A thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature within the innocuous range. In the mammalian peripheral nervous system, warmth receptors are thought to be unmyelinated C-fibres, while those responding to cold have both C-fibers and thinly myelinated A delta fibers; the adequate stimulus for a warm receptor is warming, which results in an increase in their action potential discharge rate. Cooling results in a decrease in warm receptor discharge rate. For cold receptors their firing rate increases during decreases during warming; some cold receptors respond with a brief action potential discharge to high temperatures, i.e. above 45 °C, this is known as a paradoxical response to heat. The mechanism responsible for this behavior has not been determined. In humans, temperature sensation enters the spinal cord along the axons of Lissauer's tract that synapse on second order neurons in grey matter of the dorsal horn, one or two vertebral levels up.
The axons of these second order neurons decussate, joining the spinothalamic tract as they ascend to neurons in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. In mammals, temperature receptors innervate various tissues including the skin and urinary bladder. Neurons from the pre-optic and hypothalamic regions of the brain that respond to small changes in temperature have been described, providing information on core temperature; the hypothalamus is involved in thermoregulation, the thermoreceptors allowing feed-forward responses to a predicted change in core body temperature in response to changing environmental conditions. Thermoreceptors have been classically described as having'free' non-specialized endings. Cold-sensitive thermoreceptors give rise to the sensations of cooling and freshness. In the cornea cold receptors are thought to respond with an increase in firing rate to cooling produced by evaporation of lacrimal fluid'tears' and thereby to elicit a blink reflex. Warm and cold receptors play a part in sensing innocuous environmental temperature.
Temperatures to damage an organism are sensed by sub-categories of nociceptors that may respond to noxious cold, noxious heat or more than one noxious stimulus modality. The nerve endings of sensory neurons that respond preferentially to cooling are found in moderate density in the skin but occur in high spatial density in the cornea, tongue and facial skin; the speculation is that lingual cold receptors deliver information that modulates the sense of taste. This area of research has received considerable attention with the identification and cloning of the Transient Receptor Potential family of proteins; the transduction of temperature in cold receptors is mediated in part by the TRPM8 channel. This channel passes a mixed inward cationic current of a magnitude, inversely proportional to temperature; the channel is sensitive over a temperature range spanning about 10-35°C. TRPM8 can be activated by the binding of an extracellular ligand. Menthol can activate the TRPM8 channel in this way. Since the TRPM8 is expressed in neurons whose physiological role is to signal cooling, menthol applied to various bodily surfaces evokes a sensation of cooling.
The feeling of freshness associated with the activation of cold receptors by menthol those in facial areas with axons in the trigeminal nerve, accounts for its use in numerous toiletries including toothpaste, shaving lotions, facial creams and the like. Another molecular component of cold transduction is the temperature dependence of so-called leak channels which pass an outward current carried by potassium ions; some leak channels derive from the family of two-pore domain potassium channels. Amongst the various members of the 2P-domain channels, some close quite promptly at temperatures less than about 28°C. Temperature modulates the activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase; the Na+/K+-ATPase is a P-type pump that extrudes 3Na+ ions in exchange for 2K+ ions for each hydrolytic cleavage of ATP. This results in a net movement of positive charge out of the cell; the magnitude of this current is proportional to the rate of pump activity. It has been suggested that it is the constellation of various thermally sensitive proteins together in a neuron that gives rise to a cold receptor.
This emergent property of the neuron is thought to comprise, the expression of the aforementioned proteins as well as various voltage-sensitive channels including the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel and the activating and inactivating transient potassium channel
The TBP-associated factors are proteins that associate with the TATA-binding protein in transcription initiation. It is a part of the transcription initiation factor TFIID multimeric protein complex, it makes up many other factors, including SL1. They mediate the formation of the transcription preinitiation complex, a step preceding transcription of DNA to RNA by RNA polymerase II. TAFs have a signature N-terminal histone-like fold domain; this domain is implicated in the pairwise interaction among specific TAFs. TFIID plays a central role in mediating promoter responses to various repressors, it binds to TAFII-250 and directly interacts with TAFII-40. TFIID is composed of a number of TBP-associated factors. TAF is part of the TFIID complex, interacts with the following: Specific transcriptional activators Basal transcription factors Other TAFIIs Specific DNA sequences, for example the downstream promoter element or gene-specific core promoter sequenceDue to such interactions, they contribute transcription activation and to promoter selectivity.
Some pairs of TAF interact with each other to form "lobes" in TFIID. Pairs known or suggested to exist in TFIID include TAF6-TAF9, TAF4-TAF12, TAF11-13, TAF8-TAF10 and TAF3-TAF10. Selective factor 1 is composed of three TAF subunits; these TAFs don't have a histone-like fold domain. TAF is a part of SAGA and related coactivation complexes; such complexes acetylate histone tails to activate genes. Human has three SAGA-like complexes: PCAF, TFTC, STAGA. PCAF and KAT2A are two human homologs of the yeast Gcn5. TAF8, TAF10, SPT7L forms a small TAF complex called SMAT; the N-terminal domain of TAF has a histone-like protein. It contains a long central alpha helix. TAF1 TAF2 TAF3 TAF4 TAF4B TAF5 TAF6 TAF6L TAF7 TAF8 TAF9 TAF9B TAF10 TAF11 TAF12 TAF13 TAF15 TAF domains are spread out across many digital signatures
The Miss Arizona USA competition is the pageant that selects the representative for the state Arizona in the Miss USA pageant. In 2005 the rights to produce the Miss Arizona USA pageant were given to Casting Crown Productions; this company is directed by Britt Boyse, Miss Missouri USA 1995. Arizona has had a fair success in Miss USA as it has yet to win the Miss USA title, however Miss USA 1980 first runner-up Jineane Ford was awarded the Miss USA title after Shawn Weatherly won Miss Universe 1980. Four Miss Arizona USAs were former Miss Arizona Teen USAs and two were former Miss America contestants. Yesenia Vidales of Phoenix was crowned Miss Arizona USA 2020 on January 5, 2020 at Mesa Arts Center in Mesa, she will represent Arizona for the title of Miss USA 2020. 1st runners-up: Jane Nelson, Jineane Ford 2nd runners-up: Susanne Pottenger, Diane Martin, Alicia-Monique Blanco 3rd runners-up: Ruth Hayes, Sherry Nix Top 10/11/12: Carlys Peterson, Toni Abranovic, Ana Rupert, Michelle Ducote, Lee Anne Locken, Maricarroll Verlinde, Dannis Shephard, Stacey Kole Top 15/16/20: Jerri Michaelson, Diane McGarry, Roxanne Neeley, Judianne Magnusson, Danielle Demski, Brenna Sakas, Brittany Brannon, Jordan Wessel, Maureen Montagne, Chelsea Myers Arizona holds a record of 25 placements at Miss USA.
Miss Congeniality: Cara Jackson Miss Photogenic: Jineane Ford, Brittany Brannon Best State Costume: Daria Sparling, Michelle Ducote, Maricarroll Verlinde Color key Official website
Percy L. Greaves Jr. was an American free-market economist and presidential candidate. Greaves was born in Brooklyn, New York, on August 24, 1906, he received a B. S. degree, magna cum laude, from the Syracuse University School of Business Administration. He was a graduate student studying economics at New York University, he was financial editor and research economist for the United States News from 1934 to 1936. He resigned to take an executive job in Paris, he directed research and survey activities for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and did extensive political research. From 1943 to 1945, Greaves was Research Director for the Republican National Committee. Greaves served as Chief of Minority Staff for the 1945–1946 "Joint Congressional Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack", he authored several books on economics, including Understanding the Dollar Crisis and Mises Made Easier. Greaves was a longtime associate and friend of Ludwig von Mises attending his seminars. Greaves and his wife attended Mises’ graduate seminar at the New York University Graduate School of Business Administration each year from 1950 to 1969.
He was a seminar speaker for the Foundation for Economic Education. Greaves served on the Institute for Historical Review Editorial Advisory Committee and wrote for IHR's The Journal of Historical Review about Pearl Harbor revisionism. In the 1974 elections, Greaves was an unsuccessful US Senate candidate in New York for the Free Libertarian Party. Murray Rothbard had commented the same year that Greaves "believes in taxation, and... favors the draft."Greaves was nominated as the 1980 presidential candidate for the American Party, with Frank L. Varnum as his running mate, they received 6,648 votes. The state parties of Kansas and Minnesota were unhappy with Greaves's moderate stance on abortion and put anti-Greaves tickets on their ballot lines, winning 1,555 and 6,136 votes respectively. Greaves had sought the nomination of the American Independent Party but was defeated. Greaves died due to cancer in 1984, he was survived by his wife, three children, seven grandchildren. In 2010, Percy’s wife completed an unfinished manuscript left behind after his death and it was published posthumously by the Ludwig von Mises Institute as Pearl Harbor: The Seeds and Fruits of Infamy.
Does Government Spending Bring Prosperity? The Freeman Understanding the Dollar Crisis Pearl Harbor: The Seeds and Fruits of Infamy. Edited by Bettina B. Greaves. On the Manipulation of Money and Credit: Three Treatises on Trade-Cycle Theory. Translated and with a Foreword by Bettina Bien Greaves. Edited by Percy L. Greaves, Jr.. Marcellus, J. Percy L. Greaves, Jr. 1906-1984. The Journal of Historical Review, Vol. 5, Nos. 2-4, page 444. Barnes, Harry Elmer. Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, 1953. Overview of the Percy L. Greaves Papers. Online Archive of California. American Party Austrian School Our Campaigns: American Party 1980
Kanegasaki Station is a railway station on the Tōhoku Main Line in the town of Kanegasaki, Iwate Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Kanegasaki Station is served by the Tōhoku Main Line, is located 477.7 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Tokyo Station. Kanegasaki Station has two opposed side platforms; the station is staffed. Kanegasaki Station was opened on 1 July 1897; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987. A new station building was completed in November 2004. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 585 passengers daily. Kanegasaki Town Hall Isawa River Kitakami River Japan National Route 4 Tōhoku Expressway List of Railway Stations in Japan Official website
BakerHostetler is an American 1,000-attorney law firm founded in 1916. One of the firm's founders, Newton D. Baker, was U. S. Secretary of War during World War I, former Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio. In 2009, the firm was ranked the 85th-largest law firm in the world. BakerHostetler is a multidisciplinary firm with 11 practice groups and more than 55 areas of practice strength. In a 2005 survey by BTI Consulting Group, BakerHostetler was ranked among the top 24 firms considered to be the “Power Elite”, in terms of providing superior client satisfaction. In 2010, BakerHostetler represented Denbury Resources Inc. a member of the S&P 500, in a merger valued at $4.5 billion with Encore Acquisition Co.. The transaction created one of the largest oil-focused independent exploration and production companies in North America; as a result of this and other similar deals, BakerHostetler was ranked among the top 10 U. S. law firms for merger and acquisition deals in the oil and oilfield service industries for the period January 2009-First Quarter 2010 per The Deal magazine.
The firm is known for counseling and representing clients in the hospitality, financial services, energy and technology fields. In 2014, intellectual property law firm Woodcock Washburn LLP merged with BakerHostetler, adding three offices in Philadelphia and Seattle. In 2016, the firm announced it was using IBM's Watson, named "ROSS", to assist attorneys in their bankruptcy practice. Other law firms had signed agreements with ROSS, but BakerHostetler was the first to announce the use of the artificial intelligence-based service. BakerHostetler, through partner Irving Picard and his team, has been overseeing the liquidation of Bernard Madoff’s firm in bankruptcy court, has so far recovered over $13 billion—about 70 percent of approved claims—by suing those who profited from the scheme, whether they knew of the scheme or not. Kathy Bazoian Phelps, a bankruptcy lawyer at Diamond McCarthy, said "That kind of recovery is extraordinary and atypical,” as clawbacks in such schemes range from 5 percent to 30 percent, many victims don’t get anything.
Picard has pursued not only investors, but spouses and estates of those who profited, such as the wife of Bernard Madoff, the widow and estate of the deceased Stanley Chais, the estate of the deceased Jeffry Picower and Picower's widow Barbara, with whom he reached a $7.2 billion settlement. BakerHostetler has represented the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Foundation's HIV/AIDS Initiative since 2003. Major League Baseball has been a longstanding client of BakerHostetler. On August 25, 2014, House Republicans hired BakerHostetler's David Rivkin to provide legal representation to sue President Obama over the Affordable Care Act. In 2014, the law firm employed nearly 900 attorneys and had offices in 14 different markets including: New York, Washington, D. C. California, Florida, Texas and Ohio. Official website National Law Review Organizational Profile