The New Church (Swedenborgian)
The New Church is the name for several related Christian denominations which developed as a new religious movement, influenced by the writings of scientist and Swedish Lutheran theologian Emanuel Swedenborg. According to Swedenborg, he received a new revelation from Jesus Christ in visions he experienced over a period of at least twenty-five years, he predicted in his writings that God would replace the traditional Christian Church, establishing a New Church which would worship God as Jesus Christ. According to New Church doctrine, each person must cooperate in repentance and regeneration; the movement was founded on the belief that God explained the spiritual meaning of the Bible to Swedenborg to reveal the truth of the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Swedenborg cited divine revelation for his writings, his followers believe that he witnessed the Last Judgment in the spiritual world with the inauguration of the New Church; the church is seen by its members as what Jesus is establishing with those who believe that he is the one God of heaven and Earth, with obedience to Jesus' commandments necessary for salvation.
It is thought. New Church organizations acknowledge what they believe to be the universal nature of Jesus' church: all who do good in accordance with the truth of their religion will be accepted by Jesus into heaven, doing good joins one with God. Adherents believe that New Church doctrine is derived from the Bible and provides enlightenment of the truth. Other names for the movement include Swedenborgian, New Christians, Neo-Christians, Church of the New Jerusalem, The Lord's New Church. Although those outside the church may refer to the movement as Swedenborgianism, some adherents distance themselves from this title. Swedenborg published some of his theological works anonymously. Although Swedenborg spoke in his works about a "New Church" which would be based on theology, he never tried to establish such an organization. In 1768, a heresy trial began in two men who promoted them. A royal ordinance in 1770 declared that his writings were "clearly mistaken" and should not be taught, but his theology was never examined.
Swedenborg's clerical supporters were ordered to stop using his teachings, customs officials were directed to impound his books and stop their circulation in any district unless the nearest consistory granted permission. Swedenborg begged the king for protection in a letter from Amsterdam. At the time of Swedenborg's death, few efforts had been made to establish an organized church. On May 7, 1787, the New Church movement was founded in England – where Swedenborg had visited, where he died. A number of churches had sprung up around England by 1789, in April of that year the first General Conference of the New Church was held in Great Eastcheap, London. New Church ideas were brought to United States by missionaries. Early missionaries traveled to parts of Africa. Swedenborg believed that the "African race" was "in greater enlightenment than others on this earth, since they are such that they think more'interiorly', so receive truths and acknowledge them." African enlightenment was considered a liberal concept at the time, Swedenborgians accepted freed African converts in their homes as early as 1790.
Several Swedenborgians were abolitionists. Occultism became popular during the 19th century, some followers blended Swedenborg's writings with theosophy and divination. Swedenborg's mystical side fascinated them. In structure, it was related to Dante's Divine Comedy; the US church was organized in 1817 with the founding of the General Convention of the New Church, now known as the Swedenborgian Church of North America. The movement in the United States strengthened until the late 19th century, there was a New-Church Theology School in Cambridge. Controversies about doctrine and the authority of Swedenborg's writings caused a faction to split off and form the Academy of the New Church, it became known as the General Church of the New Jerusalem – sometimes called the General Church – with its headquarters in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania. Other congregations felt doctrinally compelled to join the General Church at its inception. Two Convention congregations in Canada and two congregations from the British Conference – Michael Church in London and Colchester New Church – joined the General Church.
In 2000, the most recent membership figures for the four church organizations were: General Conference of the New Church: 1,314 Swedenborgian Church of North America known as the General Convention: 2,029 General Church of the New Jerusalem: 5,563 The Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma: 1,000Membership in the New Church has always been small, the organizations have been involved in publishing. A doctrinal similarit
Three Books of Occult Philosophy
Three Books of Occult Philosophy is Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's study of occult philosophy, acknowledged as a significant contribution to the Renaissance philosophical discussion concerning the powers of ritual magic, its relationship with religion. The first book was printed in 1531 in Paris and Antwerp, while the full three volumes first appeared in Cologne in 1533; the three books deal with Elemental and Intellectual magic. The books outline the four elements, kabbalah, angels, God's names, the virtues and relationships with each other as well as methods of utilizing these relationships and laws in medicine, alchemy, origins of what are from the Hebrew and Chaldean context; these arguments were common amongst other hermetic philosophers at the time and before. In fact, Agrippa's interpretation of magic is similar to the authors Marsilio Ficino, Pico della Mirandola and Johann Reuchlin's synthesis of magic and religion, emphasize an exploration of nature. Unlike many grimoires of the time, these books are more scholarly and intellectual than mysterious and foreboding.
Occultism Hermetic Qabalah Vitruvian Man Ceremonial magic Grimoire The Magus The Philosophy of Natural Magic, written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Translated by James Freake, Edited by L. W. de Laurence. The Philosophy of Natural Magic, written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Translated by James Freake, Edited by Leslie Shepherd. University Books. ( Three Books of Occult Philosophy, written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Translated by James Freake, Annotated by Donald Tyson. Llewelyn Worldwide. Three Books of Occult Philosophy Book One: A Modern Translation, written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Translated by Eric Purdue. Renaissance Astrology Press. Short Biography of Agrippa Writings of Agrippa Selected images from De occulta philosophia From The College of Physicians of Philadelphia Digital Library De occulta philosophia – From the Collections at the Library of Congress De occulta philosophia. Book 4 – From the Collections at the Library of Congress
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers. There is no definitive list; the era of these scholars who set the theological and scholarly foundations of Christianity ended by AD 700. In the past, the Church Fathers were regarded as authoritative and more restrictive definitions were used which sought to limit the list to authors treated as such. However, the definition has widened as scholars of patristics, the study of the Church Fathers, have expanded their scope. In both the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church traditions there are four Fathers who are called the "Great Church Fathers": In the Catholic Church, they are collectively called the "Eight Doctors of the Church", in the Eastern Orthodox Church, three of them are honored as the "Three Holy Hierarchs"; the Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been influenced by them.
Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament once it reached its final form. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature that did come to be part of the New Testament, some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers' seem to have been just as regarded as some of the writings that became the New Testament, his epistle, 1 Clement, was copied and read in the Early Church. Clement calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain order, it is the earliest Christian epistle aside from the New Testament. Ignatius of Antioch was a student of the Apostle John. En route to his martyrdom in Rome, Ignatius wrote a series of letters. Important topics addressed in these letters include ecclesiology, the sacraments, the role of bishops, the Incarnation of Christ, he is the second after Clement to mention Paul's epistles. Polycarp of Smyrna was a Christian bishop of Smyrna.
It is recorded that he had been a disciple of "John." The options/possibilities for this John are John, the son of Zebedee, traditionally viewed as the author of the Gospel of John, or John the Presbyter. Traditional advocates follow Eusebius of Caesarea in insisting that the apostolic connection of Polycarp was with John the Evangelist, that he was the author of the Gospel of John, thus the Apostle John. Polycarp tried and failed to persuade Pope Anicetus to have the West celebrate Passover on the 14th of Nisan, as in the Eastern calendar. Around A. D. 155, the Smyrnans of his town demanded Polycarp's execution as a Christian, he died a martyr. The story of his martyrdom describes how the fire built around him would not burn him, that when he was stabbed to death, so much blood issued from his body that it quenched the flames around him. Polycarp is recognized as a saint in both the Roman Eastern Orthodox churches. Little is known of Papias apart from what can be inferred from his own writings.
He is described as "an ancient man, a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp" by Polycarp's disciple Irenaeus. Eusebius adds. In this office Papias was succeeded by Abercius of Hierapolis; the name Papias was common in the region, suggesting that he was a native of the area. The work of Papias is dated by most modern scholars to about A. D. 95–120. Despite indications that the work of Papias was still extant in the Late Middle Ages, the full text is now lost. Extracts, appear in a number of other writings, some of which cite a book number; those who wrote in Greek are called the Greek Fathers. In addition to the Apostolic Fathers, famous Greek Fathers include: Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, Athanasius of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, the Cappadocian Fathers, Peter of Sebaste, Maximus the Confessor, John of Damascus. Justin Martyr was an early Christian apologist, is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
He was martyred, alongside some of his students, is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches. Irenaeus was bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, now Lyon, France, his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology, he is recognized as a saint by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. He was a notable early Christian apologist, he was a disciple of Polycarp. His best-known book, Against Heresies attacked them. Irenaeus wrote that the only way for Christians to retain unity was to humbly accept one doctrinal authority—episcopal councils. Irenaeus proposed that the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John all be accepted as canonical. Clement of Alexandria was the first member of the church of Alexandria to be more than a name, one of its most distinguished teachers, he united Greek philosophical traditions with Christian doctrine and valued gnosis that with communion for all people could be held by common Christians.
He developed a Christian Platonism. Like Origen, he arose from Catechetical School of Alexandria and was well versed in pagan literature. Origen, or Origen Adamantius was a theologian. A
Paracelsus, born Theophrastus von Hohenheim, was a Swiss physician and astrologer of the German Renaissance. He was a pioneer in several aspects of the "medical revolution" of the Renaissance, emphasizing the value of observation in combination with received wisdom, he is credited as the "father of toxicology". He had a substantial impact as a prophet or diviner, his "Prognostications" being studied by Rosicrucians in the 1700s. Paracelsianism is the early modern medical movement inspired by the study of his works. Paracelsus was born in Egg, a village close to the Etzel Pass in Schwyz, he was born in a house right next to a bridge across the Sihl river. The historical house, dated to the 14th century, was destroyed in 1814; the Restaurant Krone now stands in its place. His father Wilhelm was a chemist and physician, an illegitimate descendant of the Swabian noble family Bombast von Hohenheim, it has been suggested that Paracelsus's descent from the Bombast of Hohenheim family was his own invention, that his father was in fact called Höhener and was a native of Gais in Appenzell, but it is plausible that Wilhelm was the illegitimate son of Georg Bombast von Hohenheim, commander of the Order of Saint John in Rohrdorf.
Paracelsus's mother was a native of the Einsiedeln region and a bondswoman of Einsiedeln Abbey, who before her marriage worked as superintendent in the abbey's hospital. Paracelsus in his writings made references to his rustic origins and used Eremita as part of his name. Paracelsus' mother died in 1502, after which Paracelsus's father moved to Villach, where he worked as a physician, attending to the medical needs of the pilgrims and inhabitants of the cloister. Paracelsus was educated by his father in botany, mineralogy and natural philosophy, he received a profound humanistic and theological education from local clerics and the convent school of St. Paul's Abbey in the Lavanttal, he accounts for being tutored by Johannes Trithemius, abbot of Sponheim. At the age of 16 he started studying medicine at the University of Basel moving to Vienna, he gained his doctorate degree from the University of Ferrara in 1515 or 1516. Between 1517 and 1524, he worked as a military surgeon, in Venetian service in 1522.
In this capacity he travelled across Europe, as far as Constantinople. He settled in Salzburg in 1524 but had to leave in the following year due to his support of the German Peasants' War. In 1525, he was active at the University of Freiburg. In 1526, he bought the rights of citizenship in Strasbourg to establish his own practice, but soon after he was called to Basel to the sickbed of printer Johann Frobenius curing him. During that time, the Dutch Renaissance humanist Erasmus von Rotterdam at the University of Basel, witnessed the medical skills of Paracelsus, the two scholars initiated a letter dialogue on medical and theological subjects. In 1527, Paracelsus was a licensed physician in Basel with the privilege of lecturing at the University of Basel. Basel at the time was a center of Renaissance humanism, Paracelsus here came into contact with Erasmus of Rotterdam, Wolfgang Lachner, Johannes Oekolampad. Paracelsus's lectures at Basel university unusually were held in German, not Latin, he stated.
He published harsh criticism of the Basel physicians and apothecaries, creating political turmoil to the point of his life being threatened. In a display of his contempt for conventional medicine, Paracelsus publicly burned editions of the works of Galen and Avicenna, he was prone to many outbursts of abusive language, abhorred untested theory, ridiculed anybody who placed more importance on titles than practice. During his time as a professor at the University of Basel, he invited barber-surgeons, alchemists and others lacking academic background to serve as examples of his belief that only those who practiced an art knew it:'The patients are your textbook, the sickbed is your study.' Paracelsus was compared with Martin Luther because of his defiant acts against the existing authorities in medicine. Paracelsus rejected that comparison. Famously Paracelsus said, "I leave it to Luther to defend what he says and I will be responsible for what I say; that which you wish to Luther, you wish to me: You wish us both in the fire."
Being threatened with an unwinnable lawsuit, he left Basel for Alsace in February 1528. In Alsace, Paracelsus took up the life of an itinerant physician once again. After staying in Colmar with Lorenz Fries, in Esslingen, he moved to Nuremberg in 1529, his reputation went before him, the medical professionals excluded him from practicing. The name Paracelsus is first attested in this year, used as a pseudonym for the publication of a Practica of political-astrological character in Nuremberg. Pagel supposes that the name was intended for use as the author of non-medical works, while his real name Theophrastus von Hohenheim was used for medical publications; the first use of Doctor Paracelsus in a medical publication was in 1536, as the author of the Grosse Wundartznei. The name is interpreted as either a latinization of Hohenheim or as the claim of "surpassing Celsus", it has been argued that the name was not the invention of Paracelsus himself, who would have been opposed to the humanistic fashion of Latinized names, but w
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, principal object of faith. The conceptions of God, as described by theologians include the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one's kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties. God is most held to be incorporeal. Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". Psychoanalyst Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental aspects of consciousness in his interpretation; some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others or their translations use sex-specific terminology. Judaism attributes only a grammatical gender to God, using terms such as "Him" or "Father" for convenience. God has been conceived as either impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe.
In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, there is an absence of belief in God. In agnosticism, the existence of God is deemed unknowable. God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, the "greatest conceivable existent". Many notable philosophers have developed arguments against the existence of God. Monotheists refer to their gods using names prescribed by their respective religions, with some of these names referring to certain cultural ideas about their god's identity and attributes. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one "true" Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, Adonai, YHWH and other names are used as the names of God. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, coexisting in three "persons", is called the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God.
In Hinduism, Brahman is considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it and bringing order to it. Other religions have names for the concept, for instance, Baha in the Bahá'í Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism; the many different conceptions of God, competing claims as to God's characteristics and actions, have led to the development of ideas of omnitheism, pandeism, or a perennial philosophy, which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of which all religions express a partial understanding, as to which "the devout in the various great world religions are in fact worshipping that one God, but through different, overlapping concepts". The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus; the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was based on the root * ǵhau-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".
The Germanic words for God were neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including'God'; the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. The English word God and its counterparts in other languages are used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all; the same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, Yahweh. In many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God", while "ʾilāh" is the term used for a deity or a god in general.
God may be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or Vishnu and Hari. Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is taken to be the proper name of the spirit, like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1 meaning "placing one's mind", hence "wise". Waheguru is a term most used in Sikhism to refer to God, it means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language. Vāhi means "wonderful" and guru is a term denoting "teacher". Waheguru is described by some as an experience of ecstasy, beyond all descriptions; the most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting Sikhs use with each other: Baha, the "greates
Martinism is a form of Christian mysticism and esoteric Christianity concerned with the fall of the first man, his state of material privation from his divine source, the process of his return, called'Reintegration' or illumination. As a mystical tradition, it was first transmitted through a masonic high-degree system established around 1740 in France by Martinez de Pasqually, propagated in different forms by his two students Louis Claude de Saint-Martin and Jean-Baptiste Willermoz; the term Martinism applies to both this particular doctrine and the teachings of the reorganized "Martinist Order" founded in 1886 by Augustin Chaboseau and Gérard Encausse. It was not used at the tradition's inception in the 18th century; this confusing disambiguation has been a problem since the late 18th century, where the term Martinism was used interchangeably between the teachings of Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin and Martinez de Pasqually, the works of the first being attributed to the latter. Regular transmission of Martinism to Augustin Chaboseau and Gérard Encausse still has to be documented.
Martinism can be divided into three forms through which it has been chronologically transmitted: The Elus-Cohens or Elus Coëns. This was the first, explicitly theurgical, way that'reintegration' was to be attained; the Elus-Cohens were founded by Martinez de Pasqually, Saint-Martin's teacher. The original Elus-Cohens ceased to exist sometime in the late eighteenth or early 19th century, but it was revived in the 20th century by Robert Ambelain, lives on today in various Martinist Orders, including the branch reinstigated by Ambelain himself. In the highest of the three degrees of the Order of the Elus-Cohen, known as the Shrine, itself consisting of three degrees of which the highest was the Master Reau-Crois, evocation of entities belonging to the Divine Plane was carried out; this makes clear that the Elus-Cohen were not a mystical but a magical order. The chief evocation was that of the'Mender', the basic methods were those of the Key of Solomon, including the use of circles, names of angels, planetary hours and symbols.
The magical operations of the lower degrees were intended to establish contact between the operator and the Invisible World. Lofty and beautiful prayers recalled the goal. There were exorcisms intended to strangle demonic influence in the universe and thwart its powers over men, to combat black magic; the Scottish Rectified Rite or Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité-Sainte. This was a Masonic rite, a reformed variant of the Rite of Strict Observance which, in its highest degrees, uses Masonic-type rituals to demonstrate the philosophy which underlies both Martinism and the practices of the Elus-Cohens; the CBCS was founded in the late 18th century by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, a pupil of Martinez de Pasqually and a friend of Saint-Martin. The CBCS has managed to survive as a continually practiced rite from its founding until the present day, both as a purely masonic rite, as a detached rite, open to women; the Martinism of Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin, a mystical tradition in which emphasis is placed on meditation and inner spiritual alchemy.
Saint-Martin disapproved of these teachings being called'martinism' by his contemporaries, instead explained it as a silent'way of the heart' to attain reintegration. Saint-Martin most did not organize this path as an'order', but gathered small circles of students around him, where he transmitted his teachings. In a nutshell, the Martinism as we know it today consists of the theurgic tradition of Martinez de Pasqually, the Masonic Templarism of Jean-Baptiste Willermoz and the Christian Theosophy of Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin; this heritage was reorganized into the'Ordre Martiniste' in 1886 by Augustin Chaboseau and Gerard Encausse.. The regular transmission of the Martinist heritage to Chaboseau and Papus has not been proven as of today. Jacques de Livron Joachim de la Tour de la Casa Martinez de Pasqually was born in c. 1727 in Grenoble and died in 1774 in Saint-Domingue while dealing with profane business. Martinez de Pasqually was active in Masonic organisations throughout France from the age of 28 onwards.
In 1765 he established l'Ordre des Chevaliers Maçons Élus Coëns de l'Univers, which functioned as a regular Masonic obedience in France. This order had three sets of degrees: the first were analogous to the symbolic degrees of conventional Freemasonry; the second were Masonic, though hinting at Pasqually's own secret doctrine. The third set were blatantly magical: for example, by using exorcisms against evil in the world and in the individual specifically. In the highest degree, the Reaux-Croix, the initiate was taught to use Theurgy to contact spiritual realms beyond the physical. De Pasqually put forth the philosophy underlying the work of the Elus-Cohens in his only book, Treatise on the Reintegration of Beings, which first uses the analogy of the Garden of Eden, refers to Christ as "The Repairer"; the ultimate aim of the Elus-Cohen was to attain – whilst living – the Beatific Vision through a series of magical invocations and complex theurgic operations. After Martinez de Pasqually's death, the Elus-Cohens continued to operate for some time.
The last-known surviving Elu-Cohen from the original incarnation of the order, died in 1868. Louis Claude de Saint-Martin was born in 1743 in Amboise and died in 1803, he was ori
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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