Lucille Désirée Ball was an American actress, model, entertainment studio executive and producer. She was the star of the self-produced sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy, Life with Lucy, as well as comedy television specials aired under the title The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour. Ball's career began in 1929. Shortly thereafter, she began her performing career on Broadway using the stage names Diane Belmont and Dianne Belmont, she appeared in several minor film roles in the 1930s and 1940s as a contract player for RKO Radio Pictures, being cast as a chorus girl or in similar roles. During this time, she met Cuban bandleader Desi Arnaz, the two eloped in November 1940. In the 1950s, Ball ventured into television. In 1951, she and Arnaz created the sitcom I Love Lucy, a series that became one of the most beloved programs in television history; the same year, Ball gave birth to their first child, Lucie Arnaz, followed by Desi Arnaz Jr. in 1953. Ball and Arnaz divorced in May 1960, she married comedian Gary Morton in 1961.
Following the end of I Love Lucy, Ball would go on to appear in a Broadway musical, for a year from 1960 to 1961, although the show received lukewarm reviews and had to be shut down permanently when Ball became ill for a brief time. After Wildcat, Ball reunited with I Love Lucy co-star Vivian Vance for the aforementioned Lucy Show, which Vance departed in 1965 but, to continue for three years with longtime friend of Ball's Gale Gordon who had a recurring role on the program. In 1962, Ball became the first woman to run a major television studio, Desilu Productions, which produced many popular television series, including Mission: Impossible and Star Trek. Ball did not back away from acting completely. In 1985, Ball took on a dramatic role in Stone Pillow; the next year she starred in Life with Lucy. She appeared in film and television roles for the rest of her career until her death in April 1989 from an abdominal aortic dissection at the age of 77. Ball was nominated for 13 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning four times.
In 1960, she received two stars for her work in television on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1977, Ball was among the first recipients of the Women in Film Crystal Award, she was the recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1979, was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1984, received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Kennedy Center Honors in 1986, the Governors Award from the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in 1989. Born at 69 Stewart Avenue, New York, Lucille Désirée Ball was the daughter of Henry Durrell Ball and Désirée "DeDe" Evelyn Ball, her family lived in Wyandotte, for a time. She sometimes claimed that she had been born in Butte, where her grandparents had lived. A number of magazines reported inaccurately that she had decided that Montana was a more romantic place to be born than New York and repeated a fantasy of a "western childhood"; however her father had moved the family to Anaconda for his work, where they lived among other places. Her family belonged to the Baptist church.
Her ancestors were English, but a few were Scottish and Irish. Some were among the earliest settlers in the Thirteen Colonies, including Elder John Crandall of Westerly, Rhode Island, Edmund Rice, an early emigrant from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In February 1915, when Lucille was three years old, her 27-year-old father died of typhoid fever. Henry Ball was a lineman for Bell Telephone Company and was transferred; the family had moved from Jamestown to Anaconda, to Trenton, New Jersey. At the time of Henry's death, DeDe Ball was pregnant with Frederick. Ball recalled little from the day her father died, but remembered a bird getting trapped in the house. From that day forward, she suffered from ornithophobia. After Ball's father died, her mother returned to New York. Ball and her brother, Fred Henry Ball, were raised by their mother and maternal grandparents in Celoron, New York, a summer resort village on Lake Chautauqua, 2.5 miles west of downtown Jamestown. Lucy loved one of the best amusement areas in the United States at that time.
Its boardwalk had a ramp to the lake that served as a children's slide, the Pier Ballroom, a roller-coaster, a bandstand, a stage where vaudeville concerts and regular theatrical shows were presented which made Celoron Park a popular resort. Four years after Henry Ball's death, DeDe Ball married Edward Peterson. While her mother and stepfather looked for work in another city, Peterson's parents cared for her and her brother. Ball's stepgrandparents were a puritanical Swedish couple who banished all mirrors from the house except one over the bathroom sink; when the young Ball was caught admiring herself in it, she was chastised for being vain. This period of time affected Ball so that, in life, she said that it lasted seven or eight years. Peterson was a Shriner; when his organization needed female entertainers for the chorus line of their next show, he encouraged his 12-year-old stepdaughter to audition. While Ball was onstage, she realized performing was a great way to gain recognition, her appetite for recognition was awakened at an early age.
In 1927, her family suffered misfortune. Their house and furnishings were lost to settle a financial legal judgment after a neighborhood boy was accidentally shot and paralyzed by someone target shooting in their yard under the supervision of Ball's grandfather; the family subsequently moved i
There's No Tomorrow (film)
There's No Tomorrow is a 1939 French drama film directed by Max Ophüls and starring Edwige Feuillère, George Rigaud and Daniel Lecourtois. A number of those employed on the film were exiles from Nazi Germany, it premiered in Algiers in December 1939 before going on general release across France in March 1940. The film's sets were designed by the art directors Max Douy and Eugène Lourié. In order to support her young son, a woman becomes a dancer in a striptease cabaret act. Edwige Feuillère as Evelyn Morin George Rigaud as Dr. Georges Brandon Daniel Lecourtois as Dr. Armand Péreux Mady Berry as Mme. Midu, concierge Michel François as Pierre, Evelyn's son Georges Lannes as Paul Mazuraud André Gabriello as Mario Pauline Carton as La bonne Ernestine Paul Azaïs as Henri Jacques Erwin as Hermann Louis Florencie as Drunk client Geo Forster a sUn danseur Jane Marken as Mme Béchu Léon Roger-Maxime as Le second de Mazuraud René Worms as Un habitué Williams, Alan L. Republic of Images: A History of French Filmmaking.
Harvard University Press, 1992. There's No Tomorrow on IMDb
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Friars Club of Beverly Hills
The Friars Club of Beverly Hills was a private show business club started in 1947 by comedian/actor Milton Berle, among other celebrities who had moved from New York. It was forced to change its name in 2007 after losing a lawsuit with the New York Friars' Club, closed, its building, designed by modernist architect Sidney Eisenshtat, was demolished in 2011. The modern history of the club began in 1947, when Milton Berle got a group together at the old Savoy Hotel on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, including actors Bing Crosby, Eddie Cantor, Jimmy Durante, George Jessel, Robert Taylor; the Friars Club of California was established as a spinoff from the New York Friars' Club as a non-profit, membership only club. In 1961, the California club moved into a distinctive windowless building at 9900 Santa Monica Boulevard in Beverly Hills designed by architect Sidney Eisenshtat. Past members included Lucille Ball, Jack Benny, George Burns, Johnny Carson, Billy Crystal, Sammy Davis, Jr. Judy Garland, Bob Hope, Al Jolson, Jerry Lewis, Dean Martin, Stan Lee, the Marx Brothers, Frank Sinatra, among many others.
Like the New York club, for many years the Friars Club of Beverly Hills was known for its celebrity members and "roasts". From the summer of 1962 to the summer of 1966, John Roselli, Maurice Friedman, Manuel Jacobs, others rigged high stake gin rummy games at the Friars Club. Over that period, the conspirators earned an estimated $400,000 in profits, six defendants were convicted on various charges. In the wake of the resulting scandal, the Friars Club formed an ethics committee and removed some members, while others resigned. In 1992, Irwin Schaeffer became president of the Friars Club of California. By 2004, after years of declining membership, the club's assets were sold to a for-profit corporation owned by Schaeffer's son, Darren Schaeffer. After the sale, the club was renamed "The Friars of Beverly Hills" and continued to operate under that name until 2007. However, in 2005, the New York Friars' Club commenced a lawsuit claiming trademark infringement under the Lanham Act, among other claims.
The California club changed its name to "Club 9900" for a few months, but as of June 2008, the club was closed, its landmark building was listed as available for lease. In late January 2011, the building was demolished, despite objections from the Los Angeles Conservancy; the Friars Club was not related to the Friar's Inn, a famous 1920s jazz cabaret in Chicago, sometimes casually referred to as "Friar's Club". Membership discrimination in California social clubs Friars National Association, Inc. v. 9900 Santa Monica, Inc. et. al. Case No. CV 05-4109 ODW. Friars' Club of Beverly Hills Official site Club 9900 website
Popular music is music with wide appeal, distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be performed by people with little or no musical training, it stands in traditional or "folk" music. Art music was disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences; the original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music songs and pieces have singable melodies; the song structure of popular music involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece.
In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture; the examples of Africa and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles. Scholars have classified music as "popular" based on various factors, including whether a song or piece becomes known to listeners from hearing the music. Sales of'recordings' or sheet music are one measure. Middleton and Manuel note that this definition has problems because multiple listens or plays of the same song or piece are not counted. Evaluating appeal based on size of audience or whether audience is of a certain social class is another way to define popular music, but this, has problems in that social categories of people cannot be applied to musical styles.
Manuel states that one criticism of popular music is that it is produced by large media conglomerates and passively consumed by the public, who buy or reject what music is being produced. He claims that the listeners in the scenario would not have been able to make the choice of their favorite music, which negates the previous conception of popular music. Moreover, "understandings of popular music have changed with time". Middleton argues that if research were to be done on the field of popular music, there would be a level of stability within societies to characterize historical periods, distribution of music, the patterns of influence and continuity within the popular styles of music. Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into four categories. A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published. David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture; the majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.
This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music. Music critic Robert Christgau coined the term "semipopular music" in 1970, to describe records that seemed accessible for popular consumption but proved unsuccessful commercially. "I recognized that something else was going on—the distribution system appeared to be faltering, FM and all", he wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, citing that records like The Velvet Underground and The Gilded Palace of Sin possessed populist qualities yet failed to impact the record charts. "Just as semiclassical music is a systematic dilution of highbrow preferences, semipopular music is a cross-bred concentration of fashionable modes." In his mind, a liking "for the nasty and short intensifies a common semipopular tendency in which lyrical and conceptual sophistication are applauded while musical sophistication—jazz chops or classical design or avant-garde innovation—is left to the specialists."
Form in popular music is most sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, bridge. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, chorus form *, twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs are composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics; the verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse has the same melody, but the lyrics change for most verses; the chorus has a melodic phrase and a key lyrical line, repeated. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda, but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs
’O sole mio
"’O sole mio" is a globally known Neapolitan song written in 1898. Its lyrics were written by Giovanni Capurro and the music was composed by Eduardo di Capua and Alfredo Mazzucchi. There are other versions of "’O sole mio" but it is sung in the original Neapolitan language. ’O sole mio is the Neapolitan equivalent of standard Italian Il mio sole and translates as "my sunshine". "’O sole mio" has been performed and covered by many artists, including Enrico Caruso, Rosa Ponselle and her sister Carmela, Beniamino Gigli, Mario Lanza. Sergio Franchi recorded this song on his 1962 RCA Victor Red Seal debut album Romantic Italian Songs. Luciano Pavarotti won the 1980 Grammy Award for Best Classical Vocal Performance for his rendition of "’O sole mio". For nearly 75 years after its publication, the music of ’O sole mio had been attributed to Eduardo di Capua alone. According to the traditional account, di Capua had composed it in April 1898 in Odessa, while touring with his father's band, it has turned out, that the melody was an elaboration of one of 23 which di Capua had bought from another musician, Alfredo Mazzucchi, in the preceding year.
In November 1972, shortly after her father's death, Mazzucchi's daughter lodged a declaration with Italy’s Ufficio della Proprietà Letteraria Artistica e Scientifica, which sought to have her father recognised as a co-composer of 18 of di Capua's songs, including ’O sole mio. In October 2002, Maria Alvau, a judge in Turin, upheld the declaration, ruling that Mazzucchi had indeed been a legitimate co-composer of the 18 songs, because they included melodies he had composed and sold to di Capua in June of 1897, with a written authorisation for the latter to make free use of them. At the time of the decision, the melody of ’O sole mio had not yet—as had been supposed—entered into the public domain in any country, a party to the Berne Convention during the relevant period. In most countries where copyright in a work lasts for 70 years after any of its authors' deaths, the melody will remain under copyright until 2042. In 1915, Charles W. Harrison recorded the first English translation of "’O sole mio".
In 1921, William E. Booth-Clibborn wrote lyrics for a hymn using the music, entitled "Down from His Glory." In 1949 U. S. singer Tony Martin recorded "There's No Tomorrow" with lyrics by Al Hoffman, Leo Corday, Leon Carr, which used the melody of "’O sole mio". About ten years while stationed in West Germany with the U. S. Army, Elvis Presley heard the recording and put to tape a private version of the song. Upon his discharge, he requested that new lyrics be written for him, a job, undertaken by the songwriting duo of Aaron Schroeder and Wally Gold, with a demo by David Hill; the rewritten version was a worldwide hit for Presley. When performing it in concert in the mid-1970s, Elvis would explain the origin of "It's Now Or Never" and have singer Sherrill Nielsen perform a few lines of the original Neapolitan version before commencing with his version. Bing Crosby included the song in a medley on his album 101 Gang Songs. At the opening ceremony of the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, "’O sole mio" was played in place of the Italian national anthem, whose score had not been delivered to the band.
A series of television commercials for Cornetto ice cream, broadcast in Britain during the 1980s, used a jingle set to the melody of "’O sole mio". The jingle was reported as having been performed by Renato Pagliari, but after Pagliari's death in 2009, his son denied this. Sheet music for "’O sole mio"