Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran. The previous war between the two powers had ended in 591 after Emperor Maurice helped the Sasanian king Khosrow II regain his throne. In 602 Maurice was murdered by his political rival Phocas. Khosrow proceeded ostensibly to avenge the death of Maurice; this became a decades-long conflict, the longest war in the series, was fought throughout the Middle East: in Egypt, the Levant, the Caucasus, Armenia, the Aegean Sea and before the walls of Constantinople itself. While the Persians proved successful during the first stage of the war from 602 to 622, conquering much of the Levant, several islands in the Aegean Sea and parts of Anatolia, the ascendancy of emperor Heraclius in 610 led, despite initial setbacks, to a status quo ante bellum. Heraclius' campaigns in Iranian lands from 622 to 626 forced the Persians onto the defensive, allowing his forces to regain momentum.
Allied with the Avars and Slavs, the Persians made a final attempt to take Constantinople in 626, but were defeated there. In 627 Heraclius invaded the heartland of Persia. A civil war broke out in Persia, during which the Persians killed their king, sued for peace. By the end of the conflict, both sides had exhausted their human and material resources and achieved little, they were vulnerable to the sudden emergence of the Islamic Rashidun Caliphate, whose forces invaded both empires only a few years after the war. The Muslim forces swiftly conquered the entire Sasanian Empire and deprived the Byzantine Empire of its territories in the Levant, the Caucasus and North Africa. Over the following centuries, much of what remained of the Byzantine Empire, the entire Sasanian Empire, would come under Muslim rule. After decades of inconclusive fighting, Emperor Maurice ended the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591 by helping the exiled Sasanian prince Khosrow, the future Khosrow II, to regain his throne from the usurper Bahrām Chobin.
In return the Sasanians ceded to the Byzantines parts of northeastern Mesopotamia, much of Persian Armenia and Caucasian Iberia, though the exact details are not clear. More for the Byzantine economy, they no longer had to pay tribute to the Sasanians. Emperor Maurice began new campaigns in the Balkans to stop incursions by the Slavs and Avars; the magnanimity and campaigns of emperor Tiberius II had eliminated the surplus in the treasury left from the time of Justin II. In order to generate a reserve in the treasury, Maurice instituted strict fiscal measures and cut army pay; the final mutiny in 602 resulted from Maurice ordering his troops in the Balkans to live off the land during the winter. The army proclaimed a Thracian centurion, as emperor. Maurice attempted to defend Constantinople by arming the Blues and the Greens – supporters of the two major chariot racing teams of the Hippodrome – but they proved ineffective. Maurice was soon intercepted and killed by the soldiers of Phocas. Upon the murder of Maurice, governor of the Byzantine province of Mesopotamia, rebelled against Phocas and seized Edessa, a major city of the province.
Emperor Phocas instructed general Germanus to besiege Edessa, prompting Narses to request help from the Persian king Khosrow II. Khosrow, only too willing to help avenge Maurice, his "friend and father-", used Maurice's death as an excuse to attack the Byzantine Empire, trying to reconquer Armenia and Mesopotamia. General Germanus died in battle against the Persians. An army sent by Phocas against Khosrow was defeated near Dara in Upper Mesopotamia, leading to the capture of that important fortress in 605. Narses escaped from Leontius, the eunuch appointed by Phocas to deal with him, but when Narses attempted to return to Constantinople to discuss peace terms, Phocas ordered him seized and burned alive; the death of Narses along with the failure to stop the Persians damaged the prestige of Phocas' military regime. In 608, general Heraclius the Elder, Exarch of Africa, urged on by Priscus, the Count of the Excubitors and son-in-law of Phocas. Heraclius proclaimed himself and his son of the same name as consuls—thereby implicitly claiming the imperial title—and minted coins with the two wearing the consular robes.
At about the same time rebellions began in Roman Syria and Palaestina Prima in the wake of Heraclius' revolt. In 609 or 610 the Patriarch of Antioch, Anastasius II, died. Many sources claim that the Jews were involved in the fighting, though it is unclear where they were members of factions and where they were opponents of Christians. Phocas responded by appointing Bonus. Bonus punished the Greens, a horse racing party, in Antioch for their role in the violence in 609. Heraclius the Elder sent his nephew Nicetas to attack Egypt. Bonus was defeated by the latter outside Alexandria. In 610, Nicetas succeeded in capturing the province, establishing a power base there with the help of Patriarch John the Almsgiver, elected with the help of Nicetas; the main rebel force was employed in a naval invasion of Constantinople, led by the younger Heraclius, to be the new emperor. Organized resistance against Heraclius soon collapsed, Phocas was handed to him by the patrician Probos. Phocas was executed, though not before a celebrated exchange of comments between him and his successor:"Is it thus", asked Heraclius, "that you have governed the Empire?""Will you," replied Phocas, with unexpected spirit, "govern it any better?"
The elder Heraclius disappears soon afterward from sources dying, t
Priscus of Panium was a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian and rhetorician. Priscus was born in Panion between 410-420 AD. In 448/449 AD, he accompanied Maximinus, the head of the Byzantine embassy representing Emperor Theodosius the Younger, on a diplomatic mission to the court of Attila the Hun. While there, he met and conversed with a Greek merchant, dressed in "Scythian" fashion, captured eight years earlier when the city of Viminacium was sacked by the Huns; the trader explained to Priscus that after the sack of Viminacium, he was a slave of Onegesius, a Hunnic nobleman, but obtained his freedom and chose to settle among the Huns. Priscus engaged in a debate with the Greek defector regarding the qualities of life and justice in both the Byzantine Empire and in barbarian kingdoms. After an interlude in Rome, Priscus traveled to the Thebaid in Egypt, he last appeared in the East, circa 456, attached to the staff of Euphemios as Emperor Marcian's magister officiorum. He died after 472 AD.
Priscus was the author of an eight-volume historical work, written in Greek, entitled the History of Byzantium, not the original title name. The History covered the period from the accession of Attila the Hun to the accession of Emperor Zeno, or from 433 up until 474 AD. Priscus's work survives in fragments and was influential in the Byzantine Empire; the History was used in the Excerpta de Legationibus of Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, as well as by authors such as Evagrius Scholasticus, Cassiodorus and the author of the Souda. Priscus's writing style is straightforward and his work is regarded as a reliable contemporary account of Attila the Hun, his court, the reception of the Roman ambassadors, he is considered a "classicizing" historian to the extent that his work, though written during the Christian era, is completely secular and relies on a style and word-choice that are part of an historiographical tradition dating back to the fifth century BC. Priscus recount of a dinner with Attila the Hun was at, one of the many houses of Attila.
But this one was said to be greater than the rest. Made for celebration due to it being constructed of decorative polished wood, with little thought on making any aspects of the place for defense. Priscus entered the house the following day bearing gifts to Attila's wife, her name was Kreka. The dinner was at three O’clock; that to Priscus, Attila considered his people were more important than the Roman embassy. As Priscus and the Western Roman embassy stood, they followed the cultural tradition of being given tea from the cupbearers, they were to have a drink before having a seat at the table. Attila sat with the seats being arranged linear to the walls; as the seating arrangement went on the right side of Attila was held for the Chiefs in honor. With the everyone else including Priscus and the Roman embassies on the left. Following the seating, everyone was to raise a glass to pledge one another with wine. Once the Cupbearers left another attendant came in with a plate of meat, followed by other items of food such as bread and things of the time.
All of the food was served on plates of gold. Prius notes that Attila didn’t use any silver or gold plates but instead used a cup made of wood, his attire was bland. Once the first round was finished, they stood and drank again to the health of Attila. Once evening arrived torches were lit and songs that were composed of Attila's victories were sung. Priscus is an important character in Slave of the Huns by Geza Gardonyi, he is depicted as a kindly master and scholar, part of the novel is based on his account of his visit to Attila. The remaining works of Priscus are published in four collections: Given, John; the Fragmentary History of Priscus. Merchantville, New Jersey: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-935228-14-5. Blockley, Roger C.. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire. II. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Francis Cairns. ISBN 0-905205-51-0. Gordon, Colin Douglas; the Age of Attila: Fifth-century Byzantium and the Barbarians. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. Dindorfius, Ludovicus.
Historici Graeci Minores. Leipzig, Germany: B. G. Teubneri. Media related to Priscus at Wikimedia Commons Georgetown University: "Priscus at the Court of Attila"
Geography of China
China has great physical diversity. The eastern plains and southern coasts of the country consist of fertile foothills, they are the location of most of China's agricultural output and human population. The southern areas of the country consist of mountainous terrain; the west and north of the country are dominated by sunken basins, rolling plateaus, towering massifs. It contains part of the highest tableland on earth, the Tibetan Plateau, has much lower agricultural potential and population. Traditionally, the Chinese population centered on the Chinese central plain and oriented itself toward its own enormous inland market, developing as an imperial power whose center lay in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River on the northern plains. More the 18,000 km coastline has been used extensively for export-oriented trade, causing the coastal provinces to become the leading economic center; the People's Republic of China has an area of about 9,600,000 km2. The exact land area is sometimes challenged by border disputes, most notably about Taiwan, Aksai Chin, the Trans-Karakoram Tract, South Tibet.
The area of the People's Republic of China is 9,596,960 km2 according to the CIA's The World Factbook. The People's Republic of China is either the third or fourth largest country in the world, being either larger or smaller than the United States depending on how the area of the United States is measured. Both countries are larger than Brazil; the topography of China has been divided by the Chinese government into five homogeneous physical macro-regions, namely Eastern China, Xinjiang-Mongolia, the Tibetan highlands. It is diverse with snow-capped mountains, deep river valleys, broad basins, high plateaus, rolling plains, terraced hills, sandy dunes with many other geographic features and other landforms present in myriad variations. In general, the land descends to the east coast. Mountains and hills account for nearly 70 percent of the country's land surface. Most of the country's arable land and population are based in lowland plains and basins, though some of the greatest basins are filled with deserts.
The country's rugged terrain presents problems for the construction of overland transportation infrastructure and requires extensive terracing to sustain agriculture, but is conducive to the development of forestry and hydropower resources, tourism. Northeast PlainNortheast of Shanhaiguan a narrow sliver of flat coastal land opens up into the vast Northeast China Plain; the plains extend north to the crown of the "Chinese rooster," near where the Greater and Lesser Hinggan ranges converge. The Changbai Mountains to the east divide China from the Korean peninsula. Compared with the rest of the area of China, here live the most Chinese people due to its adequate climate and topography. North plainThe Taihang Mountains form the western side of the triangular North China Plain; the other two sides are the Yangtze River to the southwest. The vertices of this triangle are Beijing to the north, Shanghai to the southeast, Yichang to the southwest; this alluvial plain, fed by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, is one of the most populated regions of China.
The only mountains in the plain are the Taishan in Dabie Mountains of Anhui. Beijing, at the north tip of the North China Plain, is shielded by the intersection of the Taihang and Yan Mountains. Further north are the drier grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, traditionally home to pastoralists. To the south are agricultural regions, traditionally home to sedentary populations; the Great Wall of China was built in the mountains across the mountains that mark the southern edge of the Inner Mongolian Plateau. The Ming-era walls run over 2,000 km east to west from Shanhaiguan on the Bohai coast to the Hexi Corridor in Gansu. South East of the Tibetan Plateau folded mountains fan out toward the Sichuan Basin, ringed by mountains with 1,000–3,000 m elevation; the floor of the basin has an average elevation of 500 metres and is home to one of the most densely farmed and populated regions of China. The Sichuan Basin is capped in the north by the eastward continuation of the Kunlun range, the Qinling, the Dabashan.
The Qinling and Dabashan ranges form a major north-south divide across China Proper, the traditional core area of China. Southeast of the Tibetan Plateau and south of the Sichuan Basin is the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, which occupies much of southwest China; this plateau, with an average elevation of 2,000 metres, is known for its limestone karst landscape. South of the Yangtze, the landscape is more rugged. Like Shanxi Province to the north and Jiangxi each have a provincial core in a river basin, surrounded by mountains; the Wuling range separates Guizhou from Hunan. The Luoxiao and Jinggang divide Hunan from Jiangxi, separated from Fujian by the Wuyi Mountains; the southeast coastal provinces, Zhejiang and Guangdong, have rugged coasts, with pockets of lowland and mountainous interior. The Nanling, an east-west mountain range across northern Guangdong, seals off Hunan and Jiangxi from Guangdong. Northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, between the northern slope of Kunlun and southern slope of Tian Shan, is the vast Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, which contains the Taklamakan Desert.
The Tarim Basin, the largest in China, measures 1,500 km from east to west and 600 km from north to south at i
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China spanning the 7th to 10th centuries. It was followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty; the Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day. The Lǐ family founded the dynasty, seizing power during the collapse of the Sui Empire; the dynasty was interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people, yet when the central government was breaking down and unable to compile an accurate census of the population in the 9th century, it is estimated that the population had grown by to about 80 million people.
With its large population base, the dynasty was able to raise professional and conscripted armies of hundreds of thousands of troops to contend with nomadic powers in dominating Inner Asia and the lucrative trade-routes along the Silk Road. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighboring East Asian states such as those in Japan and Korea; the Tang dynasty was a period of progress and stability in the first half of the dynasty's rule, until the An Lushan Rebellion and the decline of central authority in the half of the dynasty. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a civil-service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office; the rise of regional military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century undermined this civil order.
Chinese culture further matured during the Tang era. Two of China's most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, Zhou Fang. Scholars of this period compiled a rich variety of historical literature, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works; the adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asia's first "simultaneous kingship". Many notable innovations occurred including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became a major influence with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, in the 840s the Emperor Wuzong of Tang enacted policies to persecute Buddhism, which subsequently declined in influence. Although the dynasty and central government had gone into decline by the 9th century and culture continued to flourish; the weakened central government withdrew from managing the economy, but the country's mercantile affairs stayed intact and commercial trade continued to thrive regardless.
However, agrarian rebellions in the latter half of the 9th century resulted in damaging atrocities such as the Guangzhou massacre of 878–879. The Li family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy prevalent during the Sui dynasty and claimed to be paternally descended from the Daoist founder, Laozi the Han dynasty General Li Guang and Western Liang ruler Li Gao; this family was known as the Longxi Li lineage. The Tang Emperors had Xianbei maternal ancestry, from Emperor Gaozu of Tang's Xianbei mother, Duchess Dugu. Li Yuan was Duke of Tang and governor of Taiyuan, modern Shanxi, during the Sui dynasty's collapse, caused in part by the Sui failure to conquer the northern part of the Korean peninsula during the Goguryeo–Sui War, he had prestige and military experience, was a first cousin of Emperor Yang of Sui. Li Yuan rose in rebellion in 617, along with his son and his militant daughter Princess Pingyang, who raised and commanded her own troops. In winter 617, Li Yuan occupied Chang'an, relegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Yang You.
On the news of Emperor Yang's murder by General Yuwen Huaji on June 18, 618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang. Li Yuan, known as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, ruled until 626, when he was forcefully deposed by his son Li Shimin, the Prince of Qin. Li Shimin had commanded troops since the age of 18, had prowess with bow and arrow and lance and was known for his effective cavalry charges. Fighting a numerically superior army, he defeated Dou Jiande at Luoyang in the Battle of Hulao on May 28, 621. In a violent elimination of royal family due to fear of assassination, Li Shimin ambushed and killed two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and Crown prince Li Jiancheng, in the Xuanwu Gate Incident on July 2, 626. Shortly thereafter, his father abdicated in his favor and Li Shimin ascended the throne, he is conventionally known by his temple name Taizong. Although killing two brothers and deposing his father contradicted the Confucian value of filial piety, Taizong showed himself to be a capable leader who listened to the advice of the wisest members of his council.
In 628, Emperor Taizong held a Buddhist memorial service for the casualties of war, in 629 he ha
Mount Allison University
Mount Allison University is a undergraduate Canadian liberal arts and science university located in Sackville, New Brunswick. It has been ranked the top undergraduate university in the country 20 times in the past 28 years by Maclean's magazine, a record unmatched by any other university. With a 17:1 student-to-faculty ratio, the average first-year class size is 60 and upper-year classes average 14 students. Mount Allison University was the first university in the British Empire to award a baccalaureate to a woman. Mount Allison graduates have been awarded a total of 55 Rhodes Scholarships. American chemist James B. Sumner, who won Nobel Prize in Chemistry, used to work at Mount Allison as a teaching fellow. Mount Allison has one of the largest endowments per student in Canada. Mount Allison University is a United Church-affiliated undergraduate liberal arts university, established at Sackville, New Brunswick on January 19, 1843; the university was named in honour of his gift of land and money.
Its origins were steeped in the Methodist faith and it was designed to prepare men for the ministry and to supply education for lay members. The university was chartered on April 14, 1849. There is an amusing anecdote about the family of the founder of the school, Methodist merchant, Charles Frederick Allison. Charles Allison's grandfather had emigrated from Ireland to Canada in the late 18th century because of the after effects of a dinner with the local government tax collector. Wanting to impress the man, the family had set the table with their one valuable possession: silver spoons. After entertaining their guest, the Allisons were informed by the tax collector that if they could afford silver spoons they could afford to pay more taxes; the Allisons left Ireland shortly thereafter. The offending spoons are now on display in the university library. In June 1839, Charles Allison was encouraged by Wesleyan Methodist Minister Rev. John Bass Strong that a school of elementary and higher learning be built.
Allison offered to purchase a site in Sackville to erect a suitable building for an academy and to contribute operating funds of £100 a year for 10 years. This offer was accepted and the Wesleyan Academy for boys subsequently opened in 1843. In 1854, a girls' institution was opened to complement the boys' academy. In 1858 an Act of the New Brunswick Legislature authorized the trustees to establish a degree-conferring institution at Sackville, under the name of the Mount Allison Wesleyan College. In July 1862, the degree-granting Mount Allison College was organized; the first two students, Howard Sprague and Josiah Wood, graduated in May 1863. Mount Allison was the first university in the British Empire to confer a bachelor's degree to a woman, it was the first university in Canada to grant a Bachelor of Arts to a woman. For nearly a century, Mount Allison functioned as three distinct, mutually enriching parts: the College proper, the Boys' Academy, the Ladies College; the corporate name was changed to University of Mount Allison College in 1886.
The university's affiliation was transferred to the United Church of Canada following church union in 1925. Original components of the university included: the Mount Allison Wesleyan Academy for Boys, the Ladies' College, Mount Allison College. Mount Allison College was established in 1862 with degree-granting powers on behalf of the other two; the governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. By 1920, Mount Allison University had three faculties: Arts and Engineering, it awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Divinity, Master of Arts. It had 73 female students, as well as 28 academic staff, all male.
The closure of the School for Girls in 1946 and the Boy's Academy in 1953 coincided with a period of expansion and provided much-needed space for the growing university. In 1958, a period of construction and acquisition of buildings began, easing the strain of overcrowding at the institution. At this time the university board and administration decided to reaffirm the traditional aims of Mount Allison in providing a high-quality undergraduate liberal arts education, along with continuing to offer professional programs in already-established fields; as such, the university decided not to compete for new professional programs and avoided post-graduate course development. The policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. Mount Allison University was established by the Mount Allison University Act, 1993. Mount Allison University's Arms and Badge were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on November 15, 2007.
The mission statement of Mount Allison University promotes "the creation and dissemination of knowledge in a community of higher learning, centred on the undergraduate student and delivered in an intimate and harmonious environment". Mount Allison offers bachelor's degrees in Arts, Commerce, Fine Arts, Music, as well as master's degrees in biology and chemistry and biochemistry, and
Lucas Watzenrode the Younger was Prince-Bishop of Warmia and patron to his nephew, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. The family and its name stemmed from the Silesian village of Weizenrodau, now Pszenno. Watzenrode was born in son of the merchant Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, he studied at Cologne and Bologna. After his sister Barbara and her husband Niklas Koppernigk died in about 1483, Lucas cared for their four children, Barbara and Nicolaus, the last of whom would become known as astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus; the Bishopric of Warmia part of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, with the Second Peace of Thorn, come under the protection of the King of Poland. Based on that treaty, the Polish King had the right to appoint the Bishop. Neither the Warmia chapter, nor their newly elected bishop, Nicolaus von Tüngen, acknowledged the King's right to do so. Poland contested von Tüngen's election, this led to the War of the Priests and the First Treaty of Piotrków Trybunalski, by which the chapter was obliged to seek consensus with the Polish king.
The Bishopric of Warmia was made suffragan to the Archbishopric of Riga headed by Archbishop Michael Hildebrand. This agreement was somewhat vague, as shown in the 1489 election of the next bishop, Lucas Watzenrode, mitred by Pope Innocent VIII against the explicit wishes of King Casimir IV Jagiellon, who would have preferred that one of his sons, become Bishop of Warmia. Watzenrode resisted, when Casimir died in 1492 and was succeeded by John I Albert, Watzenrode could establish the exemption of the Bishopric from Riga. With the Second Treaty of Piotrków Trybunalski bishops accepted a limited influence of the Polish King on elections; the Holy See considered the Bishopric exempt until 1992, when it was made an archbishopric, which by its nature is exempt. Watzenrode, a successful organizer of his territory's internal affairs, resided at Heilsber, now Lidzbark, he planned to found a university at Elbing, now Elbląg. He argued that the Teutonic Order had fulfilled its mission in the Baltic region, by converted to Christianity, proposed sending the Order to more heathen regions.
The Ottoman Empire was an ongoing threat and had taken over large parts of Europe, the Bishop suggested that the Order "do battle with the Turks." The Bishopric was exposed to repeated armed attacks by the Teutonic Order, which attempted to regain the territory. Poland sought to rescind the Prince-Bishopric's autonomy, hoping to force the surrender of its prerogatives to the Polish crown. In this area of conflict, Watzenrode guarded the interests of Warmia and maintained friendly relations with Poland, he was a long-time opponent of the Teutonic Knights, shortly after his death it was rumored that he had been poisoned by them. Watzenrode looked after two nieces. Katharina married businessman and city councilor Barthel Gertner, while Barbara became a Benedictine nun. Watzenrode sent the brothers Andreas to study at the Kraków Academy and in Italy. After his studies, Copernicus assisted his uncle in administrative matters and was his closest advisor as well as his personal physician. Watzenrode took care of his son Philipp Teschner, whose mother was the daughter of the rector of the Johannes school in Thorn.
When Watzenrode became bishop he arranged for Philipp Teschner to become mayor of Braunsberg. Lucas Watzenrode the Younger died in Thorn during his return from an official journey. Bücherei Danzig, J. Kretzmer, Liber de episcopatu et episcopi Varmiensis ex vetusto Chronico Bibliotheca Heilsbergensis, 1593 Christoph Hartknoch, Preußische Kirchen-Historia, Frankfurt a. M. 1668 M. G. Centner, Geehrte und Gelehrte Thorner, Thorn 1763 A. Semrau, "Katalog der Geschlechter der Schöffenbank und des Ratsstuhles in der Altstadt Thorn 1233-1602", in: Mitteilungen des Copernicus-Vereins für Wissenschaft und Kunst zu Thorn 46 Wojciech Iwanczak. "WATZENRODE, Lucas". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 13. Herzberg: Bautz. Col. 389-393. ISBN 3-88309-072-7. Poczet biskupów warmińskich, Olsztyn 1998 Jürgen Hamel: Nicolaus Copernicus. - Spektrum Verlag: Heidelberg, 1994. Hans Schmauch, "Lucas Watzenrode", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 3, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 349–355 Górski Karol, Łukasz Watzenrode: życie i działalność polityczna, Wrocław 1973
Johann Haller or Jan Haller is considered one of the first commercial printers in Poland. Born in Rothenburg, Haller is best known for publishing in 1509 a volume of poems by Theophylact Simocatta, translated from Byzantine Greek by Nicolaus Copernicus. At the time there was no printing press in Copernicus' area—Lidzbark, Toruń —therefore Copernicus' translation could have been printed only in Breslau, Kraków or farther afield. Copernicus, who had studied in Kraków, opted for Johann Haller, who together with Kasper Hochfeld had published the first illustrated work in Poland, Jan Łaski's Statutes, one of 25 works by Laurentius Corvinus. Corvinus had lectured at the Kraków Academy while Copernicus studied there, they were well acquainted. Corvinus took a job at Thorn, but in June 1509 traveled to the printer Haller in Kraków, bringing with him the manuscript entrusted to him by Copernicus. Corvinus added a poem, Copernicus wrote a dedication to his uncle, Prince-Bishop of Warmia Lucas Watzenrode.
Haller published the book before the end of 1509. Its cover featured the arms of Poland and Kraków. After his studies at the Kraków Academy, Haller had become a merchant in wine and tin, thus enabling himself to engage, at a time, in the production of printing elements and establishing a printing press in Kraków, his first printing products were almanacs, followed by a breviary for the clergy. Haller acquired a partial monopoly on them, he soon expanded his business to include scientific and scholarly books inn astronomy, mathematics and law, as well as royal and church statutes. Altogether Haller produced 3,530 prints, his masterpieces are illustrated books containing 354 sheets of woodcuts. He published the first print in Polish language Historyja umęczenia Pana naszego Jezusa Chrystusa in 1508. List of Poles Printing Early printing in Poland Communicating Europe to the Region: Breslau in the Age of the Renaissance Lambrecht, German History, 2002