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A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is associated with such processes like observational study, research. Theories may either be other than scientific. Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works; the word has its roots in ancient Greek. In modern science, the term "theory" refers to scientific theories, a well-confirmed type of explanation of nature, made in a way consistent with scientific method, fulfilling the criteria required by modern science; such theories are described in such a way that scientific tests should be able to provide empirical support for, or empirically contradict it. Scientific theories are the most reliable and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge, in contrast to more common uses of the word "theory" that imply that something is unproven or speculative.

Scientific theories are distinguished from hypotheses, which are individual empirically testable conjectures, from scientific laws, which are descriptive accounts of the way nature behaves under certain conditions. Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, are neutral concerning alternatives among values. A theory can be a body of knowledge, which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge; the word theory or "in theory" is more or less used erroneously by people to explain something which they individually did not experience or tested before. In those instances, semantically, it is being substituted for a hypothesis. Instead of using the word hypothetically, it is replaced by a phrase: "in theory". In some instances the theory's credibility could be contested by calling it "just a theory". Hence, that word "theory" is often contrasted to "practice" a Greek term for doing, opposed to theory.

A "classical example" of the distinction between "theoretical" and "practical" uses the discipline of medicine: medical theory involves trying to understand the causes and nature of health and sickness, while the practical side of medicine is trying to make people healthy. These two things are related but can be independent, because it is possible to research health and sickness without curing specific patients, it is possible to cure a patient without knowing how the cure worked; the English word theory derives from a technical term in philosophy in Ancient Greek. As an everyday word, theoria, θεωρία, meant "a looking at, beholding", but in more technical contexts it came to refer to contemplative or speculative understandings of natural things, such as those of natural philosophers, as opposed to more practical ways of knowing things, like that of skilled orators or artisans. English-speakers have used the word theory since at least the late 16th century. Modern uses of the word theory derive from the original definition, but have taken on new shades of meaning, still based on the idea of a theory as a thoughtful and rational explanation of the general nature of things.

Although it has more mundane meanings in Greek, the word θεωρία developed special uses early in the recorded history of the Greek language. In the book From Religion to Philosophy, Francis Cornford suggests that the Orphics used the word theoria to mean "passionate sympathetic contemplation". Pythagoras changed the word to mean a passionate sympathetic contemplation of mathematical knowledge, because he considered this intellectual pursuit the way to reach the highest plane of existence. Pythagoras emphasized subduing emotions and bodily desires to help the intellect function at the higher plane of theory. Thus, it was Pythagoras who gave the word theory the specific meaning that led to the classical and modern concept of a distinction between theory and practice. Aristotle's terminology, as mentioned, contrasts theory with praxis or practice, this contrast exists till today. For Aristotle, both practice and theory involve thinking. Theoretical contemplation considers things humans do not move or change, such as nature, so it has no human aim apart from itself and the knowledge it helps create.

On the other hand, praxis involves thinking, but always with an aim to desired actions, whereby humans cause change or movement themselves for their own ends. Any human movement that involves no conscious choice and thinking could not be an example of praxis or doing. Theories are analytical tools for understanding and making predictions about a given subject matter. There are theories in many and varied fields including the arts and sciences. A formal theory is syntactic in nature and is only meaningful when given a semantic component by applying it to some content. Theories in various fields of study are expressed in natural language, but are always constructed in such a way that their general form is identical to a theory as it is expressed in the formal language of mathematical logic. Theories may be expressed mathematically, symbolically, or in common language, but are expected to follow principles of rational thought or logic. Theory is constructed of a set of sentences that are true statements about the subject under consideration.

However, the truth of any one of these statements is always relat


Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light. In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target, it is not proportional to luminance. This is a subjective attribute/property of an object being observed and one of the color appearance parameters of color appearance models. Brightness should not be confused with Lightness; the adjective bright derives from an Old English beorht with the same meaning via metathesis giving Middle English briht. The word is from a Common Germanic *berhtaz from a PIE root with a related meaning, *bhereg- "white, bright". "Brightness" was used as a synonym for the photometric term luminance and for the radiometric term radiance. As defined by the US Federal Glossary of Telecommunication Terms, "brightness" should now be used only for non-quantitative references to physiological sensations and perceptions of light. A given target luminance can elicit different perceptions of brightness in different contexts.

In an RGB color space, brightness can be thought of as the arithmetic mean μ of the red and blue color coordinates: μ = R + G + B 3 Brightness is a color coordinate in HSL color space: hue and lightness, meaning here brightness. With regard to stars, brightness is quantified as absolute magnitude. Brightness is, at least in some respects, the antonym of darkness; the United States Federal Trade Commission has assigned an unconventional meaning to brightness when applied to lamps. When appearing on light bulb packages, brightness means luminous flux, while in other contexts it means luminance. Luminous flux is the total amount such as a lighting device. Luminance, the original meaning of brightness, is the amount of light per solid angle coming from an area, such as the sky; the table below shows the standard ways of indicating the amount of light. Brightness Luma Luminance Luminosity Media related to brightness at Wikimedia Commons Poynton's Color FAQ

Mike White (quarterback)

Mike White is an American football quarterback for the New York Jets of the National Football League. He played college football at the University of Western Kentucky University. White was drafted by the Dallas Cowboys in the fifth round of the 2018 NFL Draft. White attended NSU University School in Florida, he did not become a starter at quarterback until his senior season, passing for 2,201 yards, 22 touchdowns and two interceptions and led his team to victory in the 3A state championship. He was named Class 3A Florida Player of the Year, he committed to the University of South Florida to play college football. White was a regarded baseball pitcher, he received All-Broward County honors as a junior. White started five games as a true freshman at South Florida in 2013, but struggled completing 93 of 175 passes for 1,083 yards with three touchdowns and 9 interceptions. Prior to his sophomore season in 2014, he was named the starting quarterback. In 10 starts, he completed 122 of 242 passes for 1,639 yards, eight touchdowns, seven interceptions.

In 2015, he transferred to Western Kentucky University after South Florida head coach Willie Taggart switched from a pro-style attack to a spread offense. After sitting out the year due to NCAA transfer rules, White was named the starting quarterback to open the 2016 season, taking over the graduated Brandon Doughty, he started all 14 games, completing 280 of 416 passes for 4,363 yards with 37 touchdowns and seven interceptions. He compiled impressive stats though he sat out in the second halves of different games, he returned as the starter his senior year in 2017, completing 368 of 560 passes for 4,177 yards, 26 touchdowns, eight interceptions. Source: On November 30, 2017, it was announced that White had accepted his invitation to play in the 2018 Senior Bowl. On January 27, 2018, White completed 8 of 11 pass attempts for 128-yards and two touchdowns as part of Houston Texans head coach Bill O'Brien's South team that defeated the North 45–16 in the 2018 Reese's Senior Bowl. White helped his draft stock with his Senior Bowl performance.

He attended the NFL Scouting Combine in Indianapolis and completed all of the combine and positional drills. His draft rise was hampered by his overall performance after he put up some of the lowest marks among all quarterbacks in combine drills. On March 30, 2018, White participated at Western Kentucky's pro day, but opted to stand on his combine numbers and only performed positional and passing drills, he attended a pre-draft visits with the Indianapolis Colts, Tennessee Titans, Miami Dolphins and performed a private workout for the New England Patriots. At the conclusion of the pre-draft process, White was projected to be a third or fourth round pick by the majority of NFL draft experts and scouts, he was ranked the eighth best quarterback prospect in the draft by and was ranked the ninth best quarterback by Scouts Inc. The Dallas Cowboys selected White in the fifth round of the 2018 NFL Draft. White was the eighth quarterback drafted in 2018, he became the second Western Kentucky quarterback to be drafted into the NFL and surpassed Brandon Doughty as the highest drafted quarterback from Western Kentucky.

On May 12, 2018, the Dallas Cowboys signed White to a four-year, $2.67 million contract that includes a signing bonus of $217,553. He made the team as the third-string quarterback. In 2019, he was given the opportunity to compete during the preseason for the backup job behind Dak Prescott. On August 31, White was waived after the team decided to carry just two quarterbacks on the regular season roster; the Cowboys opted not to add him to the practice squad, choosing instead to sign rookie quarterback Clayton Thorson. On September 25, 2019, White was signed to the New York Jets practice squad, he signed a reserve/future contract with the Jets on December 30, 2019. Western Kentucky Hilltoppers bio Mike White on Twitter

SS Kamloops

The SS Kamloops was a lake freighter, part of the fleet of Canada Steamship Lines from its launching in 1924 until it sank with all hands off Isle Royale in Lake Superior on or about 7 December 1927. The steamship Kamloops was built by Furness Shipbuilding Co. Ltd. in Haverton Hill within Stockton-on-Tees in the northeast of England for Steamships Ltd of Montreal, Quebec. With a length of only 250 feet and rated at 2,402 gross tons, the Kamloops was a small vessel for the Great Lakes in the 1920s, she was built to fit inside the locks of the Welland Canal and other Canadian-operated canals of the lower Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River during the years prior to the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway; the ship had two rigged masts, a 1000HP triple expansion steam engine with Scotch boilers. Kamloops completed its sea testing on 5 July 1924 shipped to Copenhagen, Denmark to pick up freight on to Montreal and Houghton, Michigan; as a canaller, the Kamloops carried diversified "package" freight from Canadian port to port.

Her chief duty was carrying manufactured goods from Montreal up the lakes to Thunder Bay. During the 1920s, Canada was part of the British Empire. Canada's freshwater fleet, including the Kamloops, was an essential link in this vein of imperial commerce, it is the custom of Great Lakes shipping to try to move as much freight as possible before winter and associated ice conditions bring boat movements to a halt. The owners operated the ship as late into the season as possible: in 1924 it was one of the last vessels to pass through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, in 1926 it ended the season stuck in the ice in the St. Mary's River; the Kamloops remained under British registry until 1926, when it was nominally purchased by new owners, Canada Steamship Lines, re-registered in Canada. The Kamloops was dispatched up the lakes in late November 1927, carrying a mixed cargo of papermaking machinery, coiled wire for range fencing, foodstuffs and tar paper. On 1 December, the steamer called at Courtright, Ontario, to top off its cargo with some bagged salt.

It steamed up Lake Huron, passed through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal on 4 December, faced the challenge of Lake Superior. For the Kamloops and other vessels assigned to Lake Superior runs, a massive storm began hammering the lake on 5 December; the Kamloops coated with ice, was last seen steaming towards the southeastern shore of Isle Royale at dusk on the following day, 6 December. A search for the vessel began on 12 December, concentrating on the Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royale. However, the ship and the 22 men and women aboard were never again seen alive; when the 1928 navigation season opened in April, a further search was made for wreckage from the Kamloops. In May, fishermen discovered the remains of several crewmembers at Twelve O'Clock Point on Isle Royale In addition, wreckage from the ship was discovered ashore. In June, more bodies were discovered, a more comprehensive search for the wreck and crewmembers was undertaken, but nothing was found. Of the nine bodies recovered from the Kamloops, five were identified and the remains shipped to next of kin.

Four were buried at Thunder Bay. A collective memorial stone was placed over their gravesite in 2011. In December 1928, a trapper working at the mouth of the Agawa River, found a bottled note from Alice Bettridge, an assistant stewardess in her early twenties who survived the sinking, before she herself perished, wrote "I am the last one left alive and starving to death on Isle Royale in Lake Superior. I just want mom and dad to know my fate." For fifty years, the Kamloops was one of the Ghost Ships of the Great Lakes, having sunk without a trace. However, on 21 August 1977, her wreck was discovered northwest of Isle Royale, near what is now known as Kamloops Point, by a group of sport divers carrying out a systematic search for the ship; the wreck was discovered sitting on the lake bottom under more than 260 feet of water. The ship is lying on its starboard side at the bottom of an underwater cliff; the smokestack is lying a short distance away. Cargo is strewn near the ship on the lake floor and the holds still contain wire fencing, high-top shoes, candy life-savers, crates of Honey Bee molasses.

There are still human remains aboard the ship. 50 dives were made to the Kamloops in 2009 out of 1062 dives made to wrecks in the Isle Royale National Park. The cause of her sinking remained a mystery as of 2007; the Kamloops features prominently in the novel A Superior Death by Nevada Barr. The body of a contemporary diver is found together with the historical human remains in the ship's engine room. Daniel J. Lenihan, Shipwrecks of Isle Royale National Park: The Archeological Survey, Lake Superior Port Cities, ISBN 0-942235-18-5, archived from the original on 25 November 2010 Curt Bowen, "All Hands Lost: Kamloops", Advanced Diver Magazine Daniel Lenihan.

Loral GZ-22

The Loral GZ-22 was a class of non-rigid airship, or blimp first flown in 1989 and operated by Goodyear as its flagship promotional aircraft, with civil registration N4A and named Spirit of Akron. This was the only airship of this class built; the GZ-22 was designed by Goodyear to demonstrate the possible renewed use of airships to the United States Navy, which had ended airship operations in 1962. After Goodyear sold its aerospace division to Loral in 1987, the airship was built by Loral; the GZ-22 had a steel-framed, composite-skinned gondola under a neoprene-impregnated polyester 2-ply envelope filled with helium. At its 1987 rollout, the 205-foot 6-inch long airship was the longest in service; the GZ-22 Type Certificate was issued on 31 August 1989. On 28 October 1999, the Spirit of Akron entered an uncontrolled left turn and began descending over Suffield Township, crashing into trees and sustaining severe damage; the pilot and technician on board received minor injuries. The NTSB report on the crash identified improperly hardened metal splines on the control actuators had sheared, causing loss of control and identified the probable cause as being failure by the "flight control system manufacturer to meet design specifications".

The control car of the Spirit of Akron is on display at the MAPS Air Museum. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 10 passengers Length: 205 ft 6 in Width: 47 ft 0 in Height: 60 ft 2 in Volume: 247,800 ft3 Gross weight: 15,000 lb Powerplant: 2 × Allison 250-B17C turboprops, 420 hp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 65 mph Service ceiling: 10,000 ft Notes Bibliography

Dick Ruthven

Richard David Ruthven is an American former professional baseball pitcher who played 14 years in Major League Baseball, with the National League Philadelphia Phillies, Atlanta Braves, Chicago Cubs. His career marks include a win-loss record of 123-127, 4.14 earned run average, 1145 career strikeouts. While his 1978 Phillies won the National League East title and the 1980 World Series, his Cubs went on to win the 1984 NL East title, he attended Irvington High School and California State University, Fresno. He has three children, Erik and Tyler Ruthven, he was the first pick of the Philadelphia Phillies in the secondary phase of the 1973 amateur draft, made his major league debut on April 17 of the same year. He had been drafted earlier by the Baltimore Orioles and by the Minnesota Twins, but did not sign with either team. In his rookie season of 1973, Ruthven pitched 25 games, starting 23, he finished the season 6-9 with a 4.21 earned run average for a team that finished in last place in the National League Eastern Division with a 71-91 record.

In 1974, Ruthven pitched over 200 innings for the first time. He had a record of 9-13 with a 4.02 earned run average, as the Phillies improved their overall record to 80-82, good enough for third place. He set his career record for strikeouts with 153. In 1975, injuries limited Ruthven to seven starts, he went. In December, 1975, Ruthven was traded twice. On December 10, Ruthven was traded by the Phillies along with position player Alan Bannister and pitcher Roy Thomas to the Chicago White Sox for pitcher Jim Kaat and infielder Mike Buskey. Two days the White Sox traded Ruthven to the Atlanta Braves with outfielder Ken Henderson and pitcher Daniel Osborn for outfielder Ralph Garr and infielder Larvell Blanks. With the Braves, Ruthven had a solid 1976 season, being named to the National League All-Star team for the first time, he was the only Braves player selected to the All-Star Game that year, although NL manager Sparky Anderson never brought him in to pitch. On June 20, he threw a four-hit shutout in a 5-0 victory over the Chicago Cubs.

He faded in the latter part of the season, finishing the season 14-17 with a 4.19 earned run average in 36 starts. The 17 losses and 36 starts were both career highs, the Braves finished last in the National League Western Division, going 70-92. Ruthven won three games to start the 1977 season, but suffered a torn ankle tendon after that and was out of action over two months after coming off the disabled list, lost eight straight games, he finished the year with 25 games. Though his earned run average did not change much, Ruthven finished with only a 7-13 record for a Braves team that lost 101 games. "I guess I have something to prove this year," Ruthven said, after a start on April 19, 1978. "Still, I could pitch well and not have a good record, as I did last year. It would be nice if I could pitch back to 1976." He started with only a 2-6 record for the Braves, though his earned run average had improved some, when he was re-acquired by the Phillies on June 15. For Ruthven, the Phillies sent popular relief pitcher Gene Garber to Atlanta.

Ruthven was stellar with the Phillies, going 13-5 from June 15 to the end of the regular season, with a 2.99 earned run average. For the entire season, Ruthven's record was 15-11 with a 3.38 earned run average. His contributions helped the Phillies win 90 games and capture the Eastern Division title, the team's third division title in a row, he pitched one game against the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 1978 National League Championship Series, losing Game 2 of a series the Phillies lost in four games. 1979 started great for Ruthven, who sprinted out to a 6-0 record and a 1.65 earned run average as of May 9. Injuries would again plague Ruthven for the rest of the season as he would win only one more game through the last of the season, finishing 7-5 with a 4.27 average. Injuries hit other Phillies pitchers, the three-time division champs fell to fourth place in the National League East, 14 games behind the eventual World Champion Pittsburgh Pirates, his best season may have been in 1980, a year. He finished the season with a career-high 17 wins, had a 3.55 earned run average in 33 games started.

Though he started every game during the season, Ruthven came in as a relief pitcher in the pivotal 5th game of the National League Championship Series, pitching two shutout innings to earn the victory in the 10th inning, capping a Phillies comeback in a game in which the team faced a 5-2 deficit in the 8th inning against Nolan Ryan. Ruthven pitched the third game of the 1980 World Series, won by the Royals, without a decision; the Phillies won that Series in six games. Ruthven charged from the gate in 1981, compiling an 8-3 record before the 1981 baseball strike began on June 12, he was the Phillies' representative to the Major League Baseball Players Association. Because of his record, Ruthven was named to the National League All-Star team for the second time. Play resumed on August 10. I don't think, but I've never stopped in the middle of the season, just like anyone else, I don't know how long it will take" to get back to form. He struggled for the remainder of the season. For the season, Ruthven finished.

Because of the strike, major league baseball split the 1981 season, two teams from each division made an extra round of playoffs. The Phillies "won" the first-half