The Vardar or Axios is the longest and major river in the Republic of Macedonia and a major river of Greece. It is 388 km long, and drains an area of around 25,000 km2, the maximum depth of the river is 4 m. The river rises at Vrutok, a few north of Gostivar in the Republic of Macedonia. The Vardar basin comprises two-thirds of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, the valley features fertile lands in the Polog region, around Gevgelija and in the Thessaloniki regional unit. The river is surrounded by mountains elsewhere, the superhighways Greek National Road 1 in Greece and M1 and E75 run within the valley along the rivers entire length to near Skopje. The river was famous during the Ottoman Empire and modern-day Turkey and was the inspiration for many folk songs. It has depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje. The Vardaris or Vardarec is a powerful prevailing northerly wind which blows across the river valley in Greek Macedonia as well as in the Republic of Macedonia. At first it descends along the canal of the Vardar valley, somewhat similar to the mistral wind of France, it occurs when atmospheric pressure over eastern Europe is higher than over the Aegean Sea, as is often the case in winter.
The etymology of the word is unclear, however most probably, the origin of the name Vardar derives Bardários from Thracian, from Proto-Indo-European *wordo-wori- black water. The name Bardários was sometimes used by the Ancient Greeks in the 3rd Century BCE, the same name was widely used in the Byzantine era. The word may ultimately be derived from the PIE root *werǵ- and its Greek name, Axios, is mentioned by Homer as the home of the Paeonians allies of Troy. The name Affi is mentioned by Pjetër Bogdani in his work Cuneus Prophetarum as a name of Vardar. Great Morava Pčinja River Proceedings of the 1st Axios Catchment Consortium Meeting by the European Commission - DG Research, PIM Ivan Milutinović, Serbia, Morava - Vardar Navigation Route Morava - Vardar Navigation Route map Hydropower and navigation system Morava
Central Macedonia is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia. With a population of almost 1.9 million, it is the second most populous in Greece after Attica, the region was established in the 1987 administrative reform. With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, its powers and authority were redefined and extended, along with East Macedonia and Thrace, it is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace, based in Thessaloniki. The region is based at its capital city of Thessaloniki and is divided into seven units, Imathia, Pella, Serres. These are further subdivided into 38 municipalities, although geographically part of central Macedonia, Mount Athos is not administratively part of the region, but an autonomous self-governing state under the sovereignity of Greece. Central Macedonia is Greeces most visited region and accounts for 18. 2% of the total tourist flow in the country, with 3.21 million tourists in 2008.
In 2011, the GDP per capita of Central Macedonia was €14,400, marking a 9th place of the 13 regions of Greece, alexandria Aridaea Edessa Giannitsa Katerini Kilkis Koufalia Litochoro Naoussa Nea Kallikratia Nea Moudania Polygyros Polykastro Serres Thessaloniki Veria Official website
Imathia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Macedonia, the capital of Imathia is the city of Veroia. The regional unit Imathia is subdivided into 3 municipalities and these are, Alexandreia Naousa Veroia As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Imathia was created out of the former prefecture Imathia. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, Veroia Province Naousa Province Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece since 2006. The northeastern part of Imathia, along the course of the river Aliakmonas, is a vast agricultural plain known as Kampania or Roumlouki. The area is known for the production of crops such as peach. Much of the lives in this plain, where the towns Alexandreia and Veroia are situated. Imathia has a shoreline on the Thermaic Gulf around the mouth of the Aliakmonas. The mountainous western part of Imathia is covered by the Vermio Mountains, the Pierian Mountains reach into the southern part of Imathia, south of the Aliakmonas.
The regional unit borders on Pieria to the south, Kozani to the west, Pella to the north, Imathia has a mainly Mediterranean climate with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The railway from Thessaloniki to Florina and the important railway from Thessaloniki to Athens pass through Imathia, with stations at Platy. The motorways A2 and A1 and the Greek National Roads EO1, EO4, the Alexandreia Airport is a military airport. Imathia was named after the historic region Emathia, which was used by classical authors as a synonym for Bottiaea or even all of Macedon. Important ancient towns in the area of present Imathia were Aegae, as a part of the Macedonia region, it was ruled by the kingdom of Macedonia, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire and from early 15th century by the Ottoman Empire. In 1913, as a result of the Second Balkan War and after the Greco-Turkish War, several refugees from Turkey settled in Imathia. Initially part of the prefecture of Thessaloniki, Imathia became a prefecture in 1946, - Veroia Pontioi Veria F. C.
- Veroia Naoussa F. C. - Naousa Alexandria F. C
Chalcidice or Chalkidike or Chalkidiki or Halkidiki, is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. The autonomous Mount Athos region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, the capital of Chalkidiki is the main town of Polygyros, located in the centre of the peninsula. Chalkidiki today is a summer tourist destination. Aristotle was born here in 384 B. C, the Cholomontas mountains lie in the north-central part of Chalkidiki. Chalkidiki consists of a peninsula in the northwestern Aegean Sea. Chalkidiki borders on the unit of Thessaloniki to the north. Its largest towns are Nea Moudania, Nea Kallikrateia and the town of Polygyros. Chalcidice, Chalkidiki, or Chalkidike, is the given to this peninsula from a group of people native to this region. The area was colony of the ancient Greek city-state of Chalkis, the ancient city of Stageira was the birthplace of the great philosopher Aristotle. Chalkidiki was an important theatre of war during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, the Greek colonies of the peninsula were conquered by Philip II of Macedon and Chalkidiki became part of Macedonia.
After the end of the wars between the Macedonians and the Romans, the became part of the Roman Empire, along with the rest of Greece. At the end of the Roman Republic a Roman colony was settled in Cassandreia, during the following centuries, Chalkidiki was part of the Byzantine Empire. On a chrysobull of Emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain was proclaimed a place of monks, with the support of Nikephoros II Phokas, the Great Lavra monastery was founded soon afterwards. Athos with its monasteries has been self-governing ever since, after a short period of domination by the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica, the area became again Byzantine until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1430. During the Ottoman period, the peninsula was important for its gold mining, in 1821, the Greek War of Independence started and the Greeks of Chalkidiki revolted under the command of Emmanouel Pappas, a member of Filiki Eteria, and other local fighters. The revolt was progressing slowly and unsystematically, the insurrection was confined to the peninsulas of Mount Athos and Kassandra.
One of the goals was to restrain and detain the coming of the Ottoman army from Istanbul. Finally, the resulted in a decisive Ottoman victory at Kassandra
Kilkis (regional unit)
Kilkis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Macedonia and its capital is the city of Kilkis. The geography of the unit of Kilkis is characterized by the wide and flat Axios river valley in the westcentral part. The mountain range in the west, on the border with Pella regional unit, is Mount Paiko, in the north, the Kerkini range straddles the border with the Republic of Macedonia. At 1,874 m or 6,148 ft the highest peak in Kilkis regional unit is located here, the border with Serres regional unit to the northeast is formed by the lower Kroussia range. Lake Doirani is situated in the north, shared with the Republic of Macedonia, Kilkis borders the Thessaloniki regional unit to the south. The climate of the Kilkis regional unit is humid continental in the north, the area of the modern regional unit was part of the Kingdom of Macedonia from the 8th century BC until the Third Macedonian War, when it became a part of the Roman Empire. At the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the joined the eastern part.
Between the 7th century and the 11th century, it changed hands between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire repeatedly, in the 13th and 14th century Western Europeans and Serbs briefly ruled the area. The Ottoman Empire conquered the area in 1371, and ruled it until the First Balkan War of 1912, in the Second Balkan War of 1913, the Greek army captured the area, which became part of Greece. It absorbed many of the Greeks from Northern Macedonia, especially from Gevgeli, Polyane, in fact, a very large segment of the population of Kilkis regional unit are in origin Caucasus Greeks from the former Russian Imperial province of Kars Oblast in the South Caucasus. Until 1939, when created into a separate prefecture, the area was part of the Thessaloniki Prefecture, at the 2011 Kallikratis reform, the Kilkis Prefecture became a regional unit. Two railways pass through the unit, from Thessaloniki to Skopje via Polykastro and Eidomeni. The regional unit Kilkis is subdivided into 2 municipalities, at the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below.
Province of Kilkis Province of Peοnia - Goumenissa Note, Provinces no longer any legal status in Greece. List of settlements in the Kilkis regional unit Municipality of Kilkis Prefecture of Kilkis History of the Greek Army at the Battle of Kilkis
Chortiatis is a suburb and a former municipality in the Thessaloniki regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 Kallikratis local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylaia-Chortiatis and it lies at 600 metres altitude on the slopes of the Mount Chortiatis, from which it takes its name. The municipal unit Chortiatis has an area of 109.934 km2, in the antiquity and town were known as Cissus and Homer tells us that Cisseus was the king of this town. The town and its people are mentioned as members of the Delian League in the 5th century BC, by the 15th century the settlement with the monastery was called Kastron Chortiatis and it fell in 1423 under Ottoman rule. In 1912 the Greek town was liberated, the Chortiatis massacre was a World War II mass murder of 146 civilians by the Wehrmacht, at the end of the occupation of Greece by the Axis powers on 2 September 1944. About twenty trucks with German soldiers and the paramilitary force Jagdkommando Schubert, named after the Wehrmacht sergeant Friedrich Schubert who was in command and they gathered all the people they found in the town square, and began to loot and burn houses down.
One group of the civilians was led into the house of villager Evangelos Ntinoudis and they were locked inside and the building was set on fire. The other group was locked in the bakery, schuberts men set up a machine gun and began to shoot them down from a small window in the door. After this they set fire to burn alive those who were not killed by the bursts of the machine gun, apart from the people who were killed in the two groups, others were raped and killed outside their homes or even the village, while trying to escape. A total of 146 civilians residents of Chortiatis were killed that day,109 of them were women and girls
Serres (regional unit)
Serres is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Region of Central Macedonia and its capital is the town of Serres. The total population reaches just over 175,000, the Strymonian Gulf lies to the south along with the Strymonas delta. Lake Kerkini was a located in the southern portion which is now drained. 41% of the unit are arable and most of the lands are near the Strymonas river which flows from Bulgaria. Another river is the Angitis in the part of the regional unit, with the ravine. The regional unit has many archaeological and historical features including Serres, several monasteries, the regional unit is a tourist attraction including Lailia, rich in forests, a skiing resort in the central portion, lake Kerkini which is a reservoir supplying water to the farmlands. Fishing is common within Ano Poroia especially during the months and famous Alistratis caves. The southern part around the Strymonas valley has a Mediterranean climate, in modern times, like the rest of Macedonia was contested territory between Greece, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.
After its liberation from the Turks by the Bulgarians in the First Balkan War, during the National Schism, it was occupied by Bulgaria again only to form part of Greece at the end of the war. During the Second World War Bulgaria occupied Serres and launched a campaign of Bulgarisation, the regional unit Serres is subdivided into 7 municipalities. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, the Panserraikos F. C. association football club, based in Serres, plays in the Football League 2
The Thermaic Gulf is a gulf of the Aegean Sea located immediately south of the Thessaloniki regional unit, east of Pieria and Imathia, and west of Chalkidiki. It was named after the ancient town of Therma, which was situated on the northeast coast of the gulf, near Thessaloniki, the length of the gulf is about 100 km, while its width is about 5 km. The length of the gulf in its part is estimated to stretch 15 km, while after megalo emvolo cape towards the south. Cape Kassandra lies to the southeast end of the gulf, to the Romans, the gulf was known as Thermaicus or Thermaeus sinus and as Macedonicus sinus. One of its modern names is the Gulf of Salonica, named after the city of Thessaloniki which sprawls around and along the northeastern coast of the gulf. Places that lie by the gulf include Sani, ancient Potidaea, Nea Moudania, Agia Triada, Neoi Epivates, Kalochori, Pydna, Paralia Katerinis and Olympiaki Akti. The rivers emptying into the gulf are the Pineios, Loudias and Axios, the Thermaic Gulf was significantly larger in classical times, with many ancient seaside cities are now found several kilometers inland.
The extensive silting mainly affects the northern and western parts of the gulf, the gulf is home to a large number of famous, pristine beaches, which include Sani Beach. However, there are no beaches on the northwest coast, where wetlands stretch from Methone to Thessalonikis western suburb of Kalochori, the Port of Thessaloniki is the gulfs largest and busiest port, while another twelve small ports provide sea transport in, out and around the Thermaic gulf. Major road networks of northern Greece such as the A1/E75 motorway encircles the western portion of the gulf, while the A25 almost encircles the eastern part of it
First Balkan War
The First Balkan War, lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, as a result of the war, the League captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events led to the creation of an independent Albania, despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War. By 1867, Serbia and Montenegro had both secured independence, which was confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin, the question of the viability of Ottoman rule was revived after the Young Turk Revolution of July 1908, which compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman constitution. Serbias aspirations to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Bosnian crisis, the Serbs directed their expansionism to the south.
Following the annexation, the Young Turks tried to induce the Muslim population of Bosnia to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire and those who took up the offer were re-settled by the Ottoman authorities in districts of northern Macedonia where there were few Muslims. The experiment proved to be a catastrophe for the Empire since the immigrants readily united with the population of Albanian Muslims. They participated in the series of Albanian uprisings before and during the spring Albanian Revolt of 1912, some Albanian government troops switched sides. Serbia, which had helped arm the Albanian Catholic and Hamidian rebels and sent secret agents to some of the prominent leaders, things got so far out of hand that no one was satisfied with the situation in Turkey in Europe. It became unbearable for the Serbs, the Greeks and for the Albanians, by the grace of God, I have therefore ordered my brave army to join in the Holy War to free our brethren and to ensure a better future. To all of them we bring freedom and equality, in a search for allies, Serbia was ready to negotiate a treaty with Bulgaria.
The agreement provided that, in the event of victory against the Ottomans, serbias expansion was accepted by Bulgaria as being to the north of the Shar Mountains. The intervening area was agreed to be disputed, it would be arbitrated by the Tsar of Russia in the event of a war against the Ottoman Empire. After the successful coup détat for unification with Eastern Rumelia, Bulgaria began to dream that its national unification would be realized, for that purpose, it developed a large army, and identified as the Prussia of the Balkans. But Bulgaria could not win a war alone against the Ottomans and they wanted to reverse their defeat in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 by the Ottomans. An emergency military reorganization led by a French military mission had been started for that purpose, in the discussions that led Greece to join the Balkan League, Bulgaria refused to commit to any agreement on the distribution of territorial gains, unlike its deal with Serbia over Macedonia. Bulgarias diplomatic policy was to push Serbia into an agreement limiting its access to Macedonia, Bulgaria believed that its army would be able to occupy the larger part of Aegean Macedonia and the important port city of Salonica before the Greeks.
In 1911, Italy had launched an invasion of Tripolitania in present-day Libya, the Italians decisive military victories over the Ottoman Empire encouraged the Balkan states to imagine they might win a war against the Ottomans