Morpeth (UK Parliament constituency)
Morpeth was a borough constituency centred on the town of Morpeth in Northumberland represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of England until 1707, the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Morpeth elected two Members of Parliament until the 1832 general election, when the Great Reform Act reduced its representation to one MP, elected under the first past the post system; the constituency was abolished for the 1983 general election. 1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of Morpeth, the Urban Districts of Ashington and Blyth, part of the Rural District of Morpeth. 1950-1983: The Municipal Borough of Morpeth, the Urban Districts of Ashington and Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, the Rural District of Morpeth. Leveson-Gower resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds, causing a by-election. Howard resigned. Grey was appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies. Grey was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Grey was appointed requiring a by-election.
* Newton received support from the local branch of the National Federation of Discharged and Demobilized Sailors and Soldiers Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "M" Morpeth by-election, 1923
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. From a gentry family, he served first as a page at the court of the House of Stuart under James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill. Churchill's role in defeating the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685 helped secure James on the throne, yet just three years he abandoned his Catholic patron for the Protestant Dutchman, William of Orange. Honoured for his services at William's coronation with the earldom of Marlborough, he served with further distinction in the early years of the Nine Years' War, but persistent charges of Jacobitism brought about his fall from office and temporary imprisonment in the Tower, it was not until the accession of Queen Anne in 1702 that Marlborough reached the zenith of his powers and secured his fame and fortune.
His marriage to the hot-tempered Sarah Jennings – Anne's intimate friend – ensured Marlborough's rise, first to the Captain-Generalcy of British forces to a dukedom. Becoming de facto leader of Allied forces during the War of the Spanish Succession, his victories on the fields of Blenheim, Ramillies and Malplaquet, ensured his place in history as one of Europe's great generals, but his wife's stormy relationship with the Queen, her subsequent dismissal from court, was central to his own fall. Incurring Anne's disfavour, caught between Tory and Whig factions, who had brought glory and success to Anne's reign, was forced from office and went into self-imposed exile, he returned to England and to influence under the House of Hanover with the accession of George I to the British throne in 1714. Marlborough's insatiable ambition made him the richest of all Anne's subjects, his family connections wove him into the fabric of European politics. His leadership of the allied armies consolidated Britain's emergence as a front-rank power.
He maintained unity among the allies, thereby demonstrating his diplomatic skills. Throughout ten consecutive campaigns during the Spanish Succession war, Marlborough held together a discordant coalition through his sheer force of personality and raised the standing of British arms to a level not known since the Middle Ages. Although in the end he could not compel total capitulation from his enemies, his victories allowed Britain to rise from a minor to a major power, ensuring the country's growing prosperity throughout the 18th century. Churchill was the son of Sir Winston Churchill of Glanvilles Wootton in Dorset, by his wife Elizabeth Drake, fourth daughter of Sir John Drake of Ash in the parish of Musbury in Devon; the Churchill family is stated by the Devon historian William George Hoskins to have originated at the estate of Churchill, in the parish of Broadclyst in Devon, during the reign of King Henry II. At the end of the English Civil War Lady Drake was joined at her Devon home, Ash House in the parish of Musbury, by her fourth daughter Elizabeth Drake and her husband Winston Churchill, a Royalist cavalry captain.
Unlike his mother-in-law who had supported the Parliamentary cause, Winston had the misfortune of fighting on the losing side of the war – for which he, like so many other Cavaliers, was forced to compound. Although Winston had paid off the fine by 1651, it had impoverished him. From this episode may derive the Churchill family motto: Fiel Pero Desdichado. Winston Churchill and his wife Elizabeth Drake had at least nine children, only five of whom survived infancy; the eldest daughter, Arabella Churchill, was born on 28 February 1649. John Churchill, the eldest son, was born on 26 May 1650; the two younger sons were George Churchill, an admiral in the Royal Navy, Charles Churchill, a general who served on campaign in Europe with his eldest brother John. Little is known of John Churchill's childhood about which he left no written description, but growing up in these impoverished conditions at Ashe, with family tensions soured by conflicting allegiances, may have made a lasting impression on the young Churchill.
His descendant and biographer the Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, asserted that the conditions at Ashe "might well have aroused in his mind two prevailing impressions: first a hatred of poverty... and secondly the need of hiding thoughts and feelings from those to whom their expression would be repugnant". After the Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 his father's fortunes took a turn for the better, although he remained far from prosperous. In 1661, Winston became Member of Parliament for Weymouth, as a mark of royal favour he received rewards for losses incurred fighting against the Parliamentarians during the civil war, including the appointment as a Commissioner for Irish Land Claims in Dublin in 1661; when Winston departed for Ireland the following year, John enrolled at the Dublin Free School. The King's own penury meant the old Cavaliers received scant financial reward, but the prodigal monarch could offer something which would cost him nothing – positions at court for their progeny.
Thus in 1665, John's sister Arabella became Maid of Honour to the Duchess of York. Some months John
James Edward Oglethorpe was a British soldier, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's worthy poor in the New World focusing on those in debtors' prisons. James Oglethorpe was born in Surrey, the son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe of Westbrook Place and his wife Eleanor Lady Oglethorpe, he entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford in 1714, but in the same year left to join the army of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Through the recommendation of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough he became aide-de-camp to the prince, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18 he served with distinction in the campaign against the Turks. After his return to England, he was elected Member of Parliament for Haslemere in 1722, he became a leading humanitarian, in 1728 he advocated reform of the terrible conditions experienced by sailors in the British Royal Navy by publishing an anonymous pamphlet,'The Sailors Advocate.' In 1728, three years before conceiving the Georgia colony, Oglethorpe chaired a Parliamentary committee on prison reform.
The committee documented horrendous abuses in three debtors' prisons. As a result of the committee's actions, many debtors were released from prison with no means of support. Oglethorpe viewed this as part of the larger problem of urbanisation, depleting the countryside of productive people and depositing them in cities London, where they became impoverished or resorted to criminal activity. To address this problem, Oglethorpe and a group of associates, many of whom served on the prison committee, petitioned in 1730 to form the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America; the petition was approved in 1732, the first ship, led by Oglethorpe, departed for the New World in November. Oglethorpe and the Trustees formulated a contractual, multi-tiered plan for the settlement of Georgia; the plan envisioned a system of "agrarian equality", designed to support and perpetuate an economy based on family farming, prevent social disintegration associated with unregulated urbanisation.
Land ownership was limited to fifty acres, a grant that included a town lot, a garden plot near town, a forty-five-acre farm. Self-supporting colonists were able to obtain larger grants, but such grants were structured in fifty-acre increments tied to the number of indentured servants supported by the grantee. Servants would receive a land grant of their own upon completing their term of service. No one was permitted to acquire additional land through inheritance. With Oglethorpe on that ship were cotton seeds provided by the Chelsea Medicinal Garden in London. Established by the Apothecaries' Company in 1673 for the cultivation and study of medicinal plants, the Garden's mission soon expanded to collect and study plants and trees from all over the world; the cotton seeds given to Oglethorpe were instrumental in establishing the cotton industry in the U. S. South; as discussed below, the plan for the colony was anti-slavery, emphasizing small family-owned farms. But economic pressures led to the lifting of the ban on slavery, as described below—and slavery was indispensable to the rise of large cotton-growing plantations throughout the Deep South.
Oglethorpe and the first colonists arrived at South Carolina on the ship Anne in late 1732, settled near the present site of Savannah, Georgia on 1 February 1733. He negotiated with the Yamacraw tribe for land, built a series of defensive forts, most notably Fort Frederica, of which substantial remains can still be visited, he returned to England and arranged to have slavery banned in Georgia after being moved by an intercepted letter from Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, a slave in Maryland. Oglethorpe and his fellow trustees were granted a royal charter for the Province of Georgia between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers on 9 June 1732. Georgia was a key contested area, it was Oglethorpe's idea that British debtors should be sent to Georgia. Although it is repeated that this would theoretically rid Britain of its so-called undesirable elements, in fact it was Britain's "worthy poor" whom Oglethorpe wanted in Georgia. Few debtors ended up in Georgia; the colonists included many Scots whose pioneering skills assisted the colony, many of Georgia's new settlers consisted of poor English tradesmen and artisans and religious refugees from Switzerland and Germany, as well as a number of Jewish refugees.
There were 150 Salzburger Protestants, expelled by edict from the Archbishopric of Salzburg in present-day Austria, established the settlement of Ebenezer near Savannah. The colony's charter provided for acceptance of all religions except Roman Catholicism; the ban on Roman Catholic settlers was based on the colony's proximity to the hostile settlements in Spanish Florida. On 21 February 1734, Oglethorpe established the first Masonic Lodge within the British Colony of Georgia. Now known as Solomon's Lodge No. 1, F. & A. M. it is the "Oldest Continuously Operating English Constituted Lodge of Freemasons in the Western Hemisphere". For a period in 1736, Oglethorpe's secretary was Charles Wesley well known as a hymnwriter of Met
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
William III of England
William III widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Utrecht and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II, he is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy". William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died a week before William's birth, his mother, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, William married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, the daughter of his maternal uncle James, Duke of York. A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic King of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, William's Catholic uncle and father-in-law, became king of England and Ireland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain.
William, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham. James was deposed and William and his wife became joint sovereigns in his place. William and Mary reigned together until Mary's death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch. William's reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take power in Britain when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by loyalists in Northern Ireland and Scotland, his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650. Baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, Mary, Princess Royal.
Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland and sister of King Charles II and King James II and VII. Eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox. A conflict ensued between his mother and paternal grandmother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant. Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his son's guardian in his will. On 13 August 1651, the Hoge Raad van Holland en Zeeland ruled that guardianship would be shared between his mother, his paternal grandmother and Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, whose wife, Louise Henriette, was William II's eldest sister. William's mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. William's education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard and the Scottish noblewoman, Lady Anna Mackenzie.
From April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince d'Orange, a short treatise by one of William's tutors, Constantijn Huygens. In these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange-Nassau. From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a small personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein, his paternal uncle. Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his uncle Cornelis de Graeff pushed the States of Holland to take charge of William's education and ensure that he would acquire the skills to serve in a future—though undetermined—state function.
This first involvement of the authorities did not last long. On 23 December 1660, when William was ten years old, his mother died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace, while visiting her brother, the restored King Charles II. In her will, Mary requested that Charles look after William's interests, Charles now demanded that the States of Holland end their interference. To appease Charles, they complied on 30 September 1661; that year, Zuylenstein began to work for Charles and induced William to write letters to his uncle asking him to help William become stadtholder someday. After his mother's death, William's education and guardianship became a point of contention between his dynasty's supporters and the advocates of a more republican Netherlands; the Dutch authorities did their best at first to ignore these intrigues, but in the Second Anglo-Dutch War one of Charles's peace conditions was the improvement of the position of his nephew. As a countermeasure in 1666, when William was sixteen, the States made him a ward of the government, or a "Child of State".
All pro-English courtiers, including Zuylen
Battle of Sedgemoor
The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685 and took place at Westonzoyland near Bridgwater in Somerset, England. It was the final battle of the Monmouth Rebellion and followed a series of skirmishes around south-west England between the rebel forces of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, the Royal Army of James II. Victory went to the Government and about 500 prisoners fell into their hands. Monmouth escaped from the battlefield but was captured, taken to London and executed. Many of Monmouth's supporters were tried during the Bloody Assizes. Many were transported abroad, while others were executed by quartering, it was the final battle of the Monmouth Rebellion, by which the rebel James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, attempted to seize the English throne from his uncle James II of England. James II had succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Charles II on 2 February 1685. After Monmouth landed from the Netherlands at Lyme Regis in Dorset, there had been a series of marches and skirmishes throughout Dorset and Somerset.
Monmouth's poorly equipped army was pushed back to the Somerset Levels, becoming hemmed in at Bridgwater on 3 July. He ordered his troops to fortify the town; the force was made up of around 3,500 nonconformist and farmer workers armed with farm tools. The royalist troops, led by Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham, Colonel John Churchill, were camped behind the Bussex Rhine at Westonzoyland; the infantry forces included 500 men of the 1st Regiment of Foot, known as Dumbarton's Regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas. The Horse and Foot, the Royal Train of Artillery was camped along the road to Bridgwater; the Royal Cavalry, with seven troops of 420 men of the Earl of Oxford's, the Kings Regiment of Horse, led by Colonel Sir Francis Compton. The Duke led his untrained and ill-equipped troops out of Bridgwater at around 10:00 pm to undertake a night-time attack on the King's army, they were guided by Richard Godfrey, the servant of a local farmer, along the old Bristol road towards Bawdrip.
With their limited cavalry in the vanguard, they turned south along Bradney Lane and Marsh Lane, came to the open moor with its deep and dangerous rhynes. There was a delay while the rhine the first men across startled a royalist patrol. A shot was fired and a horseman from the patrol galloped off to report to Feversham. Lord Grey of Warke led the rebel cavalry forward and they were engaged by the King's Regiment of Horse which alerted the rest of the royalist forces; the superior training of the regular army and their horses routed the rebel forces by outflanking them. Monmouth escaped from the battlefield with Grey and they headed for the south coast disguised as peasants, they were captured near Hampshire. Monmouth was taken to the Tower of London. A letter written by the Earl of Shaftesbury in 1787 provides more detail as to Monmouth's capture: The tradition of the neighbourhood is this: viz; that after the defeat of the Duke of Monmouth at Sedgemoor, near Bridgewater, he rode, accompanied by Lord Grey, to Woodyates, where they quitted their horses.
Being pursued, he made for the Island, concealed himself in a ditch, overgrown with fern and underwood. When his pursuers came up, an old woman gave information of his being in the Island, of her having seen him filling his pocket with peas; the Island was surrounded by soldiers, who passed the night there, threatened to fire the neighbouring cotts. As they were going away, one of them espied the skirt of the Duke's coat, seized him; the soldier no sooner knew him, than he burst into tears, reproached himself for the unhappy discovery. The Duke when taken was quite exhausted with fatigue and hunger, having had no food since the battle but the peas which he had gathered in the field; the ash tree is still standing under which the Duke was apprehended, is marked with the initials of many of his friends who afterwards visited the spot. The family of the woman who betrayed him were after holden in the greatest detestation, are said to have fallen into decay, to have never thriven afterwards; the house where she lived, which overlooked the spot, has since fallen down.
It was with the greatest difficulty. After the battle, about 500 of Monmouth's troops were captured and imprisoned in St Mary's Parish Church in Westonzoyland, while others were hunted and shot in the ditches where they were hiding. More were hung from gibbets erected along the roadside; the royalist troops were rewarded, with Feversham being made a Knight of the Garter, Churchill promoted to Major-General and Henry Shires of the artillery receiving a Knighthood. Other soldiers those, wounded, received allowances ranging from £5 to £80; some of the wounded were amongst the first to be treated
Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet
Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet was an Anglo-Irish preacher, statesman, diplomat and spy, after whom Downing Street in London is named. As Treasury Secretary he is credited with instituting major reforms in public finance, his influence was substantial on the substance of the mercantilist Navigation Acts. The Acts strengthened English commercial and Naval power, contributing to the security of the English state and its ability to project its power abroad. More than any other man he was responsible for arranging the acquisition of New York from the Dutch, is remembered there in the name of two other streets named after him in New York, one in Greenwich Village and one in Brooklyn, he was the son of Emmanuel Downing, a barrister of the Inner Temple in London, of Lucy Winthrop, who married in April 1622. He was born in London in 1625, while others list his birthplace circa 1624 in Dublin, his mother was the younger sister of Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop. In 1636, he was in school in Kent.
His family joined Winthrop in America in 1638, settling in Massachusetts. Downing attended Harvard College and was one of nine students in the first graduating class of 1642, he was hired by Harvard as the college's first tutor. In 1645 he sailed for the West Indies with slaves in tow, as a preacher and instructor of the seamen, arrived in England some time afterwards, becoming chaplain to Colonel John Okey's regiment. While Downing Street, London, is named after him, Downing College, Cambridge derives its name from his grandson, Sir George Downing, 3rd Baronet; the title became extinct when the 3rd Baronet's cousin, Sir Jacob Downing, 4th Baronet, died in 1764. Subsequently, Downing seems to have abandoned preaching for a military career, in 1650 he was scoutmaster-general of Cromwell's forces in Scotland, as such received in 1657 a salary of £365 and £500 as a Teller of the Exchequer. In 1654, he married Frances, sister of Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle and daughter of Sir William Howard of Naworth Castle and Mary.
Frances was the great-great granddaughter of the fourth Duke of Norfolk. Downing's marriage into the powerful Howard family aided his advancement. In Cromwell's parliament of 1654, Downing represented Edinburgh, Carlisle in those of 1656 and 1659, he was one of the first to urge Cromwell to restore the old constitution. In 1655, he was sent to France to remonstrate on the massacre of the Protestant Vaudois. In 1657 he was appointed resident at The Hague, to effect a union of the Protestant European powers, to mediate between Portugal and the Dutch Republic and between Sweden and Denmark, to defend the interests of the English traders against the Dutch, to inform the government concerning the movements of the exiled royalists. Downing showed himself in these negotiations an able diplomat, he was maintained in his post during the interregnum subsequent to the fall of Richard Cromwell, was thus enabled in April 1660 to make his peace with Charles II, to whom he communicated Thurloe's despatches, declared his abandonment of "principles sucked in" in New England of which he now "saw the error".
At the Restoration, Downing was knighted, was continued in his embassy in Holland, was confirmed in his tellership of the exchequer, was further rewarded with a valuable piece of land adjoining St. James's Park for building purposes, now known as Downing Street. During the Restoration period, he was instrumental organising the spy-rings which hunted down many of his former comrades, he engineered the arrest in Holland of the regicides John Barkstead, Miles Corbet and John Okey, his former commander and sponsor. Samuel Pepys, who characterised his conduct as odious though useful to the king, calls him a "perfidious rogue" and remarks that "all the world took notice of him for a most ungrateful villain for his pains." On 1 July 1663, he was created a baronet. Downing had from the first been hostile to the Dutch as the commercial rivals of England, he had supported the Navigation Act of 1660, he now deliberately drew on the fatal and disastrous Second Anglo-Dutch War, in the first year of which, 1665, he was expelled by the Dutch because of his intrigues and spying activities and returned home.
That year, as a member of parliament, Downing attached a clause to a bill to fund the war's continuation that specified that the money could only be used for the war effort. This little-used move, opposed by Lord Clarendon as an encroachment on the royal prerogative made permanent the parliamentary appropriation of supplies. In May 1667, in the war's final year, Downing was made secretary to the commissioners of the treasury, his appointment being much welcomed by Pepys, he took part in the management and reform of the Treasury, he had been returned for Morpeth in the Convention Parliament of April 1660, a constituency that he represented in every ensuing parliament till his death, he spoke with ability on financial and commercial questions. He was appointed a commissioner of the customs in 1671; the same year he was again sent to Holland to replace Sir William Temple, to break up the policy of the Triple Alliance and incite another war between the Dutch Republic and England in furtherance of the French policy.
His unpopularity there was extreme, after three months' residence Downing fled to England, in fear of the fury of the mob. For this unauthorised step he was sent to the Tower on 7 Feb