John Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain, served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and corresponded with many important figures in early American history including his wife and adviser and his letters and other papers are an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence, he defied anti-British sentiment and defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution, he assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress.
As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain and secured vital governmental loans. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the United States' own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government. Adams was elected to two terms as vice president under President George Washington and was elected as the United States' second president in 1796. During his single term, Adams encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the Army and Navy in the undeclared "Quasi-War" with France; the main accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of this conflict in the face of public anger and Hamilton's opposition. During his term, he became the first president to reside in the executive mansion now known as the White House. In his bid for reelection, opposition from Federalists and accusations of despotism from Republicans led to Adams's loss to his former friend Thomas Jefferson, he retired to Massachusetts.
He resumed his friendship with Jefferson by initiating a correspondence that lasted fourteen years. He and his wife generated a family of politicians and historians now referred to as the Adams political family, which includes their son John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. John Adams died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, hours after Jefferson's death. Surveys of historians and scholars have favorably ranked his administration. John Adams was born on October 1735 to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two younger brothers and Elihu. Adams was born on the family farm in Massachusetts, his mother was from a leading medical family of Massachusetts. His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, a lieutenant in the militia. John Sr. supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams praised his father and recalled their close relationship. Adams's great-grandfather Henry Adams emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree, England around 1638.
Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt pressured to live up to his heritage. His was a family of Puritans, who profoundly affected their region's culture and traditions. By the time of John Adams's birth, Puritan tenets such as predestination had waned and many of their severe practices moderated, but Adams still "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." Adams recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and detailed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" resulting from any debauchery. Adams noted that "As a child I enjoyed the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men – that of a mother, anxious and capable to form the characters of her children."Adams, as the eldest child, was compelled to obtain a formal education. This began at age six at a dame school for boys and girls, conducted at a teacher's home, was centred upon The New England Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric and arithmetic.
Adams's early education included incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, a desire to become a farmer. All discussion on the matter ended with his father's command that he remain in school: "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon Adams hired a new schoolmaster named Joseph Marsh, his son responded positively. At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College in 1751; as an adult, Adams was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Tacitus in their original languages. Though his father expected him to be a minister, after his 1755 graduation with an A. B. degree, he taught school while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he began to seek prestige, craving "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from fellows", was determined to be "a great Man." He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces."
His aspirations conflicted with his Puritanism, prompting reservations about his self-described "trumpery" and failure to share the "happiness of fellow men."As the French and Indian War began in 1754, Ada
Isaac Parker (Massachusetts judge)
Isaac Parker was a Massachusetts Congressman and jurist, including Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court from 1814 to his death. He was born in Boston, the son of Daniel Parker, a goldsmith, Margaret Parker, he was descended from John Parker, of Bideford, who emigrated to America in 1629 and whose children settled in Charlestown. After preparation at the Latin Grammar School, he entered Harvard at the age of fourteen and graduated in 1786 with high honors. For a short time he taught at the Latin School. After studying law and being admitted to the bar, he moved to Castine, in what was the state of Maine. There he set up his law practice moving to Portland and holding several local offices. On June 17, 1794, he married Rebecca Hall, daughter of Joseph Hall of Medford, a descendant of John Hall who settled in Concord in 1658, they had eight children. In 1796, when he was twenty-eight, Parker was elected as a Federalist to the 5th Congress, but after one term of which little record of activity is available, he retired voluntarily to become United States Marshal for the Maine district.
He was displaced upon Thomas Jefferson's accession to the presidency and returned to his law practice. He had made his impression, on January 28, 1806, Governor Caleb Strong, upon the death of Justice Simeon Strong, appointed him an Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Parker was inclined to refuse the honor, but upon his friends' urgent solicitations accepted and moved to Boston, he was shortly called upon to sit in the trial of T. O. Selfridge, charged with shooting the son of Benjamin Austin in a political quarrel. Feelings ran high and Parker won a great reputation for impartiality, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1811. In 1814 he was elevated to the chief justiceship. In 1816 he was inaugurated as first Royall Professor of Law at Harvard, it was not a teaching chair, in May 1817 he laid before the Corporation a plan for a law school. The plan was adopted and Harvard Law School was established, with Asahel Stearns as first instructor.
Parker continued to lecture until 1827. He was a twenty-year overseer for eleven years a trustee of Bowdoin, his published works were confined to his judicial decisions and to a few orations, revealing a somewhat less florid style than that which characterized the times. He remained Chief Justice until his death in Boston. Parker was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1819. Among his more controversial rulings was in an 1820 case involving the First Church of Dedham, the majority of whose regular churchgoers, more conservative Congregationalists, had left the parish when a liberal Unitarian pastor was appointed by the town, claimed the property as their own; the Unitarian Parker wrote: "When the majority of the members of a Congregational church separate from the majority of the parish, the members who remain, although a minority, constitute the church in such parish, retain the rights and property belonging thereto" – including recognition as an established church. 3,900 Congregationalists from 81 churches left behind property valued at $600,000.
Parker's decisions illuminate both the jurisprudence of the period. They indicate a mind of exceptional clarity and penetration, albeit with a sensitivity to the needs of changing times. In the words of Justice Story: "It was a critical moment in the progress of our jurisprudence... We wanted a mind to do in some good degree what Lord Mansfield had done in England, to breathe into our common law an energy suited to the wants, the commercial interests and the enterprise of the age", it was a time. Parker rendered this kind of service, many of his decisions came to be recognized as authoritative through the state and federal courts. "He felt that the rules, not of evidence but of all substantial law must widen with the wants of society". In addition he rendered no small service by consolidating the reforms in the Massachusetts judicial system, instituted in the early years of the century, his character was eminently suited to his role. Above the petinesses of party strife, free from affectation, at the same time both patient and gay, he carried into his public life the rectitude of an active and sincere religious conviction.
He would die 3 days after he had said he never felt better and in his career he never missed a day on the bench. He dies July 27 on the day he was to hear the trial of Frank Knapp for the murder of Joseph Story's brother-in-law's uncle Joseph White. Oration on Washington Sketch of the Character of Chief Justice Parsons United States Congress. "Isaac Parker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Dictionary of American Biography, vol. 14, pp. 224–5. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934. Wilson, J. G.. "Parker, Isaac". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Isaac Parker at Find a Grave
Newbury is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, USA. The population was 6,666 at the 2010 census. Newbury includes the villages of Plum Island and Byfield; each village is a precinct with its own voting district, various town offices, business center. Newbury Plantation was settled and incorporated in 1635; the Rev. Thomas Parker and cousin Rev. James Noyes, along with the latter's brother Nicholas, led a group of about 100 pioneers from Wiltshire, England, they sailed from the River Thames aboard the ship Mary and John, first landing in Agawam in 1634. They arrived the next spring at the Quascacunquen River, now the Parker River. A commemorative stone marks the spot where Nicholas Noyes was the first of the new settlers to leap ashore at Newbury, named after the town in Berkshire, England; the site had once been a village of the Pawtucket Indians, who hunted, farmed. Many settlers would do the same. In 1791, 3,000 head of cattle grazed town lands, or on the region's abundant salt marsh hay. Other trades included shipbuilding.
Newbury included Newburyport, set off in 1764, West Newbury, set off in 1819. Quascancunquen means "waterfall," referring to the falls in Byfield where Central Street crosses the Parker River. In 1636, the first water-powered mill was established at the falls. Gristmills and sawmills were built, in 1794, the first textile mill in Massachusetts. At Byfield in 1763 was founded the nation's first preparatory school, Dum'r Charity School, known subsequently as Dummer Academy, Governor Dummer Academy, now The Governor's Academy, it was site of the first female seminary, founded in 1807. Byfield developed into a mill village, once had six water powered mills, manufacturing various products from woolens to snuff; the railroad entered the community in 1850, carrying freight but tourists, helping Plum Island develop into a Victorian seaside resort. Back on the mainland, silver was discovered in a large field in 1878, the Chipman Silver Mine would begin operations until it closed in 1925. By 1905, the economy had shifted to back to agriculture, Newbury became a supplier of eggs and poultry.
Some would hay the salt marshes. The town is today residential, with many examples of fine antique architecture. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.3 square miles, of which 23.4 square miles is land and 2.9 square miles, or 11.17%, is water. Newbury lies just south of the mouth of the Merrimack River, is drained by the Little River and Parker River, along with the Plum Island River, drain into Plum Island Sound, separating Plum Island from the mainland. Much of the town land is made of marshes, is protected land, included in the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Old Town Hill Reservation Area, Kents Island Wildlife Management Area, Downfall Wildlife Management Area and parts of the Mill River Wildlife Management Area and Crane Pond Wildlife Management Area. Newbury is located along the Atlantic Ocean, is bordered by Newburyport to the north, West Newbury to the northwest, a small portion of Groveland to the west, Georgetown to the southwest, Rowley to the south.
The center of Newbury lies 19 miles east of Lawrence, 19 miles north of Salem, 32 miles north-northeast of Boston and 24 miles south of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Interstate 95 passes with two exits providing access to the town. U. S. Route 1, locally known as the Newburyport Turnpike, passes from north to south through the middle of the town, Massachusetts Route 1A's northernmost portion passes through the east of town, just inland from the marshes; the town is home to a private general aviation airport. The Newburyport/Rockport Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail passes through town, with its northern terminus just over the Newburyport line; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,717 people, 2,514 households, 1,815 families residing in the town. The population density was 277.0 people per square mile. There were 2,816 housing units at an average density of 116.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.32% White, 0.37% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.43% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.91% of the population. There were 2,514 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $74,836, the median income for a family was $83,428. Males had a median income of $52,366 versus $35,656 for females; the per capita income for the town was $34,640. About 1.2% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.3% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
Coffin House Dole-Little House James Noyes House Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm Swett-Ilsley House Abraham Adams House Th
Reuben Atwater Chapman
Reuben Atwater Chapman was an American attorney who served as chief justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court from 1868 until his death in 1873. As a youth he was employed as a store clerk in Blandford, Massachusetts when he was given the opportunity at the age of 19 to read law as a clerk in a law office. Admitted to the bar, he successively practiced in Westfield and Ware, before settling in Springfield, Mass. where he practiced in partnership with Whig politician George Ashmun as Chapman & Ashmun. The firm became one of the most successful in the state and in 1860 Chapman was appointed an associate justice of the state supreme court, subsequently being elevated to chief justice in 1868, he was a presidential elector for Lincoln in 1860, served on the Harvard Board of Overseers. He handled some legal matters for John Brown when Brown was in business in Springfield, when Brown was imprisoned in Virginia facing hanging after the abortive Harper's Ferry raid, he wrote to Chapman asking him to either come himself or send legal assistance: "I have money in hand here to the amount of $250 do not send an ultra abolitionist," which Chapman was unable to do at the time.
Chapman died in Switzerland in 1873. His younger sister was a missionary teacher in the Hawaiian Islands. Through her, Reuben Atwater Chapman was uncle to Samuel Chapman Armstrong, an American Civil War general and founder of Hampton Institute, to William Nevins Armstrong, Attorney General in the Kingdom of Hawaii. Reuben Atwater Chapman at Find a Grave
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, as Acting Chief Justice of the United States in January–February 1930. Noted for his long service and pithy opinions, deference to the decisions of elected legislatures, he is one of the most cited United States Supreme Court justices in history for his "clear and present danger" opinion for a unanimous Court in the 1919 case of Schenck v. United States, is one of the most influential American common law judges, honored during his lifetime in Great Britain as well as the United States. Holmes retired from the court at the age of 90, making him the oldest justice in the Supreme Court's history, he served as an Associate Justice and as Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, was Weld Professor of Law at his alma mater, Harvard Law School. Profoundly influenced by his experience fighting in the American Civil War, Holmes helped move American legal thinking towards legal realism, as summed up in his maxim: "The life of the law has not been logic.
Holmes espoused a form of moral skepticism and opposed the doctrine of natural law, marking a significant shift in American jurisprudence. In one of his most famous opinions, his dissent in Abrams v. United States, he regarded the United States Constitution as "an experiment, as all life is an experiment" and believed that as a consequence "we should be eternally vigilant against attempts to check the expression of opinions that we loathe and believe to be fraught with death." During his tenure on the Supreme Court, to which he was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt, he supported efforts for economic regulation and advocated broad freedom of speech under the First Amendment. These positions as well as his distinctive personality and writing style made him a popular figure with American progressives, his jurisprudence influenced much subsequent American legal thinking, including judicial consensus supporting New Deal regulatory law, influential schools of pragmatism, critical legal studies, law and economics.
He was one of only a handful of justices to be known as a scholar. Holmes was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to the prominent writer and physician Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. and abolitionist Amelia Lee Jackson. Dr. Holmes was a leading figure in Boston intellectual and literary circles, Mrs. Holmes was connected to the leading families. Known as "Wendell" in his youth, Henry James Jr. and William James became lifelong friends. Holmes accordingly grew up in an atmosphere of intellectual achievement, early formed the ambition to be a man of letters like Emerson. While still in Harvard College he wrote essays on philosophic themes, asked Emerson to read his attack on Plato's idealist philosophy. Emerson famously replied, "If you strike at a king, you must kill him." He supported the Abolitionist movement. At Harvard, he was a member of the Porcellian Club. In the Pudding, he served as Poet, as his father did, he enlisted in the Massachusetts militia in the spring of 1861, when the president first called for volunteers following the firing on Fort Sumter, but returned to Harvard College to participate in commencement exercises.
In the summer of 1861 with his father's help he obtained a lieutenant's commission in the Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. Holmes's early life was described in detail by Mark DeWolfe Howe, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes – The Shaping Years, 1841–1870. During his senior year of college, at the outset of the American Civil War, Holmes enlisted in the fourth battalion, Massachusetts militia received a commission as first lieutenant in the Twentieth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, he saw much action, taking part in the Peninsula Campaign, the Battle of Fredricksburg and the Wilderness, suffering wounds at the Battle of Ball's Bluff and Chancellorsville, suffered from a near-fatal case of dysentery. He admired and was close to Henry Livermore Abbott, a fellow officer in the 20th Massachusetts. Holmes rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel, but eschewed promotion in his regiment and served on the staff of the VI Corps during the Wilderness Campaign. Abbott took command of the regiment in his place, was killed.
Holmes is said to have shouted to Abraham Lincoln to take cover during the Battle of Fort Stevens, although this is regarded as apocryphal. Holmes himself expressed uncertainty about who had warned Lincoln and other sources state he was not present on the day Lincoln visited Fort Stevens. Holmes received a brevet promotion to colonel in recognition of his services during the war, he retired to his home in Boston after his three-year enlistment ended in 1864, weary and ill, his regiment disbanded. In the summer of 1864, Holmes returned to the family home in Boston, wrote poetry, debated philosophy with his friend William James, pursuing his debate with philosophic idealism, considered reenlisting, but by the fall, when it became clear that the war would soon end, Holmes
Peter Oliver (loyalist)
Peter Oliver was Chief Justice of the Superior Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay from 1772–1775. He was a Loyalist during the American Revolution, left Massachusetts in 1776, settling in England. Peter Oliver was born in Boston to well known parents, he graduated from Harvard College in 1730. He co-ran a Boston importing business with his brother Andrew for several years, although his interests were in science and literature. Oliver bought an iron works in Middleborough, Massachusetts in 1744; this company made. With the profits from this company Oliver built Oliver Hall, described as one of the most elegant residences in all of colonial New England. Oliver was appointed Justice of the Peace in 1744, a justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1747, he was named a justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature in 1756. Oliver supported the idea that colonists should be taxed and more effort should be put into preventing smuggling to pay for the French and Indian War. Starting in 1765, the Sons of Liberty used threats and violence as a tool to manipulate the actions of Peter Oliver and his brother Andrew.
Peter Oliver was forced to do things such as refusing to sit in court. Oliver was a strong supporter of the Stamp Act, which caused him to be harassed further. Oliver was one of three judges during the trials held after the Boston Massacre. Thomas Hutchinson was pleased with the work that Peter Oliver did, made him chief justice of the Superior Court in 1772. Oliver complained about how low his salary was as chief justice; the British proposed a plan to raise the justice's salary, paid for by the crown. All of the justices declined this offer except for Oliver, he was impeached in 1774 because of the public outrage against him for doing so. In January, 1776, who believed that the Revolution, which he referred to as the "Rebellion," was illegal and destined to fail, wrote a letter to Massachusetts troops entitled "An Address to the Soldiers of Massachusetts Bay who are now in Arms against the Laws of their Country." Oliver argues that the Rebellion is illegal and destined to fail and that the Massachusetts troops have been lied to by their officers about the potential for success against Great Britain, which he characterizes as the "mildest government to live under."
Oliver departed from the colonies when the British evacuated troops and Loyalists from Boston in March 1776. He was named in the Massachusetts Banishment Act of 1778. Oliver sailed first to Nova Scotia and to England and lived there until his death on October 12, 1795. In 1781, the year in which Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, thereby ending the military struggle in the Colonies, Oliver wrote a bitter denunciation of the Revolution, targeting those who inflamed the populace against the British, entitled "Origin & Progress of the American Rebellion,", important because Oliver articulates the views of many Loyalists those who were born in the Colonies and lost everything when they fled to Great Britain. Oliver puts most of the blame on men like Samuel Adams, who, in Oliver's view, instigated an illegal rebellion for economic reasons. Https://web.archive.org/web/20110707133121/http://www.americanrevwar.com/files/OLIVER.html http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2536600574.html
Portland is a city in the U. S. state of Maine, with a population of 67,067 as of 2017. The Greater Portland metropolitan area is home to over half a million people, more than one-third of Maine's total population, making it the most populous metro in northern New England. Portland is Maine's economic center, with an economy that relies on tourism; the Old Port district is known for its 19th-century nightlife. Marine industry still plays an important role in the city's economy, with an active waterfront that supports fishing and commercial shipping; the Port of Portland is the largest tonnage seaport in New England. The city has seen growth in the technology sector, with companies such as WEX building headquarters in the city; the city seal depicts a phoenix rising from ashes, a reference to the recoveries from four devastating fires. Portland was named after the English Isle of Dorset. In turn, the city of Portland, Oregon was named after Maine. Portland itself comes from the Old English word Portlanda, which means "land surrounding a harbor".
Native Americans called the Portland peninsula Machigonne. Portland was named for the English Isle of Portland, the city of Portland, was in turn named for Portland, Maine; the first European settler was Capt. Christopher Levett, an English naval captain granted 6,000 acres in 1623 to found a settlement in Casco Bay. A member of the Council for New England and agent for Ferdinando Gorges, Levett built a stone house where he left a company of ten men returned to England to write a book about his voyage to bolster support for the settlement; the settlement was a failure and the fate of Levett's colonists is unknown. The explorer sailed from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to meet John Winthrop in 1630, but never returned to Maine. Fort Levett in the harbor is named for him; the peninsula was settled in 1632 as a trading village named Casco. When the Massachusetts Bay Colony took over Casco Bay in 1658, the town's name changed again to Falmouth. In 1676, the village was destroyed by the Abenaki during King Philip's War.
It was rebuilt. During King William's War, a raiding party of French and their native allies attacked and destroyed it again in the Battle of Fort Loyal. On October 18, 1775, Falmouth was burned in the Revolution by the Royal Navy under command of Captain Henry Mowat. Following the war, a section of Falmouth called The Neck developed as a commercial port and began to grow as a shipping center. In 1786, the citizens of Falmouth formed a separate town in Falmouth Neck and named it Portland, after the isle off the coast of Dorset, England. Portland's economy was stressed by the Embargo Act of 1807, which ended in 1809, the War of 1812, which ended in 1815. In 1820, Maine was established as a state with Portland as its capital. In 1832, the capital was moved East to Augusta. In 1851, Maine led the nation by passing the first state law prohibiting the sale of alcohol except for "medicinal, mechanical or manufacturing purposes." The law subsequently became known as the Maine law, as 18 states followed.
On June 2, 1855, the Portland Rum Riot occurred. In 1853, upon completion of the Grand Trunk Railway to Montreal, Portland became the primary ice-free winter seaport for Canadian exports; the Portland Company manufactured more than 600 19th-century steam locomotives. Portland became a 20th-century rail hub as five additional rail lines merged into Portland Terminal Company in 1911. Following nationalization of the Grand Trunk system in 1923, Canadian export traffic was diverted from Portland to Halifax, Nova Scotia, resulting in marked local economic decline. In the 20th century, icebreakers enabled ships to reach Montreal in winter, drastically reducing Portland's role as a winter port for Canada. On June 26, 1863, a Confederate raiding party led by Captain Charles Read entered the harbor at Portland leading to the Battle of Portland Harbor, one of the northernmost battles of the Civil War; the 1866 Great Fire of Portland, Maine, on July 4, 1866, ignited during the Independence Day celebration, destroyed most of the commercial buildings in the city, half the churches and hundreds of homes.
More than 10,000 people were left homeless. By act of the Maine Legislature in 1899, Portland annexed the city of Deering, despite a vote by Deering residents rejecting the annexation, thereby increasing the size of the city and opening areas for development beyond the peninsula; the construction of The Maine Mall, an indoor shopping center established in the suburb of South Portland, during the 1970s, economically depressed downtown Portland. The trend reversed when tourists and new businesses started revitalizing the old seaport, a part of, known locally as the Old Port. Since the 1990s, the industrial Bayside neighborhood has seen rapid development, including attracting a Whole Foods and Trader Joes supermarkets, as well as Baxter Academy, an popular charter school. Other developing neighborhoods include the India Street neighborhood near the Ocean Gateway and Munjoy Hill, where many modern condos have been built; the Maine College of Art has been a revitalizing force downtown, attracting students from around the country.
The historic Porteous building on Congress Street was restored by the College. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 69.44 square miles, of which 21.31 square miles is land and 48.13 square miles is water. Portland is situated on a peninsula in Casco Bay on the Gulf of Maine and