Debian is a Unix-like operating system consisting of free software. Ian Murdock started the Debian Project on August 16, 1993. Debian 0.01 was released on September 15, 1993, the first stable version, 1.1, was released on June 17, 1996. The Debian stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and network servers, is used as the basis for many other distributions. Debian is one of the earliest operating systems based on the Linux kernel; the project's work is carried out over the Internet by a team of volunteers guided by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, the Debian Free Software Guidelines. New distributions are updated continually, the next candidate is released after a time-based freeze. Debian has been developed and distributed according to the principles of the GNU Project, this drew the support of the Free Software Foundation which sponsored the project from November 1994 to November 1995; when the sponsorship ended, the Debian Project formed the nonprofit Software in the Public Interest to continue financially supporting development.
Debian has access to online repositories that contain over 51,000 packages Debian contains only free software, but non-free software can be downloaded and installed from the Debian repositories. Debian includes popular free programs such as LibreOffice, Firefox web browser, Evolution mail, K3b disc burner, VLC media player, GIMP image editor, Evince document viewer. Debian is a popular choice for servers, for example as the operating system component of a LAMP stack. Debian supports Linux having offered kFreeBSD for version 7 but not 8, GNU Hurd unofficially. GNU/kFreeBSD was released as a technology preview for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, lacked the amount of software available in Debian's Linux distribution. Official support for kFreeBSD was removed for version 8, which did not provide a kFreeBSD-based distribution. Several flavors of the Linux kernel exist for each port. For example, the i386 port has flavors for IA-32 PCs supporting Physical Address Extension and real-time computing, for older PCs, for x86-64 PCs.
The Linux kernel does not contain firmware without sources, although such firmware is available in non-free packages and alternative installation media. Debian offers CD images built for Xfce, the default desktop on CD, DVD images for GNOME, KDE and others. MATE is supported, while Cinnamon support was added with Debian 8.0 Jessie. Less common window managers such as Enlightenment, Fluxbox, IceWM, Window Maker and others are available; the default desktop environment of version 7.0 Wheezy was temporarily switched to Xfce, because GNOME 3 did not fit on the first CD of the set. The default for the version 8.0 Jessie was changed again to Xfce in November 2013, back to GNOME in September 2014. Several parts of Debian are translated into languages other than American English, including package descriptions, configuration messages and the website; the level of software localization depends on the language, ranging from the supported German and French to the hardly translated Creek and Samoan. The installer is available in 73 languages.
Debian offers CD images for installation that can be downloaded using BitTorrent or jigdo. Physical disks can be bought from retailers; the full sets are made up of several discs, but only the first disc is required for installation, as the installer can retrieve software not contained in the first disc image from online repositories. Debian offers different network installation methods. A minimal install of Debian is available via the netinst CD, whereby Debian is installed with just a base and added software can be downloaded from the Internet. Another option is to boot the installer from the network. Installation images can be used to create a bootable USB drive; the default bootstrap loader is GNU GRUB version 2, though the package name is grub, while version 1 was renamed to grub-legacy. This conflicts with e.g. Fedora, where grub version 2 is named grub2; the default desktop may be chosen from the DVD boot menu among GNOME, KDE Plasma, Xfce and LXDE, from special disc 1 CDs. Debian releases live install images for CDs, DVDs and USB thumb drives, for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, with a choice of desktop environments.
These Debian Live images allow users to boot from removable media and run Debian without affecting the contents of their computer. A full install of Debian to the computer's hard drive can be initiated from the live image environment. Personalized images can be built with the live-build tool for discs, USB drives and for network booting purposes. Debian was first announced on August 16, 1993, by Ian Murdock, who called the system "the Debian Linux Release"; the word "Debian" was formed as a portmanteau of the first name of his then-girlfriend Debra Lynn and his own first name. Before Debian's release, the Softlanding Linux System had been a popular Linux distribution and the basis for Slackware; the perceived poor maintenance and prevalence of bugs in SLS motivated Murdock to launch a new distribution. Debian 0.01, released on September 15, 1993, was the first of several internal releases. Version 0.90 was the first public release, providing support through mailing lists hosted at Pixar. The release included the Debian Linux Manifesto, outlining Murdock's view for the new operating system.
In it he called for the creation of a distribution to be maintained in the spirit of Linux and GNU. The Debian project released the 0.9x versions in 1994 and 1995. During this time it was sponso
Wendy M. Grossman
Wendy M. Grossman is a journalist and folksinger. Grossman graduated from Cornell University in 1975 and Riverdale Country School in 1971, she was a full-time folksinger from 1975–83 and her folk album Roseville Fair was released in 1980, MP3s from it are available on her website. She played on Archie Fisher's 1976 LP The Man With a Rhyme. In 1987, she founded the magazine The Skeptic in the United Kingdom and edited it for two years, resuming the editorship from 1999 to 2001; as founder and editor, she has appeared on numerous UK radio programmes. Her credits since 1990 include work for Scientific American, The Guardian, the Daily Telegraph, as well as New Scientist and Wired News, The Inquirer for which she wrote a regular weekly net.wars column. That column continues on her own site every Friday, she was a columnist for Internet Today from July 1996 until it closed in April 1997, together with Dominic Young ran the Fleet Street Forum on CompuServe UK in the mid-1990s. She sometimes writes about tennis.
She edited an anthology of interviews with leading computer industry figures taken from the pages of the British computer magazine Personal Computer World. Entitled Remembering the Future, it was published in January 1997 by Springer Verlag, her 1998 book net.wars was one of the first to have its full text published on the Web. She was a member of the external advisory board of the Intellectual Property and Law Centre at Edinburgh University, she was president of the Cornell Folk Song Club, the oldest university-affiliated, student-run folk song club in the US, from 1973 to 1975. She sits on the executive committee of the Association of British Science Writers and the Advisory Councils of the Open Rights Group and Privacy International. In February 2011 Grossman was elected as a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. In 2013, Grossman was the winner of the Enigma Award, part of the BT Information Security Journalism Awards, "for her dedication and outstanding contribution to information security journalism, recognising her extensive writing on the subject for several publications over a number of years".
Remembering the Future: Interviews from Personal Computer World Net. Wars From Anarchy to Power: The Net Comes of Age The Daily Telegraph A-Z Guide to the Internet The Daily Telegraph Small Business Guide to Computer Networking Why Statues Weep: The Best of the "Skeptic" – with Chris French Official website Wendy Grossman on LiveJournal NewsWirelessNet, where her column net.wars appears every Friday The Skeptic Full text of net.wars, Wendy Grossman, 1997–99 NYU Press, ISBN 0-8147-3103-1
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, it was established in 1980. Users post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially; the name comes from the term "users network". A major difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider, employer, or their own server.
Usenet is culturally significant in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ", "flame", "spam". Usenet was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, over a decade before the World Wide Web went online and the general public received access to the Internet, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use, it was built on the "poor man's ARPANET", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News. The name Usenet emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation; the articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects. For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci.* hierarchy, for science.
Or, talk.origins and talk.atheism are in the talk.* hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article; the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into subthreads; when a user posts an article, it is only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should reach every server in the network; the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers. Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.
This is because the POTS network was used for transfers, phone charges were lower at night. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages; the difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients. Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, mailing lists and social media. Usenet differs from such media in several ways: Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned; the groups in alt.binaries are still used for data transfer. Many Internet service providers, many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will offer their users an account from another provider that operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.
Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead. Some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities. Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base, a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents; some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself. Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups. Omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which carries software, music and images, accounts for over 99 percent of article data. There are Usenet providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed. See news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.
Newsgroups are accessed with newsreaders: applications that allow users to read and reply to postings in newsgro
Enid Gabriella Coleman is an anthropologist and author whose work focuses on hacker culture and online activism Anonymous. She holds the Wolfe Chair in Scientific & Technological Literacy at McGill University, Quebec, Canada. Nathan Schneider writing in the Chronicle of Higher Education named her "the world's foremost scholar on Anonymous". After completing her high school education at St. John's School in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Coleman graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in religious studies from Columbia University in May 1996, she moved to the University of Chicago where she completed a Master of Arts in socio-cultural anthropology in August 1999. She was awarded her Ph. D in socio-cultural anthropology for her dissertation The Social Construction of Freedom in Free and Open Source Software: Hackers and the Liberal Tradition in 2005. Coleman held positions including a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for Cultural Analysis, Rutgers University and the Izaak Walton Killam Memorial Postdoctoral Fellowship, Program in Science, Technology & Society, University of Alberta before being appointed assistant professor of media and communication at New York University in September 2007.
During 2010–2011 Coleman spent some time working at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton as the recipient of the "2010–11 Ginny and Robert Loughlin Founders' Circle Member in the School of Social Science". In January 2012 she re-located to Montreal, Canada to take up the Wolfe Chair in Scientific & Technological Literacy at McGill University; the same year, she spoke at Webstock 2012 in Wellington, New Zealand. Coleman's work on Anonymous has led to her becoming a regular media commentator in addition to her academic publications. In July 2010, Coleman made reference to the Anonymous "project" or "operation" Chanology against the Church of Scientology and uses what would become a central motif in her descriptions of the group, the "trickster archetype", which she argues is "often not being a clean and savory character, but vital for social renewal". Coleman states that she had "been thinking about the linkages between the trickster and hackers" for "a few years" before a stay in hospital led her to read Trickster Makes This World: Mischief and Art by Lewis Hyde: Within the first few pages, it was undeniable: there are many links to be made between the trickster and hacking.
Many of these figures, push boundaries of all sorts: they upset ideas of propriety and property. Coleman's theory of Anonymous as the trickster has moved from academia to the mainstream media. Recent references include the three-part series on Anonymous in Wired magazine and the New York Times. Coleman has been critical of some of the mainstream coverage of Anonymous. In Is it a Crime? The Transgressive Politics of Hacking in Anonymous, Coleman responds to an article on the group by Joseph Menn in the Financial Times noting: more critical engagement with the issues he raises is to yield important lessons for scholarly and journalistic approaches to digital media, protest politics, cyber-security. Instead of depicting hackers as virtual pamphleteers for free speech or as digital outlaws, we need to start asking more specific questions about why and when hackers embrace particular attitudes toward different kinds of laws, explore in greater detail what they are hoping to achieve, take greater care in examining the consequences.
Our Weirdness Is Free: The logic of Anonymous — online army, agent of chaos, seeker of justice, Triple Canopy 2012 January, is Coleman's first major piece of length on the group and draws from a range of observations of those she describes as "everything and nothing at once". Coleman admits she does not understand Anonymous, she told the BBC: You can never have complete certainty as to what's going on, who's involved, "not being able to understand who's behind the mask" is what gives Anonymous political power. Coleman has cited the views of white nationalist hacker weev known as Andrew Auernheimer, as an example of the "transgression and subversion" of internet trolling. —. "From Internet Farming to Weapons of the Geek". Current Anthropology. 58: 91–102. Doi:10.1086/688697. —. Hacker, Whistleblower, Spy: The Many Faces of Anonymous. London: Verso Books. ISBN 9781781685839. —. "Anonymous in Context: The Politics and Power behind the Mask". Internet Governance Papers. Waterloo, Ontario: The Centre for International Governance Innovation.
Pp. 1–21. —. Coding freedom: the ethics and aesthetics of hacking. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14460-3. —. "8. Phreaks and Trolls: The Politics of Transgression and Spectacle". In Mandiberg, Michael; the Social Media Reader. New York, New York: New York University Press. Pp. 99–119. ISBN 9780814764060. —. "Ethnographic approaches to digital media". Annual Review of Anthropology. 39: 487–505. Doi:10.11446/.012809.104945. —. "The Hacker Conference: A Ritual Condensation and Celebration of a Lifeworld". Anthropological Quarterly. 83: 47–72. Doi:10.1353/anq.0.0112. —. "Hacker practice: Moral genres and the cultural articulation of liberalism". Anthropological Theory. 8: 255–277. Doi:10.1177/1463499608093814. —. "20. The Pol