Gümüşhane or Gyumushkhana is a city and the capital district of Gümüşhane Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The city lies along the Harşit River, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, about 40 miles southwest of Trabzon. According to the 2010 census, population of Gümüşhane urban center is 28,620; the district covers an area of 1,789 km2, the town lies at an elevation of 1,227 m. Coordinates on world: 40°27′35″N 39°28′40″E It is suggested that the ancient Thia was located 4 miles west of modern Gümüşhane, in modern Beşkilise. In Byzantine period, there was a town named Tzanicha or Tzantzakon located 2 miles to the west of Gümüşhane. Around 840 AD, the area was included in the new Roman province of Chaldia, it was ruled by the Byzantine Empire of Trebizond. During Ottoman years, the sanjak of Gümüşhane fell under the administration successively Rum Province, Erzurum Province and Trabzon Province, was divided into four kazas: Gümüşhane, Torul, Şiran, Kelkit; the sanjak in which Gümüşhane was situated at some stage comprised 37 mines of argentiferous lead and six copper mines.
There is no evidence. As for the name of the city during the Ottoman period, Greek-speaking population was using the name Gümüşhane but, in the first decades of 19th century, the hellenized form Argyrópolis was established; the Arghyropolis belonged to the Diocese of Chaldie. During the 1914-1918 Persecution of Greeks, the Turkish authorities boycott the Christians; the boycott deprived the Christians of all they reduced them to absolute poverty. The organizer of the boycott was the Djemal Azmi, Vali of Trebizonde, under whose orders were the Governor of Arghyropolis and others. In the sterile region of Argliyropolis the distress was great, because the inhabitants were dependent for their existence on their local trade, that from Russia. General mobilization was among the causes conducive to the ruin of the Greek communities, for the male inhabitants who supported their families were taken away from their homes; the Turkish officers treated the Greeks brutal, making many Greeks to desert. This was the situation before the Russian advance.
The Russian advance gave rise to a fresh outburst of fanaticism against the Greek element, the Turks from Turkish villages plundered the Christian villages of the region. During the Turkish retreat, the Turks pillaged many Greek villages of the region, the inhabitants took to the mountains and their property was plundered. On the retreat of the Russians, the Turks returned and the few inhabitants that remained in these villages, deprived of all resources and left to die of hunger. Gümüşhane is surrounded by high mountains, Zigana-Trabzon Mountains to the north, Çimen Mountains to the south, Giresun Mountains to the west and Pulur, Soğanlı Mountains to the east. Trekking is popular. Mount Zigana has a ski center on it and it is a well known tourist destination for winter sports. Abdal Musa Peak is the highest peak within it; the main trees in the forests are Scotch pine and fir, there are many animals and birds in the area. There are many lakes such as Karanlık Göl, Beş Göller, Artebel Gölü, Kara Göller which are at the peak of Gavurdağı Mountain, are preserved as natural parks.
All these mountains compose 56% of the area of Gümüşhane province. Gümüşhane has a humid continental climate with warm summers. In the height of summer. Gümüşhane has a rich historical background so there are many historical places, churches, castles. Ancient city of Satala in the modern village of Sadak was the most important military camp of the ancient Roman Empire in the east; this place was ruled by the Hittites, Urartu, Pontic Greeks and Byzantines. Today, rests of the Sadak village is protected by the Ministry of Tourism. In addition, Süleymaniye Mosque is in the previous Gümüşhane settlement and it was commissioned by the Ottoman sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. Küçük Mosque and Çit Village Mosque are some of other popular mosques in the city. Besides, there are numerous churches within Gümüşhane. Santa Çakallı, Santa Terzili, Kalur Rock and Theodor Churches are some examples of historical churches in Gümüşhane. During the medieval period one of the most important guardians of the road connecting Trabzon to Erzincan was the Byzantine fortress located about 2 kilometers northwest of modern Gümüşhane.
An archaeological and historical assessment of this site as well as a scaled plan were published in 1985. The impressive circuit walls and defenses are evident at the accessible west approach to the lofty outcrop. In addition to several rooms and cisterns, the castle has two chapels. There are numerous large and small caves which owe their formation to the geology - the limestones - of Gümüşhane, including Alicli Agil Cave, Arili Cave, Altınbaşı Cave, Asarönü Ören Cave, Kartalkaya Cave, Ayiini Cave, K. Ardiçli Cave, Karçukuru Cave, Ardiçli Cave, Tepekli Cave, Uçbaca
Firá is the modern capital of the Greek Aegean island of Santorini. A traditional settlement, "Firá" derives its name from an alternative pronunciation of "Thíra", the ancient name of the island itself. Fira is a city of white-washed houses built on the edge of the 400 metres high caldera on the western edge of the semi-circular island of Thera; the two main museums of interest are the Archaeological Museum of Thera, 30 metres east of the cable car entrance, the Museum of Prehistoric Thera at the southeast corner of the White Orthodox Cathedral of Ypapanti, built on the site of an earlier church destroyed in the 1956 Amorgos earthquake. The town hosts a number of churches, including the Cathedral of Ypapanti and the Three Bells of Fira. Access to Fira is by roads on its eastern side, climbing from its port via the Z-shaped footpath on foot or on donkeys, or by riding the steep cable car from its lower terminal by the port; the central square of Fira is called Plateia Theotokopoulou, with a bus and taxi station and pharmacies.
From Fira there is a panoramic view of the 18 kilometres long caldera from southern Cape Akrotiri to northern Cape Ag. Nikolaos, plus the volcanic island Nea Kameni at the center with Thirassia Island. Large cruise ships anchor in the small harbor between Nea Fira. Fira travel guide from Wikivoyage
Earthdawn is a fantasy role-playing game produced by FASA in 1993. In 1999 it was licensed to Living Room Games, it was licensed to RedBrick in 2003, who released the Classic Edition in 2005 and the game's Third Edition in 2009. The license is now held by FASA Corporation through FASA Games, Inc. who have released the Fourth Edition, with updated mechanics and an advanced metaplot timeline. The game is similar to fantasy games like Dungeons & Dragons, but draws more inspiration from games like RuneQuest; the rules of the game are bound to the underlying magical metaphysics, with the goal of creating a rich, logical fantasy world. Like many role-playing games from the nineties, Earthdawn focuses much of its detail on its setting, a province called Barsaive. Starting in 1993, FASA released over 20 gaming supplements describing this universe. During that time several novels and short-story anthologies set in the Earthdawn universe were released. In late 1999, FASA granted Living Room Games a licensing agreement to produce new material for the game.
The Second Edition did not alter the setting, though it did update the timeline to include events that took place in Barsaive. There were a few changes to the rules in the Second Edition; the changes were meant to allow for better balance of play. Living Room Games last published in 2005 and they no longer have a license with FASA to publish Earthdawn material. In 2003 a second license was granted to RedBrick, who developed their own edition based on the FASA products, in addition to releasing the original FASA books in PDF form; the Earthdawn Classic Player's Compendium and Earthdawn Classic Gamemaster's Compendium are an alternative Second Edition, but without a version designation. Each book has over 500 pages and summarizes much of what FASA published—not only the game mechanics, but the setting and stories. For example, each Discipline has its own chapter, describing it from the point of view of different adepts. Barsaive gets a complete treatment, the chapters contain a lot of log entries and stories in addition to the setting descriptions.
All previous Errata are merged into the text, correcting previous edition errors and providing rules clarifications. While RedBrick tried to remain faithful to FASA's vision and visual style, they revised everything and introduced new material to fill the gaps. RedBrick began publishing Earthdawn novels in 2007. In 2009, RedBrick announced the Third Edition of the game. In order to get a larger audience for this edition, RedBrick published the book through Mongoose Publishing's Flaming Cobra imprint; the first two books were released in July 2009. In 2012, RedBrick announced the transfer of the Earthdawn license to Inc.. FASA Games released RedBrick's Revised Third Edition Player's Guide, based on the Earthdawn Third Edition rules, but in a smaller format book. FASA noted, that there is no need for owners of the Third Edition to buy into the Revised Third Edition. In 2014, FASA Games announced the forthcoming publication of Earthdawn Fourth Edition and launched a successful Kickstarter to support the project.
Fourth Edition is described as a reworking of the game mechanics, with redundancies eliminated, a simpler success level system. The game world is advanced five years, past the end of the Barsaive-Thera War, in order to clear dangling threads in the metaplot and open the game world to new stories; the first Fourth Edition title—the Player's Guide—was released in early 2015. In 2014 FASA Corporation gave permission for Impact Miniatures to return the original Heartbreaker Hobbies & Games Official Earthdawn Miniatures range to production. In order to fund this, Impact Miniatures launched a successful Kickstarter project. In Barsaive, like many things in nature, goes through cycles; as the magic level rises, it allows alien creatures called Horrors to cross from their distant, otherworldly dimension into our own. The Horrors come in an infinite variety—from simple eating machines that devour all they encounter, to intelligent and cunning foes that feed off the negative emotions they inspire in their prey.
In the distant past of Earthdawn's setting, an elf scholar discovered that the time of the Horrors was approaching, founded the Eternal Library in order to discover a way to defeat them — or at the least, survive them. The community that grew up around the library developed wards and protections against the Horrors, which they traded to other lands and became the powerful Theran Empire, an magically advanced civilization and the main antagonist of the Earthdawn setting; the peoples of the world built kaers, underground towns and cities, which they sealed with the Theran wards to wait out the time of the Horrors, called the Scourge. Theran wizards and politicians warned many of the outlying nations around Thera of the coming of the Horrors, offering the protection of the kaers to those who would pledge their loyalty to the Empire. Most of these nations agreed at first though some became unwilling to fulfill their end of the bargain after the end of the Scourge, wanting to have nothing to do with the bureaucratic nation run on political conflict and powered by slavery.
After four hundred years of hiding, the Scourge ended, the people emerged to a world changed by the Horrors. The player characters explore this new world, discovering lost secrets of the past, fighting Horror
Thira is a crater on Mars. It is located within the larger crater Gusev, it measures 22 kilometers in diameter and was named after the town of Fira on the island of Santorini in Greece. Thira is located about 20 km east of the landing site of NASA's Spirit rover; the rim of the crater can be seen in the distance in images taken by Spirit. Official Mars Rovers site
Thira is a 2013 Indian Malayalam thriller film directed by Vineeth Sreenivasan and scripted by his cousin Rakesh Mantodi. It stars Shobana alongside debutant Dhyan Sreenivasan in the lead roles; the film was distributed by LJ Films. Thira was announced to be the first installment in a trilogy of thriller films. According to Srinivasan, the film was inspired from the book The Road of Lost Innocence: The True Story of a Cambodian Heroine by Somaly Mam; the film marks the debut of Vineeth Sreenivasan's younger brother Dhyan Sreenivasan and the return of actress Shobana to Malayalam cinema after a decade. It was filmed by Jomon T. John and has music composed by Shaan Rahman. Principal photography of the film took place in Hyderabad, Chennai and Goa, it was released on 14 November 2013. The film was screened in IFFK 2013. Thira is a Malayalam movie to introduce the concept of casting director; the story is set in Goa. Dr. Rohini Pranab, a cardiac surgeon, who gives shelter to destitute girls, is the target of a group of criminals indulging in illegal human trafficking.
The girls from her home are taken away by a gang, who kidnaps the sister of a youth named Naveen, right in front of his eyes. Now the two are doing all that they can do to trace the criminals along with Rohini's friends who face some hardships. Both of them at last identify the secret place where the trafficked girls are kept and release them with the wise advice from Rohini and action from Naveen. Shobhana as Dr. Rohini Pranab Dhyan Sreenivasan as Naveen Sijoy Varghese as Cabinet Minister Alex Deepak Parambol as Deepak Gaurav Vasudev as Kidnapper Amritha Anil as Rhea Harikrishnan Sabhitha Janan Jacob as Bank Manager Apoorva Bose The film's soundtrack is composed by Shaan Rahman. Lyrics are penned by Anu Elizabeth jose Nowrunning.com remarked that "Vineeth Sreenivasan's Thira is a thoughtful exploration of a theme, discussed in hushed whispers. It's quite resolute in its objective, is detailed, is involving for its most part and is charmingly acted as well." Oneindia.in rated it 4 out of 5 and says "Here comes a movie which stands apart from the rest of Malayalam films, which entertains the viewers from start to end and makes us crave for more.
Yes, Thira by Vineeth Sreenivasan is a well directed, well acted, engaging movie which can be termed as paisa vasool." The Times of India gave 3 stars out of 5 and mentioned "The narrative of the film moves at a steady pace despite the predictability that comes along with it". Sify.com described the film as average, "an okay one-time watch", while pointing out inspirations from the 2007 film, Trade. The New Indian Express wrote, "Thira is a satisfying thriller carried by lead actress Shobhana". Sify stated that Thira "opened well", but was "an average grosser" at the end of its run. Thira is announced to be the first of the trilogy thriller series by Vineeth Sreenivasan. Vineeth wrote. It's a trilogy. If everything goes well by god's grace, Part 1 will be releasing in 2013. Part 2 and Part 3 will follow....". Vineeth revealed that Thira 2 will have a popular young actor of Mollywood in lead role and he will star in Thira 3, along with Shobana, who played the lead in Thira; the sequel is planned to be more character oriented, rather than being an extension of Thira.
It is confirmed by vineeth that Thira 2 will be focusing more on the character and the part of Dhyan is over with first film. The film was an official selection for the following film festivals: Gwinnett Center International Film Festival - International Competition section. Vanitha Film AwardsBest Actress - ShobhanaAsianet Film AwardsBest Debut Actor - Dhyan Sreenivasan Thira on IMDb Thira - Official Facebook Page
Thera is a genus of moth of the family Geometridae. Thera britannica – spruce carpet Thera cembrae Thera cembrae cembrae Thera cembrae mugo Burmann & Tarmann, 1983 Thera cognata Thera cognata cognata Thera cognata geneata Thera contractata Thera cupressata Thera firmata Thera firmata consobrinata Curtis, 1834 Thera firmata firmata Thera firmata tavoilloti Mazel, 1998 Thera juniperata – juniper carpet Thera latens Barnes & McDunnough, 1917 Thera obeliscata Thera otsi Thera ulicata Thera variata Thera variata balcanicola de Lattin, 1951 Thera variata variata Thera variolata Thera vetustata Thera on Fauna Europaea
Santorini Thira and classic Greek Thera, is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km southeast of Greece's mainland. It is the largest island of a small, circular archipelago, which bears the same name and is the remnant of a volcanic caldera, it forms the southernmost member of the Cyclades group of islands, with an area of 73 km2 and a 2011 census population of 15,550. The municipality of Santorini includes the inhabited islands of Santorini and Therasia and the uninhabited islands of Nea Kameni, Palaia Kameni and Christiana; the total land area is 90.623 km2. Santorini is part of the Thira regional unit; the island was the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history: the Minoan eruption, which occurred about 3,600 years ago at the height of the Minoan civilization. The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of metres deep, it may have led indirectly to the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, 110 km to the south, through a gigantic tsunami.
Another popular theory holds. It is the most active volcanic centre in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, though what remains today is chiefly a water-filled caldera; the volcanic arc is 500 km long and 20 to 40 km wide. The region first became volcanically active around 3–4 million years ago, though volcanism on Thera began around 2 million years ago with the extrusion of dacitic lavas from vents around the Akrotiri. Santorini was named by the Latin Empire in the thirteenth century, is a reference to Saint Irene, from the name of the old cathedral in the village of Perissa – the name Santorini is a contraction of the name Santa Irini. Before it was known as Kallístē, Strongýlē, or Thēra; the name Thera was revived in the nineteenth century as the official name of the island and its main city, but the colloquial name Santorini is still in popular use. The present municipality of Thera, which covers all settlements on the islands of Santorini and Therasia, was formed at the 2011 local government reform, by the merger of the former Oia and Thera municipalities.
Oia is now called a Κοινότητα, within the municipality of Thera, it consists of the local subdivisions of Therasia and Oia. The municipality of Thera includes an additional 12 local subdivisions on Santorini island: Akrotiri, Episkopis Gonia, Exo Gonia, Karterados, Mesaria, Pyrgos Kallistis, Thera and Vourvoulos. Santorini's primary industry is tourism; the two main sources of wealth in Santorini are tourism. In recent years, Santorini has been voted one of the world's most beautiful islands. Santorini remains the home of a small, but flourishing wine industry, based on the indigenous Assyrtiko grape variety. White varieties include Athiri and Aidani, whereas red varieties include mavrotragano and mandilaria; the Cyclades are part of a metamorphic complex, known as the Cycladic Massif. The complex formed during the Miocene and was folded and metamorphosed during the Alpine orogeny around 60 million years ago. Thera is built upon a small, non-volcanic basement that represents the former non-volcanic island, 9 by 6 km.
The basement rock is composed of metamorphosed limestone and schist, which date from the Alpine Orogeny. These non-volcanic rocks are exposed at Mikro Profititis Ilias, Mesa Vouno, the Gavrillos ridge, Pyrgos and the inner side of the caldera wall between Cape Plaka and Athinios; the metamorphic grade is a blueschist facies, which results from tectonic deformation by the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. Subduction occurred between the Oligocene and the Miocene, the metamorphic grade represents the southernmost extent of the Cycladic blueschist belt. Volcanism on Santorini is due to the Hellenic Trench subduction zone southwest of Crete; the oceanic crust of the northern margin of the African Plate is being subducted under Greece and the Aegean Sea, thinned continental crust. The subduction compels the formation of the Hellenic arc, which includes Santorini and other volcanic centres, such as Methana and Kos; the island is the result of repeated sequences of shield volcano construction followed by caldera collapse.
The inner coast around the caldera is a sheer precipice of more than 300 metres drop at its highest, exhibits the various layers of solidified lava on top of each other, the main towns perched on the crest. The ground slopes outwards and downwards towards the outer perimeter, the outer beaches are smooth and shallow. Beach sand colour depends on; the water at the darker coloured beaches is warmer because the lava acts as a heat absorber. The area of Santorini incorporates a group of islands created by volcanoes, spanning across Thera, Aspronisi and Nea Kameni. Santorini has erupted many times, with varying degrees of explosivity. There have been at least twelve large explosive eruptions, of which at least four were caldera-forming; the most famous eruption is the Minoan eruption, detailed below