Capture of Schwaben Redoubt
The Capture of Schwaben Redoubt was a tactical incident in the Battle of the Somme, 1916. The redoubt was a German strong point 500–600 yd long and 200 yd wide, built in stages since 1915, near the village of Thiepval, overlooking the River Ancre, it formed part of the German defensive system in the Somme sector of the Western Front during the First World War and consisting of a mass of machine-gun emplacements and dug-outs. The redoubt was defended by the 26th Reserve Division, from Swabia in south-west Germany, which had arrived in the area during the First Battle of Albert in 1914. Troops of the 36th Division captured the redoubt on 1 July 1916, until forced out by German bombardments and counter-attacks after night had fallen; the British kept the area of the redoubt under bombardment until 3 September, when the 49th Division attacked the area from the west, in a morning fog. The 36th Division infantry got across no man's land but were defeated, when German artillery and machine gun fire swept the Irish troops and German infantry counter-attacked from the flanks, using hand grenades.
In late September, the British gained a footing during the Battle of Thiepval Ridge. Attack and counter-attack followed until 14 October, when troops of the 39th Division, captured the last German foothold in the redoubt and repulsed German counter-attacks from 15–21 October; the site of the redoubt lies between the Ulster Tower. The 26th Reserve Division of the XIV Reserve Corps, arrived on the Somme in late September 1914, attempting to advance westwards towards Amiens. By 7 October, the advance had ended and temporary scrapes had been occupied. Fighting in the area from the Somme north to the Ancre, subsided into minor line-straightening attacks by both sides; the primacy of artillery had been established during the fighting of 1914 and the exploitation of artillery fire power in defensive fighting, required means of communication between the front line and artillery positions in the rear. Artillery organisation needed to be centralised to make sure. In late December 1915, Major Bornemann, commander of the 26th Division field artillery, wrote a report in which he described failures of communication, which led to an advantage created by the blowing of a mine being squandered by the artillery.
Bornemann wrote that artillery battery observation posts had been left unmanned, on the assumption that they had been superseded by artillery liaison officers in the front line. Reporting had been inadequate due to complacency and reports should have been circulated to all headquarters rather than individual officers assuming that the information had been communicated; the artillery should avoid settling into routine firing, since prisoners had reported that its predictability made it easy to evade and limiting firing to the area in front of batteries should cease and oblique firing into adjacent sectors begin, to ensure that British artillery could not fire with impunity from the flanks. Concentrations of fire consumed too much ammunition on local targets and should be limited to provide ammunition for firing on other targets, to disrupt British operations and to reassure German infantry that they would not be abandoned by the artillery. Retaliatory fire should be prompt and authority to order fire should be shared by all artillery officers, rather than relying on unreliable communications to request authority to fire on targets as they were observed.
As an example, Bornemann recommended that if a British artillery battery was detected, it should be engaged with 200 rounds immediately. Co-operation with artillery observers in aircraft and balloons should be improved, with at least one target selected for bombardment in every aircraft sortie, for which the artillery commanders should draw up gridded drawings of targets within range; when British aircraft were overhead, battery positions should cease fire to remain hidden and German aircraft units should be contacted to drive the British away. Bornemann suggested that artillery group commanders should have control of all artillery ammunition allotted to the group and that artillery regimental headquarters should be responsible for replacing stocks and passing on demands for more ammunition to higher headquarters. On the Western Front, General Erich Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff at the Oberste Heeresleitung instituted a construction plan in January 1915, by which the western armies would be provided with field fortifications built to a common system, to economise on infantry, while offensive operations were conducted on the Eastern Front.
Barbed-wire obstacles had been enlarged from one belt 5–10 yd wide to two belts 30 yd wide and about 15 yd apart. The front line had been increased from one trench to three, 150–200 yd apart, the first trench to be occupied by sentry groups, the second to accommodate the front-trench garrison and the third trench for local reserves; the trenches were to have sentry-posts in concrete recesses built into the parapet. Dugouts were to be large enough for 25 men. An intermediate line of strong points about 1,000 yd behind the front line was be built. Communication trenches were to be dug back to the reserve line, renamed the second line, as well built and wired as the first line; the second line was built beyond the range of Allied field artillery, to force an attacker to stop and move field artillery forward before assaulting the line. Behind the G
Allenay is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The commune is situated c. 5 km from the English Channel, on the D19 road and 11 km northeast of Le Tréport on the border of the departments of the Somme and Seine-Maritime. Communes of the Somme department INSEE Allenay on the website of Quid Position of Allenay on a map of France
Abbeville is a commune in the Somme department and in Hauts-de-France region in northern France. It is the chef-lieu of one of the arrondissements of Somme. Located on the River Somme, it was the capital of Ponthieu, its inhabitants are called the Abbevillois. Abbeville is located on 20 km from its modern mouth in the English Channel; the majority of the town is located on the east bank of the Somme, as well as on an island. It is located at the head of the Abbeville Canal, is 45 km northwest of Amiens and 200 kilometres from Paris, it is 10 kilometres as the crow flies from the Bay of Somme and the English Channel. In the medieval period, it was the lowest crossing point on the Somme and it was nearby that Edward III's army crossed shortly before the Battle of Crécy in 1346. Just halfway between Rouen and Lille, it is the historical capital of the County of Ponthieu and maritime Picardy. Émonville Park takes its name from one of its owners Arthur Foulc d'Émonville, an amateur botanist, who bought a part of the Priory of Saints Peter and Paul in order to accommodate a garden and to construct a mansion, which now houses the study and heritage section of the Robert Mallet municipal library.
The remains of the priory include the entrance arch, current main entrance of the garden located on Place Clemenceau, as well as some buildings which make up the Saint-Pierre School, including the remarkable Chapel of Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul. This place is considered by some to be the origin of Abbeville, because it was the location of the first château of the Counts of Ponthieu, called castrum, it is assumed that this place could have been the location of the farm of Abbatisvilla, dependent upon the Abbey of Saint-Riquier. The suburbs of La Bouvaque and Thuison are located to the north of the city; the municipal park of La Bouvaque, bordered by the Boulevard de la République, consists of the La Bouvaque pond and Collart meadows, former settling ponds of the Béghin-Say sugar factory. It was in Thuison that the Carthusian monastery of Saint-Honoré was founded in 1301 by William of Mâcon, Bishop of Amiens; this was a property of the Order of the Temple, sold to the latter by Gérard de Villars, the last master of the province of France.
The sale was confirmed by Hugues de Pairaud visitor of France. The suburb of Saint Gilles Rouvroy is to the west, the origin of the name comes from Rouvray indicates the presence of an oak wood or a remarkable oak. Mautort, beside Rouvroy, is a former stronghold located between Abbeville, it is at the origin of the noble name of de Mautort, surviving in the name of the Tillette de Mautort family or, for example, of Georges-Victor Demautort. The name tort is attested in Old French with the sense of Mau; the Church of Saint-Silvin de Mautort, emblematic of the quarter, was a simple chapel of sailors founded in the 11th century and underwent many changes during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Menchecourt, in the north-west, is known for its football club. Abbeville is served by trains on the line between Boulogne-sur-Mer and Amiens and between Calais and Paris. Abbeville was the southern terminus of the Réseau des Bains de Mer, the line to Dompierre-sur-Authie opened on 19 June 1892 and closed on 10 March 1947.
Abbeville is located just near the A16 autoroute, is about 1 hour 50 minutes by car from Paris. Abbeville has an oceanic climate due to its proximity to the ocean; the summers and winters are temperate and rainy, days of snow are common. There are 26 days of storm per year with a maximum in the months of July and August, the rains are frequent and distributed in the year with precipitation totalling 781.3 millimetres and 128 days with precipitation. The sunshine is average because of its position in the north and the oceanic influence helps to prevent temperatures from being too high with only three days of intense heat and from being too cold with 6 days of heavy frost; the highest temperature was 37.8 °C on 1 July 1952 and the record low is −17.4 °C, which occurred during a cold spell on 17 January 1985. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants have a census take place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.
The population of the commune is old. The rate of persons over 60 years of age is higher than the departmental rate. Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the commune is greater than the male population; the rate is over two points higher than the national rate. In 2007, the distribution of the population of the commune by age group is as follows: 45.6% of males 54.4% of females Abbeville is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie d'Abbeville - Picardie maritime. It manages the aerodrome and industrial areas of the arrondissement of Abbeville. Abbeville manufactured textiles, in particular and tablecloths when the Van Robais family created la Manufacture Royale des Rames
Allaines is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The commune is on the D43 departmental road about 34 km northeast of Saint-Quentin. Communes of the Somme department INSEE Allaines on the website of Quid Position of Allaines on the map of France
Agenvillers is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The communes is a small village about 13 km northeast of Abbeville, on the D82 departmental road. Communes of the Somme department INSEE Official website of the community Agenvillers on the website of Quid Position of Agenvillers on a map of France
Aigneville is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The commune lies about 30 km southwest of Abbeville, at the junction of the departmental roads D67 and D65. Communes of the Somme department INSEE Aigneville on the website of Quid Position of Aigneville on the map of France
Aizecourt-le-Bas is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The commune is situated 35 km northwest of Saint-Quentin, on the D 72. Communes of the Somme department INSEE Aizecourt-le-Bas on the website of Quid Position of Aizecourt-le-Bas on the French map