that the Rachel Carson Greenway Trail is named after Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring and former resident of Silver Spring. Note: For the 2010 Census the boundaries of the Silver Spring CDP were changed reducing the land area by approx. 15%. As a result, the population count for 2010 shows a 6.6% decrease, while the population density increases 11%. As enumerated in the 2010 census, there were 71,452 residents, 28,603 total households, 15,684 families residing in the Silver Spring CDP; the population density was 9,021.7 people per square mile. There were 30,522 housing units at an average density of 3,853.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the community, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, for residents who self-identified as being members of "one race," was 45.7% "White," 27.8% "Black or African American," 0.6% "American I
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is a mainline Protestant Lutheran Church headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The ELCA came into existence on January 1, 1988, by the merging of three Lutheran church bodies; as of 2017, it has 3.5 million baptized members in 9,163 congregations. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.4 percent of the U. S. population self-identifies with the ELCA. It is the seventh-largest Christian denomination by reported membership and the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States; the next two largest Lutheran denominations are the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. There are many smaller Lutheran church bodies in the United States, some of which came into being composed of dissidents following the major 1988 merger; the ELCA belongs to the World Council of the Lutheran World Federation. The ELCA is in full communion with the Episcopal Church, Moravian Church, Presbyterian Church, Reformed Church in America, United Church of Christ, the United Methodist Church.
In 1970, a survey by Strommen et al. found that 79 percent of Lutheran Church in America clergy, 62 percent of American Lutheran Church clergy, 58 percent of Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clergy surveyed agreed that "a merger of all Lutheran groups in the United States into one organization is desirable". The ELCA formally came into existence on January 1, 1988, creating the largest Lutheran church body in the United States; the Church is a result of a merger among The American Lutheran Church with its headquarters in Minneapolis, the Lutheran Church in America and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, all of which had formally agreed in 1982 to unite after several years of discussions. The ALC and LCA were themselves the product of previous mergers. In 1960, The American Lutheran Church was formed as a merger of the earlier ALC of 1930 from German heritage, the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Danish background, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norwegian background; the Lutheran Free Church joined three years in 1963.
The ALC brought 2.25 million members into the new ELCA. It was the most theologically conservative of the forming bodies, having a heritage of Old Lutheran theology, it had been in fellowship for a decade with the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod and held to biblical inerrancy in its constitution, although it enforced that stance by means of heresy trials or other doctrinal discipline. Its geographic center was in the Upper Midwest Minnesota, with headquarters and publisher on South Fifth Street in Minneapolis and one of its several seminaries in neighboring St. Paul, its denominational magazine was The Lutheran Standard, published in Minneapolis. Some congregations in the ALC opted not to join the 1988 merger and instead formed the American Association of Lutheran Churches; the Lutheran Church in America had been created in 1962, when the United Lutheran Church in America, along with the Swedish background Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, the Danish immigrants in the American Evangelical Lutheran Church.
The LCA was the larger partner and brought 2.85 million members into the new ELCA. Their administrative offices were in the Church House, a former townhouse mansion on Madison Avenue in New York City, its publishing house, Fortress Press, was on Queen's Lane in northwest Philadelphia, produced the church magazine, The Lutheran. Its demographic focus was on the East Coast, centered on Pennsylvania), with large numbers in the Midwest and some presence in the Southern Atlantic states. There are notable exceptions, but LCA-background churches tend to be more liturgical than ALC-background churches, its theological orientation ranged from moderately liberal to neo-orthodox, with tendencies toward conservative Pietism in some rural and small-town congregations. Its theology originated in the Neo-Lutheran movement. In 1976, the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches was formed by 250 congregations that had left the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in a schism precipitated by disputes over biblical inerrancy and ecumenism as part of the overall Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, roiling American Protestant churches for several decades.
The LCMS elected more conservative leadership in 1969 under President Jacob A. O. Preus, replacing moderate incumbent Oliver Harms; the new leadership opened an investigation at the synod's Concordia Seminary in St. Louis, about the faculty's commitment to inerrancy in Biblical interpretation; as a result, most of the faculty and student body walked out and established a separate institution named "Concordia Seminary-in-Exile". The AELC brought 100,000 members into the ELCA, its immigrant heritage came from Germany in the mid-19th century. The ELCA is headed by a Presiding Bishop, elected by the Churchwide Assembly for a term of six years. To date, four people have been elected to the position of Presiding Bishop of the ELCA. Herbert W. Chilstrom served as the first Presiding Bishop from 1987 to 1995, he was followed by H. George Anderson, who had previous