The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
New York Daily News
The New York Daily News titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most circulated daily newspaper in the United States, it was founded in 1919, was the first U. S. daily printed in tabloid format. It reached its peak circulation at 2.4 million copies a day. The Daily News was founded as the Illustrated Daily News. Patterson and his cousin, Robert R. McCormick were co-publishers of the Chicago Tribune and grandsons of Tribune Company founder Joseph Medill; when Patterson and McCormick could not agree on the editorial content of the Chicago paper, the two cousins decided at a meeting in Paris that Patterson would work on the project of launching a Tribune-owned newspaper in New York. On his way back, Patterson met with Alfred Harmsworth, the Viscount Northcliffe and publisher of the Daily Mirror, London's tabloid newspaper. Impressed with the advantages of a tabloid, Patterson launched the Daily News on June 26, 1919; the Daily News was not an immediate success, by August 1919, the paper's circulation had dropped to 26,625.
Still, New York's many subway commuters found the tabloid format easier to handle, readership grew. By the time of the paper's first anniversary in June 1920, circulation was over 100,000 and by 1925, over a million. Circulation reached its peak at 2.4 million daily and 4.7 million on Sunday. The Daily News carried the slogan "New York's Picture Newspaper" from 1920 to 1991, for its emphasis on photographs, a camera has been part of the newspaper's logo from day one; the paper's slogan, developed from a 1985 ad campaign, is "New York's Hometown Newspaper", while another has been "The Eyes, the Ears, the Honest Voice of New York". The Daily News continues to include large and prominent photographs, for news and sports, as well as intense city news coverage, celebrity gossip, classified ads, comics, a sports section, an opinion section. News-gathering operations were, for a time, organized using two-way radios operating on 173.3250 MHz, allowing the assignment desk to communicate with its personnel who utilized a fleet of "radio cars".
Prominent sports cartoonists have included Bruce Stark and Ed Murawinski. Columnists have included Walter Kaner. Editorial cartoonists have included C. D. Batchelor; the paper published a Monday-Friday afternoon counterpart, Daily News Tonight, between August 19, 1980 and August 28, 1981. Occasional "P. M. Editions" were published as extras in 1991, during the brief tenure of Robert Maxwell as publisher. In 1982, again in the early 1990s during a newspaper strike, the Daily News went out of business. In the 1982 instance, the parent Tribune Company offered the tabloid up for sale. In 1991, millionaire Robert Maxwell offered financial assistance to the News to help it stay in business; when Maxwell died shortly thereafter, the News seceded from his publishing empire, which splintered under questions about whether Maxwell had the financial backing to sustain it. After Maxwell's death in 1991, the paper was held together in bankruptcy by existing management, led by editor James Willse, who became interim publisher after buying the paper from Tribune.
Mort Zuckerman bought the paper in 1993. From its founding until 1991, the Daily News was owned by the Tribune Company. In 1948, the News established WPIX, whose call letters were based on the News's nickname of "New York's Picture Newspaper"; the television station became a Tribune property outright in 1991, remains in the former Daily News Building. The News maintains local bureaux in the Bronx and Queens, at City Hall, within One Police Plaza, at the various state and federal courthouses in the city. In January 2012, former News of the World and New York Post editor Colin Myler was appointed editor-in-chief of the Daily News. Myler was replaced by his deputy Jim Rich in September 2015. On September 4, 2017, the publishing operations of the former Tribune Company, announced that it had acquired the Daily News. Tronc had bought the Daily News for $1, assuming "operational and pension liabilities". By the time of purchase, circulation had dropped to 200,000 on 260,000 on Sundays. In July 2018, tronc fired half of the paper's editorial staff, including the editor-in-chief, Jim Rich.
Rich was replaced by Robert York and Editor-in-Chief of tronc-owned The Morning Call in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The paper's social media staff were included in the cut. New York Times journalist Alan Feuer said the Daily News focuses on "deep sourcing and doorstep reporting", providing city-centered "crime reportage and hard-hitting coverage of public issues rather than portraying New York through the partisan divide between liberals and conservatives". According to Feuer, the paper is known for "speaking to and for the city’s working class" and for "its crusades against municipal misconduct"; the New York Times has described the Daily News's editorial stance as "flexibly centrist" with a "high-minded, if populist, legacy". The News endorsed Rep
1 vs. 100 (U.S. game show)
1 vs. 100 is an American game show, broadcast by NBC from 2006 to 2008 and revived on Game Show Network with a new series, which ran from 2010 to 2011. The game features a single player competing against 100 other contestants in a trivia match; the 1 earns prize money depending on how many Mob members he or she has eliminated from the game, but loses all winnings with an incorrect answer at any point. The host of the original NBC version was Bob Saget; the game is played with the main contestant acting as the "1" answering questions against 100 other people collectively known as the "Mob". To win the game outright, the contestant must be the last player standing, eliminating all 100 members of the Mob by answering general knowledge questions correctly. To begin the game, a multiple-choice question is revealed with three options: one correct and two incorrect. Once all of the Mob members have locked in their answers, the contestant is given the opportunity to answer the question. If the contestant is correct, all Mob members that answered incorrectly are eliminated from the game.
The amount of money in the contestant's bank increases by an amount dependent on the number of mob members eliminated in that question. If the contestant eliminates all 100 mob members, he or she claims a top prize of $1,000,000. In this case, the remaining Mob members who answered the question evenly split the losing contestant's winnings accumulated up to that point in the game. To assist the main contestant, assistance from the mob is offered in the form of "helps". There were two helps, which could only be used in order. Starting with the sixth episode, a third option was added, the three helps were given names, contestants could choose any of the three at any point in the game; the first help was "Poll The Mob", where the contestant selects one of the three answers to get more information about. The number of Mob members who chose that answer is revealed, the contestant chooses one of the revealed mob members to discuss his or her response. "Ask The Mob" was the second help, in which two Mob members are randomly selected: one who answered and one who answered incorrectly.
Each explains his or her decision to the contestant, which in turn eliminates the third choice from consideration. A third help, "Trust The Mob", was added in the series' sixth episode. For this help, the contestant is automatically committed to the most popular answer. Additionally, after reaching a certain point in the game, contestants can be given a "Sneak Peek" which allows the contestant to see their next question before deciding whether or not to answer the next question. In season one, it was used. Contestants were awarded a cumulative amount of money after each individual question for each Mob member eliminated. For example, a contestant who eliminated eight Mob members on his or her second question would be awarded $500 per member, adding up to $4,000 to add to his or her total; the payout structure was tweaked prior to the third episode of the season and changed once again on the sixth episode in conjunction with introduction of the "Trust the Mob" help. In the second season, the payout structure was simplified to award contestants for every set of ten Mob members eliminated.
On the GSN version, the second NBC season's structure was used, though the amounts were reduced. Towards the end of the series' run, the top prize was raised to $100,000 before reverting to $50,000 for the final two episodes; the show first premiered on NBC as a five-episode series on October 13, 2006. On October 20, 2006, it was reported that NBC ordered ten additional episodes of 1 vs. 100, citing the show's encouraging ratings performance. The series returned to NBC's schedule with these new episodes on December 1, 2006. In May, NBC announced that 1 vs. 100 would return for its second season in Fall 2007 with an eight-episode run. The Singing Bee was scheduled to air after the initial run of 1 vs. 100, but its premiere was moved up to July to compete with Fox's new game show Don't Forget the Lyrics! In July, NBC announced some fall scheduling updates that included 1 vs. 100's season two premiere being temporarily delayed. In late 2007, as a result of the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike, NBC announced that 1 vs. 100 would return as a winter replacement sometime in January, the series debuted its second season on January 4, 2008, with a new set and money ladder system of obtaining prize money.
On December 1, 2006, the top prize was raised to $3,000,000 for the episode's first contestant. The episode featured several celebrities in the Mob, including game show hosts Wink Martindale and Bob Eubanks. A Christmas special aired on December 25, 2006, which featured Christmas-related questions and a Mob with members in character representing "The 12 Days of Christmas." A kids edition was played on the February 2, 2007, episode in which the Mob consisted of 100 children. The five remaining members who avoided elimination split $94,000. In a special entitled "Last Man Standing", a Mob consisting of former top Mob members and game show champions, including Brad Rutter, Ken Jennings, Nancy Christy, Kevin Olmstead, Annie Duke among others, competed only against each other. Th
Bingo America is an American game show broadcast by Game Show Network. The series follows two contestants as they try to compete to win up to $100,000. Additionally, the series lets at-home viewers print bingo cards online that allow them to play along with the show to win small amounts of money for themselves. Created and produced by Andrew Glassman, the show was hosted by Patrick Duffy and Crystal Wallasch; when its second season premiered on October 6, 2008, they were replaced by Richard Karn and Diane Mizota, respectively. Two contestants compete on each episode. On each turn, a Bingo ball comes out of the hopper and a question is asked; each ball has a letter in the word "BINGO" printed on it. If the question is answered the player earns the letter from that ball and the number on the ball is added in dollars to the bank, which starts at $500. If the letter is a duplicate earned by the player, no extra letters are earned; the first player that spells out BINGO from the earned. A Free-Space Ball with a sponsor's logo acts as a wild card in the game.
The player who answers a question when that ball is rolled out can choose any letter, $100 is added to the bank. Two regular games are played. Contestants who win both games receive all the money in the bank. If each contestant wins one game, a five-question tie-breaker game is played; the first question's answer begins with a B, the second question's answer starts with I, so on. The first to answer three questions wins the money in the bank and goes on to play the Bingo Bonus Board for a chance at $100,000. If time runs short during a game, the show goes to a 50/50 round. In the 50/50 round the remaining questions of that game are asked in a multiple-choice fashion, with two possible answers given. Contestants who answer incorrectly at this point have credit for the question automatically given to their opponent; the winner of the main game plays the Bingo Bonus Board. In the first season of the show, each number on the Bingo Bonus Board represented a cash amount or another prize, up to a grand prize of $100,000 cash.
Every prize was repeated at least twice on the board. The contestant chose one number at a time, won the first prize to be revealed twice. In the second season, 55 of the 75 spaces concealed cash values, while 20 hid "wrecking balls." Contestants selected a number in that row. After each selection, the contestants could leave the game with the money won or risk their winnings and continue with a selection in the next row. Contestants who chose wrecking balls lost the money. Contestants who made five successful picks kept all of their accumulated bonus money and activated the Bingo Sphere one more time for the Superball. If any of the contestants' five chosen bonus numbers matched the one on the Superball, their bonus round winnings were augmented to $100,000. Marine John Stefan was the first contestant to win $100,000, doing so under the first format on April 11, 2008. John Hanlin was the only player to win the top prize under the second format, doing so on October 22, 2008. At-home viewers are allowed to play along with the show downloading bingo cards available at GSN's website.
Once the taping of the show is complete and all of the randomly drawn numbers have been recorded, a computer generates bingo cards that viewers can download and print for the broadcast of the show a few weeks later. A home player who earns a "Bingo" is directed to GSN's website to claim a $50 prize; the series, created by veteran television producer Andrew Glassman, was first announced as green-lit on January 30, 2008. The first season contained 40 episodes, which began airing on March 31, 2008. A second season of the series, consisting of 65 episodes, debuted on October 6, 2008, with Karn and Mizota joining the show; when asked to explain the host change, GSN argued that while Duffy was a "terrific" host and the network "loved working with him," Karn was "a perfect fit for all the exciting changes." Bingo America received mixed critical reception. David Hinckley of the New York Daily News argued that the series only got "partly there" in attempting to bring bingo to television, "doesn't quite capture what the game is about."
Additionally, Ed Bark, a former television critic at The Dallas Morning News, argued that the show, "moves along briskly enough and it won't hurt anybody," and added that it had potential to raise the level of GSN's "miniscule" audience. In 2008, GSN announced plans to launch a new website featuring multiple variations of game show-themed merchandise. Among the items featured in the online store was an interactive DVD game by Imagination Entertainment based on the series' format, released at the time the second season premiered; the game plays to the show, beginning with a "Bingo Draw" round. During this round, players attempt to be the first to earn a "Bingo" while accumulating points by answering trivia questions. Once a player earns a "Bingo" the "Bingo Bonus Board" round is played; the winner of the previous round tries to add more points to their score by matching two hidden numbers. Opposing players can earn points by guessing which numbers the other player chooses in this round. Whoever earns the most points during the game is the winner.
National Bingo Night Official website Bingo America on IMDb
Vincent Pastore is an Italian-American actor. Cast as a mafioso, he is best known for his portrayal of Salvatore "Big Pussy" Bonpensiero on the HBO series The Sopranos. Pastore, an Italian American, grew up in New Rochelle, New York. Following his graduation from high school, he enlisted as a sailor in the United States Navy and attended Pace University for three years, before going into the acting industry after befriending Matt Dillon and Kevin Dillon. On June 3, 2015 on Good Day New York morning TV show, Pastore said he was in the Club Business for close to 30 years, got into acting in his forties. Pastore has made a career of portraying Italian American mafiosi in television, he began with small parts in films such as Goodfellas and Carlito's Way. In Goodfellas, he is seen rolling a coat rack through the kitchen of The Bamboo Lounge and is credited as "Vinny Pastore" playing "Man with Coat Rack". In Carlito's Way, he portrays one of the friends of the Italian man that dances with Gail, whom Kleinfeld insults.
He is listed in the credits as "Vinny Pastore" playing "Copa Wiseguy." Pastore got a bigger role in the comedy/crime film The Jerky Boys: The Movie as Tony Scarboni, one of the three gangsters and Lazarro's clients. In the 1996 HBO television movie Gotti, Pastore played the character of Angelo Ruggiero, alongside future Sopranos cast members Tony Sirico, Frank Vincent and Dominic Chianese. In 1999, Pastore got his biggest role to date in The Sopranos, where he played the character Salvatore "Big Pussy" Bonpensiero, his character was murdered in the finale of season 2, but Pastore would make a few more appearances over the next few years in dream and flashback sequences. In addition to The Sopranos, he has appeared in Mickey Blue Eyes, Flodders in America", "Two Family House, Under Hellgate Bridge, Riding in Cars with Boys, Witness to the Mob, Deuces Wild, Mafia!, The Hurricane, Serving Sara, American Cousins, A Tale of Two Pizzas, This Thing of Ours, Shark Tale, Bachelor Party Vegas, The Family, Once Upon a Time in Brooklyn, Money Train, A Brooklyn State of Mind, The Deli, The Last Don II, Johnny Slade’s Greatest Hits, Guy Ritchie’s Revolver.
He served as associate producer of the film Doughboys. He appeared in a Cyberchase for Real segment as the owner of a comedy and magic club. Television credits include Grounded for Life, character Vinnie Fellachio in Son of the Beach, Law & Order, the soap opera One Life to Live, host of Repo-Men/Stealing for a Living, Ed, Queens Supreme, Everybody Hates Chris, The Making of the Mob: New York, Blue Bloods, The Making of the Mob: Chicago, an uncredited voice role in the television program Aqua Teen Hunger Force as Terry. In 2007, Pastore starred in the independent feature film P. J.: A Journey of the Heart. In 2008, he joined the cast of General Hospital as Maximus Giambetti, father of two characters on the show, he once again plays a mobster. He had roles in 2008's College Road Trip and Our Last Days As Children, he starred in the 2008 film Dough Boys. In 2009, Pastore starred in Alienated. In 2010, he starred in the award-winning indie mob-comedy Pizza With Bullets. Pastore played Mayor Avenoso in the 2012 indie feature Surviving Family.
He appears in the 2013 film I'm in Love with a Church Girl and will appear in Penguins of Madagascar as Pinky the Brown Bear. Pastore lost 29 lbs on the fourth season of the VH1 reality show Celebrity Fit Club which ran from August 6 to October 1, 2006. On February 20, 2007, ABC announced that Pastore would participate in the fourth season of the American version of the competitive dance series Dancing with the Stars, he withdrew from the competition after only one week. Pastore said that he found the necessary preparation too physically demanding. John Ratzenberger took his place in the competition. Pastore was featured as a contestant on the January 2008 edition of Celebrity Apprentice. In the second week, he participated in raising $52,286 by selling hot dogs on a Manhattan street for that week's charity. In a task of selling Broadway show tickets, with Pastore as project manager, he led his team to raise $33,300 for charity. In the fifth week, he got into a faked, blow-out conflict with the project manager of the task, Piers Morgan, in order to see if he could get the women to let him on their team to spy on them.
The episode had played out like an episode of The Sopranos with Pastore switching allegiances multiple times. Pastore was deliberately "ratted out" to the women by Morgan in the end, to make Pastore look bad to the women. While Pastore and the men lost their task, before Trump lifted a finger to fire anyone that week, Pastore resigned from the show and Trump accepted Pastore's resignation after trying to convince him to stay; the show ended with a sequence based on the series finale of The Sopranos, ending abruptly before Pastore could give the customary end-of-show interview in the cab. Week 6 episode begins with Pastore meeting his ex-wife Nancy in a restaurant and presenting her the check he received for being project manager for $50,000, in memory of her husband, Mitchell Burke's memorial fund with the Lustgarden Foundation. On July 1, Pastore appeared on NBC's new show, Celebrity Family Feud, as part of a family team trying to win $50,000 for their favorite charity, he first competed, against the cast of The Girls Next Door.
Pastore's team made it to the finals against Kathie Lee Gifford's family, but did not win. However and his te
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Catch 21 is an American game show broadcast by Game Show Network. Created by Merrill Heatter, the series followed three contestants as they play a card game centered on blackjack and trivia; the show is based on a popular online game from GSN's website and aired for four seasons from 2008–11. It was hosted with actress Mikki Padilla serving as the card dealer; the show received positive critical reception as a whole. Additionally, the series was acquired by Bounce TV in 2013, with the network hopeful it could "add fuel" to the channel's growing momentum. Three contestants are each given a card to start a blackjack hand from a standard 52-card deck shuffled prior to taping. Alfonso Ribeiro reads multiple-choice questions and the first contestant to answer earns 100 points; the contestant who answered can freeze their hand, preventing them from receiving additional cards or reveal the next card from the top of the deck. After revealing the card, the contestant can either accept it for themselves or pass it to one of their opponents who has not yet frozen.
If keeping a card, the contestant in control is given another chance to freeze. However, once a contestant has frozen, the remaining contestants must freeze at a score higher than that contestant. A contestant is eliminated from the round if their hand exceeds 21; the process is repeated with additional questions and cards until two contestants have frozen or busted. A contestant whose score reaches 21 instantly wins the round. Beginning in season two, a bonus prize is given to the contestant regardless of the outcome of the game. If two contestants bust, the remaining contestant automatically wins the round. If only one contestant has not yet frozen or busted, no additional questions are asked; the winner of this round receives 500 points and a power chip to use in the bonus round, assuming that contestant gets that far. After two rounds, the contestant with the lowest score is eliminated; the two remaining contestants play one more round involving the same toss-up question format, but point scores are not kept.
The contestant who wins the round receives $1,000 and two additional power chips moves on to the bonus round. The winner now controls three separate hands, each staked with one card. A new deck of 52 cards, shuffled and cut is used. Cards are drawn for the contestant, one at a time and the contestant chooses a hand in which to place each card; the contestant can use a power chip to dispose of an unwanted card. The contestant can end the round at any time if they fear the next card will cause them to bust on any of the three hands. However, using a power chip forces the contestant to place the next card in a hand or use another chip if one is available. Getting 21 in one hand wins $1,000. If the contestant busts on any hand, they will lose all money earned in the bonus round. On some episodes in season two, the top prize was increased to $50,000 with the other payouts remaining the same; the television version of the game was based on a popular online version from GSN's website. In this version, the online player has five minutes to make as many hands of 21 as they can using four columns.
The player can play a card in any of their columns as long. Playing five cards in a column earns the player a bonus, while the jacks of spades and clubs allow any column to be cleared no matter what; the series featured executive producers Scott Sternberg and Merrill Heatter, premiered on July 21, 2008. On February 18, 2009, GSN renewed the series for a 65-episode second season, which featured the addition of an extra power chip in the bonus round in order to increase contestant's chances of winning the top prize. A third season, announced on September 16, 2009, debuted on October 12, with some episodes featuring celebrities with a common bond playing for charity; the show's fourth and final season debuted on August 16, 2010. On March 21, 2019, Adweek reported that GSN would revive Catch 21, producing new episodes for the first time in nearly a decade. Critical reception for Catch 21 was positive. Carrie Grosvenor of About Entertainment argued that the series was "a fun game with a solid concept...
It's worth checking out." Hollywood Junket praised Ribeiro, calling him "hands-down, one of the best game show hosts out there...the fun, brother/sister type chemistry between himself and is rare and benefits the show greatly." Additionally, Bounce TV expressed excitement when announcing their acquisition of the series in 2013, citing the series' popularity among GSN viewers and consistent ratings growth during its original run. The network's chief operating officer Jonathan Katz commented, "We are confident that the broadcast premieres of The American Bible Challenge and Catch 21 will add fuel to Bounce TV’s skyrocketing growth." Official website Catch 21 on IMDb Catch 21 at TV.com