Santorini Thira and classic Greek Thera, is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km southeast of Greece's mainland. It is the largest island of a small, circular archipelago, which bears the same name and is the remnant of a volcanic caldera, it forms the southernmost member of the Cyclades group of islands, with an area of 73 km2 and a 2011 census population of 15,550. The municipality of Santorini includes the inhabited islands of Santorini and Therasia and the uninhabited islands of Nea Kameni, Palaia Kameni and Christiana; the total land area is 90.623 km2. Santorini is part of the Thira regional unit; the island was the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history: the Minoan eruption, which occurred about 3,600 years ago at the height of the Minoan civilization. The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of metres deep, it may have led indirectly to the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, 110 km to the south, through a gigantic tsunami.
Another popular theory holds. It is the most active volcanic centre in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, though what remains today is chiefly a water-filled caldera; the volcanic arc is 500 km long and 20 to 40 km wide. The region first became volcanically active around 3–4 million years ago, though volcanism on Thera began around 2 million years ago with the extrusion of dacitic lavas from vents around the Akrotiri. Santorini was named by the Latin Empire in the thirteenth century, is a reference to Saint Irene, from the name of the old cathedral in the village of Perissa – the name Santorini is a contraction of the name Santa Irini. Before it was known as Kallístē, Strongýlē, or Thēra; the name Thera was revived in the nineteenth century as the official name of the island and its main city, but the colloquial name Santorini is still in popular use. The present municipality of Thera, which covers all settlements on the islands of Santorini and Therasia, was formed at the 2011 local government reform, by the merger of the former Oia and Thera municipalities.
Oia is now called a Κοινότητα, within the municipality of Thera, it consists of the local subdivisions of Therasia and Oia. The municipality of Thera includes an additional 12 local subdivisions on Santorini island: Akrotiri, Episkopis Gonia, Exo Gonia, Karterados, Mesaria, Pyrgos Kallistis, Thera and Vourvoulos. Santorini's primary industry is tourism; the two main sources of wealth in Santorini are tourism. In recent years, Santorini has been voted one of the world's most beautiful islands. Santorini remains the home of a small, but flourishing wine industry, based on the indigenous Assyrtiko grape variety. White varieties include Athiri and Aidani, whereas red varieties include mavrotragano and mandilaria; the Cyclades are part of a metamorphic complex, known as the Cycladic Massif. The complex formed during the Miocene and was folded and metamorphosed during the Alpine orogeny around 60 million years ago. Thera is built upon a small, non-volcanic basement that represents the former non-volcanic island, 9 by 6 km.
The basement rock is composed of metamorphosed limestone and schist, which date from the Alpine Orogeny. These non-volcanic rocks are exposed at Mikro Profititis Ilias, Mesa Vouno, the Gavrillos ridge, Pyrgos and the inner side of the caldera wall between Cape Plaka and Athinios; the metamorphic grade is a blueschist facies, which results from tectonic deformation by the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. Subduction occurred between the Oligocene and the Miocene, the metamorphic grade represents the southernmost extent of the Cycladic blueschist belt. Volcanism on Santorini is due to the Hellenic Trench subduction zone southwest of Crete; the oceanic crust of the northern margin of the African Plate is being subducted under Greece and the Aegean Sea, thinned continental crust. The subduction compels the formation of the Hellenic arc, which includes Santorini and other volcanic centres, such as Methana and Kos; the island is the result of repeated sequences of shield volcano construction followed by caldera collapse.
The inner coast around the caldera is a sheer precipice of more than 300 metres drop at its highest, exhibits the various layers of solidified lava on top of each other, the main towns perched on the crest. The ground slopes outwards and downwards towards the outer perimeter, the outer beaches are smooth and shallow. Beach sand colour depends on; the water at the darker coloured beaches is warmer because the lava acts as a heat absorber. The area of Santorini incorporates a group of islands created by volcanoes, spanning across Thera, Aspronisi and Nea Kameni. Santorini has erupted many times, with varying degrees of explosivity. There have been at least twelve large explosive eruptions, of which at least four were caldera-forming; the most famous eruption is the Minoan eruption, detailed below
The Cyclades are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece. They are one of the island groups; the name refers to the islands around the sacred island of Delos. The largest island of the Cyclades is Naxos; the significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Cycladic culture is best known for its schematic, flat idols carved out of the islands' pure white marble centuries before the great Middle Bronze Age Minoan civilization arose in Crete to the south. A distinctive Neolithic culture amalgamating Anatolian and mainland Greek elements arose in the western Aegean before 4000 BCE, based on emmer and wild-type barley and goats, tuna that were speared from small boats. Excavated sites include Saliagos and Kephala with signs of copperworking, Each of the small Cycladic islands could support no more than a few thousand people, though Late Cycladic boat models show that fifty oarsmen could be assembled from the scattered communities, when the organized palace-culture of Crete arose, the islands faded into insignificance, with the exception of Delos, which retained its archaic reputation as a sanctuary throughout antiquity and until the emergence of Christianity.
The first archaeological excavations of the 1880s were followed by systematic work by the British School at Athens and by Christos Tsountas, who investigated burial sites on several islands in 1898–1899 and coined the term "Cycladic civilization". Interest lagged picked up in the mid-20th century, as collectors competed for the modern-looking figures that seemed so similar to sculpture by Jean Arp or Constantin Brâncuși. Sites were looted and a brisk trade in forgeries arose; the context for many of these Cycladic figurines has been destroyed and their meaning may never be understood. Another intriguing and mysterious object is that of the Cycladic frying pans. More accurate archaeology has revealed the broad outlines of a farming and seafaring culture that had immigrated from Anatolia c. 5000 BCE. Early Cycladic culture evolved in three phases, between c. 3300 – 2000 BCE, when it was swamped in the rising influence of Minoan Crete. The culture of mainland Greece contemporary with Cycladic culture is known as the Helladic period.
In recent decades the Cyclades have become popular with European and other tourists, as a result there have been problems with erosion and water shortages. The Cyclades comprise about 220 islands, the major ones being Amorgos, Andros, Delos, Kea, Kythnos, Mykonos, Paros, Serifos, Sikinos, Syros and Thira or Santoríni. There are many minor islands including Donousa, Gyaros, Koufonisia, Makronisos and Schoinousa; the name "Cyclades" refers to the islands forming a circle around the sacred island of Delos. Most of the smaller islands are uninhabited. Ermoupoli on Syros is the chief town and administrative center of the former prefecture; the islands are peaks of a submerged mountainous terrain, with the exception of two volcanic islands and Santorini. The climate is dry and mild, but with the exception of Naxos the soil is not fertile. Cooler temperatures are in higher elevations and do not receive wintry weather; the Cyclades are bounded to the south by the Sea of Crete. The Cyclades Prefecture was one of the prefectures of Greece.
As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was abolished, its territory was divided into nine regional units of the South Aegean region: Andros Kea-Kythnos Milos Mykonos Naxos Paros Thira Syros Tinos The prefecture was subdivided into the following municipalities and communities. These have been reorganised at the 2011 Kallikratis reform as well. Province of Amorgos: Amorgos Province of Andros: Andros Province of Kea: Ioulis Province of Milos: Milos Province of Naxos: Naxos Province of Paros: Paroikia Province of Syros: Ermoupoli Province of Tinos: Tinos Province of Thira: ThiraNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. Local specialities of the Cyclades include: Brantada Fava santorinis Fourtalia Kalasouna Kalogeros Kakavia Ladopita Louza, similar to the Cypriot lountza Mastelo Strapatsada Lazarakia Melopita Aegean cat Nisiotika music Santorini wine Mosaics of Delos J. A. MacGillivray and R. L. N. Barber, The Prehistoric Cyclades 1984. R. L. N. Barber, The Cyclades in the Bronze Age 1987.
Peter Saundry, C. Michael Hogan & Steve Baum. 2011. Sea of Crete. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. M. Pidwirny & C. J. Cleveland. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC. Jeremy B. Rutter, "The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean": Lessons 2 and 4: chronology, bibliography Cyclades The Official website of the Greek National Tourism Organisation
Kimolos is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. It lies near the bigger island of Milos. Kimolos is the administrative center of the municipality of Kimolos, which includes the uninhabited islands of Polyaigos, Agios Efstathios and Agios Georgios; the island has a land area of 36 square kilometres, while the municipality's land area is 53.251 square kilometres, it reported a population of 910 inhabitants in the 2011 census. Kimolos is an island with rich history records. According to tradition, it is named after Kimolos, the first resident of the island. Echinousa is a recorded name of the island during the ancient times because of the snake Echidna, being common today on the island. Since the ancient era, it was a battlefield between Ancient Athens, the ruler of the island, Sparta, the ruler of Milos. In the Middle Ages it was known as Argentiera, because of the silver-colored rocky lands of its southern coast. Since those times, these rocky lands provided Kimolia Gi-Kimolian Earth, a valuable trade good, which made the island a major trade hub.
It was ruled by the Ottoman Empire until 1829, when it was annexed by the Greek state along with the rest of the Cyclades. Kimolos lies to the northwest of larger Milos island, separated from it by a 1 km wide channel, it is round-shaped 7 km in radius. The island has a total area of 36 square kilometres; the highest point is mount Paleokastro, at 364 metres The only town is Chorio, located on a hill on the west of the island. There are smaller settlements of Psathi, Kara, Aliki and Dekas. To the east of Kimolos lies the island of Polyaigos, half its size. Polyaigos is the largest uninhabited island of Aegean, it is part of the municipality of Kimolos. Kimolos and the smaller islands that surround them belong to the Aegean volcanic arc and consist of acidic volcanic rocks. In some places, the pre-volcanic bedrock can be observed. Large areas of Kimolos are covered by tuffs and the volcanic activity can be obvious from the hot springs, existence of a notable geothermal field, the characteristic landscape and strange landforms.
The island is rich in minerals of the silica group and in significant industrial minerals. One of the most famous geologic formations on Kimolos is Skiadi. Skiadi is a huge mushroom-shaped stone that dominates the middle of a small valley in the interior of the island, it is created by a process called ablation, in which the dust carried by the wind continuously scratches the rock, eroding the softer layers at the bottom much more than the harder layers at the top. Through centuries, the stone has been shaped into a unique form. According to the last censuses, the population of Kimolos is decreasing, no more than 600 residents remain during winter; the underage population is no more than 100, according to the school records. Most of the working population is involved with the tourist industry of the island in combination with agriculture activities during winter. After the municipal/prefectural elections held in October 2006, the mayor of the island for the period 2007-2010 was Theodoros-Gerasimos Maganiotis, who publishes the only newspaper of the island, Kimoliaka Nea.
However, the current mayor of Kimolos is Ventouris Emanuel Konstantinos. Kimolos has a local Police Department; the Kimolos Port Authority is a department of Milos Coast Guard. Kimolos is part of the Milos regional unit. Internal On the island all vehicles are permitted, but during the summer months, the lack of parking space is the most important problem in populated areas, such as Chorio Kimolou and Psathi. Common kinds of fuels are available at the local fuel station. There are public means of transport, such as bus and taxi, performing routes to popular beaches. External Kimolos belongs to the line of the Western Cyclades and it's connected to nearby islands and Piraeus port of Athens via year-round ferry boat and a catamaran ferry running only during the tourist season. Routes frequency varies with the season. During the tourist period, it has daily connection to Piraeus and other islands. Transport via Milos is possible, because of the frequent connection of the two islands with local ferry boat.
Kimolos is a station for the local connections between Cyclades islands. Kimon Digenis, military officer List of islands of Greece The Official Website of the Municipality of Kimolos Kimolos Travel Guide A View of Kimolos from Milos
Astypalaia, is a Greek island with 1,334 residents. It belongs to an archipelago of twelve major islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea; the island is 18 kilometres long, 13 kilometres wide at the most, covers an area of 97 km2. Along with numerous smaller uninhabited offshore islets, it forms the Municipality of Astypalaia, part of the Kalymnos regional unit; the municipality has an area of 114.077 km2. The capital and the previous main harbour of the island is Astypalaia or Chora, as it is called by the locals. Astypalea was believed to be named after an ancient Greek mythological figure; the island is known in Italian as Stampalia and in Ottoman Turkish as İstanbulya The coasts of Astypalaia are rocky with many small pebble-strewn beaches. A small band of land of 126 metres wide separates the island in two sections at Stenó. A new harbour has been built in Agios Andreas on the mid island from where now the connections are west and east with Piraeus and the other islands of the Dodecanese. Flight connections with Athens from the airport close to Maltezana.
Villages: Astypalea or Chora, Analipsi or Maltezana, Vathi Islets: Agía Kyriakí, Astypálaia, Avgó, Glynó, Zaforás, Kounoúpoi, Koutsomýti, Mesonísi, Ofidoússa, Plakída, Pontikoúsa, Stefánia, Sýrna, Fokionísia, Khondró, Khondronísi In Greek mythology, Astypalaia was a woman abducted by Poseidon in the form of a winged fish-tailed leopard. The island was colonized by Megara or Epidaurus, its governing system and buildings are known from numerous inscriptions. Pliny the Elder records, it was assigned to the Aegean Roman province of Insulae. During the Middle Ages it belonged to the Byzantines until 1207, when - in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade - it became a fief of the Querini, a noble Venetian family, until 1522; the Querini built a castle, still in place and added the name of the island to their family name, which became Querini Stampalia. Astypalaia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1522, remained under Ottoman control until 1912, with two interruptions: from 1648 until 1668, during the Cretan War, it was occupied by Venice, from 1821 to 1828 during the Greek War of Independence.
On April 12, 1912, during the Italo-Turkish War, a detachment of the Regia Marina landed on Astypalaia, which thus became the first island of the Dodecanese to be occupied by Italy. From there the Italians, on the night between the 4 May, landed on Rhodes; the island remained under Italian governance until World War II. In a September 1943 naval battle near Astypalea, the Greek destroyer Vasilissa Olga together with the British destroyers HMS Faulknor and Eclipse sank a German convoy, consisting of the transports Pluto and Paolo. In 1947, through the Treaty of Paris, it became part of Greece along with the rest of the Dodecanese island group; the religious and political center of the classical city-state of Astypalaia was the hill crowned by the Querini castle. The modern town of Chora occupies the same site, worked stones from ancient monuments are reused in older houses as well as the castle. A one-room museum at Pera Gialos, on the shore near the old port, displays inscriptions, grave monuments, other artifacts from the island.
The earliest material on display is fragments of neolithic pottery. One case contains intact pottery, bronze weapons, stone tools from a pair of richly furnished Mycenaean chamber tombs excavated at Armenochori. At Kylindra, on the west flank of the castle hill, a unique graveyard has been excavated by the Greek archaeological service. At least 2700 newborns and small children, below the age of two, were buried in ceramic pots between 750 B. C. and Roman times. Since 2000, a team from University College London has undertaken systematic study of these remains and those of a contemporary cemetery for adults and older children excavated at Katsalos nearby. Kylindra was first excavated in 1996 by the 22nd Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, who dated Kylindra from the Late Archaic to the Early Classical periods, is the largest child and infant cemetery in the world, they dated the nearby adult cemetery, from the Geometric to the Roman Period. Skeletal remains of infants are rare amongst most cemetery excavations.
The collection of child and infant remains is housed at University College London, where the growth and developments of the children and infants through development of tissues, teeth structures are studied. The well-preserved mosaic floor of an early Christian basilica, decorated with geometric designs, lies underneath the chapel of Agia Varvara about 700 meters north of the small port of Analipsi, its monolithic columns and marble column bases were evidently reused from a Hellenistic or Roman-period religious building nearby. A few meters east of the harbor of Analipsi, at a site known as Tallaras, are the remains of a late Roman-era bath, its mosaic floors, including a Helios surrounded by the signs of the Zodiac, have been reburied by the Greek Archaeological Service, but photographs are on display at the museum. Mosaic floor fragments remain in situ at the ruined early Christian basilicas of Karekli and Agios Vasilios. Road s
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece
Folegandros is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea that, together with Sikinos, Ios and Santorini, forms the southern part of the Cyclades. Its surface area is 32.216 square kilometres and it has 765 inhabitants. It has three small villages, Chora and Ano Meria, which are connected by a paved road. Folegandros is part of the Thira regional unit. According to Greek mythology, it was said to have derived its name from a son of Minos. Little is known about the ancient history of Folegandros, its inhabitants were Dorians. It came under Athenian rule; the island contained a polis called Pholegandros, sited at the modern Chora and a member of the Delian League where it appears on Athenian tribute lists between 425/4 and 416/15 BCE. The island was called the iron Pholegandros by Aratus on account of its ruggedness, is noted by ancient geographers Strabo and Ptolemy, who calls it Pholekandros; the island was conquered in 1207 by the Venetian Marco Sanudo and remained under the rule of Venice until 1566, when it was taken by the Ottoman Turks.
The Greeks reclaimed it in the 19th century. Folegandros' landscape is varied, includes tall cliffs and a large cave; the "capital" of the island, Chora, is built on the edge of a 200-metre high cliff. The port of Folegandros is the small village of Karavostasis; the Ano Meria village contains Folklore Museum. Among the notable beaches on Folegandros is Katergo, accessible only by foot or by boat from Karavostasis. Katergo beach is used by naturists; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Pholegandros". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Municipality of Folegandros Beaches in Folegandros
Ermoupoli known by the formal older name Ermoupolis or Hermoupolis, is a town and former municipality on the island of Syros, in the Cyclades, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it is part of the municipality Syros-Ermoupoli, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit, it is the capital of the South Aegean region. The municipal unit has an area of 11.181 km2. Ermoupoli was founded during the Greek Revolution in the 1820s, as an extension to the existing Ano Syros township, by refugees from other Greek islands because of the War, it soon became the leading industrial center of Greece, as well as its main port. The renowned Greek Steamship Company was founded in the city in 1856. Thousands of ships were built in the various Syros shipyards. Ermoupoli was eclipsed by Piraeus in the late 19th century. In the following decades the city declined, its economy has improved, based on the service industry. Emmanouil Benakis and politician Olga Broumas and translator Manos Eleutheriou, lyricist Stelios Mainas, actor Michael Melas, father of Pavlos Melas, fighter of the Greek Struggle for Macedonia Emmanuel Rhoides and journalist Georgios Souris, poet Markos Vamvakaris, rebetiko musician Demetrius Vikelas, businessman and the first president of the International Olympic Committee Official website of Ermoupoli University of the Aegean in Ermoupoli