Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, pathology and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic; the son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. Born in Pergamon, Galen travelled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates, his theories influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years.
His anatomical reports, based on dissection of monkeys the Barbary macaque, pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system remained unchallenged. 1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina, in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation. Galen saw himself as both a physician and a philosopher, as he wrote in his treatise entitled That the Best Physician Is Also a Philosopher. Galen was interested in the debate between the rationalist and empiricist medical sects, his use of direct observation and vivisection represents a complex middle ground between the extremes of those two viewpoints. Many of his works have been preserved and/or translated from the original Greek, although many were destroyed and some credited to him are believed to be spurious.
Although there is some debate over the date of his death, he was no younger than seventy when he died. In medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum, but because of the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West they suffered from stasis and intellectual stagnation. However, in the Eastern Roman Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate they continued to be studied and followed; some of Galen's ideas were incorrect. Greek and Roman taboos had meant that dissection was banned in ancient times, but in Middle Ages it changed: medical teachers and students at Bologna began to open human bodies, Mondino de Luzzi produced the ﬁrst known anatomy textbook based on human dissection. Galen's original Greek texts gained renewed prominence during the early modern period. In the 1530s, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. Vesalius's most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was influenced by Galenic writing and form.
Galen's name Γαληνός, Galēnos comes from the adjective "γαληνός", "calm". Galen describes his early life in On the affections of the mind, he was born in September AD 129. His father, Aelius Nicon, was a wealthy patrician, an architect and builder, with eclectic interests including philosophy, logic, astronomy and literature. Galen describes his father as a "highly amiable, just and benevolent man". At that time Pergamon was a major cultural and intellectual centre, noted for its library, second only to that in Alexandria, attracted both Stoic and Platonic philosophers, to whom Galen was exposed at age 14, his studies took in each of the principal philosophical systems of the time, including Aristotelian and Epicurean. His father had planned a traditional career for Galen in philosophy or politics and took care to expose him to literary and philosophical influences. However, Galen states that in around AD 145 his father had a dream in which the god Asclepius appeared and commanded Nicon to send his son to study medicine.
Again, no expense was spared, following his earlier liberal education, at 16 he began studies at the prestigious local sanctuary or Asclepieum dedicated to Asclepius, god of medicine, as a θεραπευτής for four years. There he came under the influence of men like Aeschrion of Pergamon and Satyrus. Asclepiea functioned as spas or sanitoria to which the sick would come to seek the ministrations of the priesthood. Romans frequented the temple at Pergamon in search of medical relief from disease, it was the haunt of notable people such as Claudius Charax the historian, Aelius Aristides the orator, Polemo the sophist, Cuspius Rufinus the Consul. Galen's father died in 148, leaving Galen independently wealthy at the age of 19, he followed the advice he found in Hippocrates' teaching and travelled and studied including such destinations as Smyrna, Crete, Cilicia and the great medical school of Alexandria, exposing himself to the various schools of thought in medicine. In 157, aged 28, he returned to Pergamon as physician to the gladiators of the High Priest of Asia, one of the most influential and wealt
The spatharii or spatharioi were a class of Late Roman imperial bodyguards in the court in Constantinople in the 5th–6th centuries becoming a purely honorary dignity in the Byzantine Empire. The term was applied to both private and imperial bodyguards; the original imperial spatharioi were or became the eunuch cubicularii, members of the sacrum cubiculum charged with military duties. They are attested from the reign of Emperor Theodosius II, where the eunuch Chrysaphius held the post; the existence of the specific title of spatharokoubikoularios for eunuchs in 532 suggests the existence by of other, non-eunuch, spatharioi in imperial service. The various generals and provincial governors maintained military attendants called spatharioi, whilst those of the emperor were distinguished with the prefix basilikoi; the officer leading the imperial spatharioi held the title prōtospatharios, which became a separate dignity in the late 7th century. By the early 8th century, these titles had lost their original military connotations and become honorific titles.
The title of spatharios ranked quite high, being awarded for instance by Emperor Justinian II to his friend and future emperor Leo III the Isaurian. It declined, in the Klētorologion of 899, it occupies the seventh-highest place in the hierarchy of ranks for non-eunuchs, above the hypatos and below the spatharokandidatos. According to the Klētorologion, the insignia of the dignity was a gold-hilted sword. At the same time, the term oikeiakos spatharios still designated a bodyguard of the imperial oikos, as distinct from the basilikoi spatharioi who now were the holders of the honorary dignity; the term ceased to be used in these contexts after circa 1075, by the time Anna Komnene wrote her Alexiad in the early 12th century, a spatharios was held to be insignificant. In the Lex Alemannorum, a spatharius is a swordsmith. In medieval Moldova, the Spătar was the keeper of the royal sword and bludgeon, commander of the cavalry and second-in-command of the army after the voivode. Ælfric of Eynsham glosses spatharius as "sword-bearer": "swyrd-bora.
Id est, Ensifer." In the 12th century, the Milites Ordinis Militaris S. Jacobi de la Spatha, a Portuguese chivalric order, were known as Spatharii. Bury, John Bagnell; the Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. London: Published for the British Academy by Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press. Kazhdan, Alexander. "Spatharios". In Kazhdan, Alexander; the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 1935–1936. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. Du Fresne, Carolo. "Spatharius". Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis. Niort: L. Favre
Hippocrates of Kos known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine; this intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, thus establishing medicine as a profession. However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself were commingled. Hippocrates is portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today, he is credited with advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.
Historians agree. Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek physician, was Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal information about him. Biographies are in the Suda of the 10th century AD, in the works of John Tzetzes, Aristotle's "Politics", which date from the 4th century BC. Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician, his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane; the two sons of Hippocrates and Draco, his son-in-law, were his students. According to Galen, a physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates. Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was trained at the asklepieion of Kos, took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. Plato mentions Hippocrates in two of his dialogues: in Protagoras, Plato describes Hippocrates as "Hippocrates of Kos, the Asclepiad". Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly and the Sea of Marmara.
Several different accounts of his death exist. He died in Larissa, at the age of 83, 85 or 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying medicine, he separated the discipline of medicine from religion and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism. Ancient Greek schools of medicine were split on; the Knidian school of medicine focused on diagnosis. Medicine at the time of Hippocrates knew nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans.
The Knidian school failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of symptoms. The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments, its focus was on patient prognosis, not diagnosis. It could treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice. Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school; this shift in medical thought since Hippocrates' day has caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the subject of strong denunciations. Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death, or the opposite would occur and natural processes would make the patient recover.
After a crisis, a relapse might follow, another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected. Galen believed that this idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible that it predated him. Hippocratic medicine was passive; the therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature". According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself. Hippocratic therapy focused on easing this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization
Gilles de Corbeil
Gilles de Corbeil was a French royal physician and poet. He was born in 1140 and died in the first quarter of the 13th century, he is the author of four medical poems and a scathing anti-clerical satire, all in Latin dactylic hexameters. Gilles de Corbeil was born in Corbeil-Essonnes, he studied at the Schola Medica Salernitana, absorbing its theories and practices and becoming a teacher himself. He praises his teachers Romuald Guarna and Peter Musandinus in his long poem of ca. 1194 on Salernitan drug therapy, De laudibus et virtutibus compositorum medicaminum. He complains, however, of the school's degeneration after the sack of Salerno in 1194 by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, in the same poem he criticizes its "granting medical degrees, a license to lecture, to unlearned and inexperienced youths." He returned to Paris between ca. 1180 and 1194, becoming a canon and the court physician to Philip II of France. He proudly presented himself as a pioneer of academic medicine in France, upholding the prestige of the Salernitan medicine over rivals such as the Montpellier school and the "empiric" Rigord.
The epilogue to De urinis is a bitter denunciation of Montpellier, its vain contentiousness and obliviousness to true science, its people. His brief poems De urinis and De pulsibus, based on treatises by Theophilus Protospatharius by way of the Articella, were intended as mnemonic aids for his students to memorize, reflecting his preoccupation with pedagogy, they became didactic classics and were studied and commented upon. This poem of 2,358 verses, not printed until 1907, deals with the signs and symptoms of humoral excess and diseases, proceeding to "sections on gynecological disorders and on whole-body diseases such as arthritis and fevers." His Laxative for Purging Prelates, a satire in nine books and 5,929 verses, was discovered in 1837 among manuscripts deriving from the library of Pierre Pithou. It targets Guala Bicchieri but takes aim more at the abuses prevalent among ecclesiastical officials. In a prologue, the poet invokes, not a Muse, but a pope, from whom he hopes to receive the antidote that can cure the morally sick prelates.
Johann Ludwig Choulant, Aegidii Corboliensis Carmina Medica, Leipzig, 1826 Camille Vieillard, L'urologie et les médecins urologues dans la médecine ancienne: Gilles de Corbeil, Paris, 1903 Valentin Rose, Egidii Corboliensis Viaticus de signis et symptomatibus aegritudinum, Teubner, 1907, editio princeps Dieter Scheler, Die Ierapigra ad purgandos prelatos des Egidius von Corbeil, Teildruck Phil. Diss. Würzburg, Bochum, 1972 A text from De urinis, translated by Michael R. McVaugh, is reprinted in Medieval Medicine: A Reader, ed. Faith Wallis, University of Toronto Press, 2010, pp. 256-258
Dissection is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure. Autopsy is used in forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans. Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy and forensic medicine. Dissection is conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab. Dissection has been used for centuries to explore anatomy. Objections to the use of cadavers have led to the use of alternatives including virtual dissection of computer models. Plant and animal bodies are dissected to analyze the function of its components. Dissection is practised by students in courses of biology, botany and veterinary science, sometimes in arts studies.
In medical schools, students dissect human cadavers to learn anatomy. Dissection is used to help to determine the cause of death in autopsy and is an intrinsic part of forensic medicine. A key principle in the dissection of human cadavers is the prevention of human disease to the dissector. Prevention of transmission includes the wearing of protective gear, ensuring the environment is clean, dissection technique and pre-dissection tests to specimens for the presence of HIV and Hepatitis viruses. Specimens are dissected in morgues or anatomy labs; when provided, they are evaluated for use as a "fresh" or "prepared" specimen. A "fresh" specimen may be dissected within some days, retaining the characteristics of a living specimen, for the purposes of training. A "prepared" specimen may be preserved in solutions such as formalin and pre-dissected by an experienced anatomist, sometimes with the help of a diener; this preparation is sometimes called prosection. Most dissection involves the careful isolation and removal of individual organs, called the Virchow technique.
An alternative more cumbersome technique involves the removal of the entire organ body, called the Letulle technique. This technique allows a body to be sent to a funeral director without waiting for the sometimes time-consuming dissection of individual organs; the Rokitansky method involves an in situ dissection of the organ block, the technique of Ghon involves dissection of three separate blocks of organs - the thorax and cervical areas and abdominal organs, urogenital organs. Dissection of individual organs involves accessing the area in which the organ is situated, systematically removing the anatomical connections of that organ to its surroundings. For example, when removing the heart, connects such as the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are separated. If pathological connections exist, such as a fibrous pericardium this may be deliberately dissected along with the organ. Human dissections were carried out by the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Chios in the early part of the third century BC.
During this period, the first exploration into full human anatomy was performed rather than a base knowledge gained from'problem-solution' delving. While there was a deep taboo in Greek culture concerning human dissection, there was at the time a strong push by the Ptolemaic government to build Alexandria into a hub of scientific study. For a time, Roman law forbade dissection and autopsy of the human body, so physicians had to use other cadavers. Galen, for example, dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was the same as that of humans; the ancient societies that were rooted in India left behind artwork on how to kill animals during a hunt. The images showing how to kill most depending on the game being hunted relay an intimate knowledge of both external and internal anatomy as well as the relative importance of organs; the knowledge was gained through hunters preparing the captured prey. Once the roaming lifestyle was no longer necessary it was replaced in part by the civilization that formed in the Indus Valley.
There is little that remains from this time to indicate whether or not dissection occurred, the civilization was lost to the Aryan people migrating. Early in the history of India, the Arthashastra described the 4 ways that death can occur and their symptoms: drowning, strangling, or asphyxiation. According to that source, an autopsy should be performed in any case of untimely demise; the practice of dissection flourished during the 8th century. It was under their rule; this created a need to better understand human anatomy, so as to have educated surgeons. Dissection was limited by the religious taboo on cutting the human body; this changed the approach taken to accomplish the goal. The process involved the loosening of the tissues in streams of water before the outer layers were sloughed off with soft implements to reach the musculature. To perfect the technique of slicing, the prospective students used gourds and squash; these techniques of dissection gave rise to an advanced understanding of the anatomy and the enabled them to complete procedures used today, such as rhinoplasty.
During medieval times the anatomical teachings from India spread throughout the known world however the practice of dissection was stunted by Islam. The practice of dissection at a university level was not seen again until 1827, when it was performed by the student Pandit Madhusudan Gupta. Through the 1900s
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans 3,700 pages, it is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; the work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, an author for some definitions and articles. The authors were classical scholars from Oxford, Rugby School, the University of Bonn, but some were from other institutions. Many of the mythological entries were the work of the German expatriate Leonhard Schmitz, who helped to popularise German classical scholarship in Britain. With respect to biographies, Smith intended to be comprehensive. In the preface, he writes:The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by the turks in the year 1453.
Samuel Sharpe thought Edward Bunbury had plagiarised his work, as he wrote of in his diary entry on 3 September 1850: I felt mortified on reading the articles on the Ptolemies in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Classical Biography." They were all written by E. H. Bunbury with the help of my "History of Egypt," and with-out any acknowledgment, though he borrowed the volume from my brother Dan for the purpose. Many of the Dictionary's definitions and articles have been referred to in more recent works, Robert Graves has been accused of "lifting his impressive-looking source references straight, unchecked" from it when writing The Greek Myths; the work is now in the public domain, is available in several places on the Internet. While still accurate, much is missing more recent discoveries and epigraphic material. More the context in which ancient evidence is viewed has changed in the intervening century and a half. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Vol. I online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. II online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. III online at University of Michigan Library; the Internet Archive has a derivative work: Smith, William. A new classical dictionary of biography and geography based on the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.". London: Murray. Anthon, Charles. A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and geography: based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith. New York: Harper and Brothers
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece. Its teachings derived from its founder and peripatetic is an adjective ascribed to his followers; the school dates from around 335 BC. It was an informal institution whose members conducted scientific inquiries. After the middle of the 3rd century BC, the school fell into a decline, it was not until the Roman era that there was a revival. Members of the school concentrated on preserving and commenting on Aristotle's works rather than extending them; the study of Aristotle's works continued by scholars who were called Peripatetics through Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the works of the Peripatetic school were lost to the Latin West, but in the East they were rediscovered and incorporated into early Islamic philosophy, which would play a fundamental role in the revival of Aristotelian philosophy in Europe through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the term "Peripatetic" is a transliteration of the ancient Greek word περιπατητικός, which means "of walking" or "given to walking about".
The Peripatetic school, founded by Aristotle, was known as the Peripatos. Aristotle's school came to be so named because of the peripatoi of the Lyceum; the legend that the name came from Aristotle's alleged habit of walking while lecturing may have started with Hermippus of Smyrna. Unlike Plato, Aristotle was not a citizen of Athens and so. Aristotle and his colleagues first began to use the Lyceum in this way about 335 BC, after which Aristotle left Plato's Academy and Athens, returned to Athens from his travels about a dozen years later; because of the school's association with the gymnasium, the school came to be referred to as the Lyceum. Some modern scholars argue that the school did not become formally institutionalized until Theophrastus took it over, at which time there was private property associated with the school. At least, the Peripatetic gatherings were conducted less formally than the term "school" suggests: there was no set curriculum or requirements for students, or fees for membership.
Aristotle did teach and lecture there, but there was philosophical and scientific research done in partnership with other members of the school. It seems that many of the writings that have come down to us in Aristotle's name were based on lectures he gave at the school. Among the members of the school in Aristotle's time were Theophrastus, Phanias of Eresus, Eudemus of Rhodes, Clytus of Miletus and Dicaearchus. Much like Plato's Academy, there were in Aristotle's school junior and senior members, the junior members serving as pupils or assistants to the senior members who directed research and lectured; the aim of the school, at least in Aristotle's time, was not to further a specific doctrine, but rather to explore philosophical and scientific theories. The doctrines of the Peripatetic school were those laid down by Aristotle, henceforth maintained by his followers. Whereas Plato had sought to explain things with his theory of forms, Aristotle preferred to start from the facts given by experience.
Philosophy to him meant science, its aim was the recognition of the "why" in all things. Hence he endeavoured to attain to the ultimate grounds of things by induction. Logic either deals with appearances, is called dialectics. All change or motion takes place in regard to substance, quantity and place. There are three kinds of substances -- those alternately at rest, as the animals; the last, in themselves immovable and imperishable, are the origin of all motion. Among them there must be one first being, which acts without the intervention of any other being. All, proceeds from it; the immediate action of this prime mover – happy in the contemplation of itself – extends only to the heavens. The heavens are of a more divine nature than other bodies. In the centre of the universe is the Earth and stationary; the stars, like the sky, beings of a higher nature, but of grosser matter, move by the impulse of the prime mover. For Aristotle, matter is the basis of all. A determinate thing only comes into being when the potentiality in matter is converted into actuality.
This is achieved by form, the idea existent not as one outside the many, but as one in the many, the completion of the potentiality latent in the matter. The soul is the principle of life in the organic body, is inseparable from the body; as faculties of the soul, Aristotle enumerates the faculty of nutrition. By the use of reason conceptions, which are formed in the soul by external sense-impressions, may be true or false, are converted into knowled