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Third-order intercept point

In telecommunications, a third-order intercept point is a specific figure of merit associated with the more general third-order intermodulation distortion, a measure for weakly nonlinear systems and devices, for example receivers, linear amplifiers and mixers. It is based on the idea that the device nonlinearity can be modeled using a low-order polynomial, derived by means of Taylor series expansion; the third-order intercept point relates nonlinear products caused by the third-order nonlinear term to the linearly amplified signal, in contrast to the second-order intercept point that uses second-order terms. Is the accepted unambiguous term for the third-order intercept point, although one sees the use of TOI for this figure-of-merit; the intercept point is a purely mathematical concept and does not correspond to a occurring physical power level. In many cases, it lies far beyond the damage threshold of the device. Two different definitions for intercept points are in use: Based on harmonics: The device is tested using a single input tone.

The nonlinear products caused by n-th-order nonlinearity appear at n times the frequency of the input tone. Based on intermodulation products: The device is fed with two sine tones with a small frequency difference; the n-th-order intermodulation products appear at n times the frequency spacing of the input tones. This two-tone approach has the advantage that it is not restricted to broadband devices and is used for radio receivers, it is worth noticing that these definitions differ by 4.8 dB, so care should be taken when using existing equations, models or measurement data. The intercept point is obtained graphically by plotting the output power versus the input power both on logarithmic scales. Two curves are drawn. On a logarithmic scale, the function xn translates into a straight line with slope of n. Therefore, the linearly amplified signal will exhibit a slope of 1. A third-order nonlinear product will increase by 3 dB in power when the input power is raised by 1 dB. Both curves are extended with straight lines of slope 1 and n.

The point where the curves intersect is the intercept point. It can be read off from the input or output power axis, leading to input or output intercept point respectively. Input and output intercept point differ by the small-signal gain of the device; the concept of intercept point is based on the assumption of a weakly nonlinear system, meaning that higher-order nonlinear terms are small enough to be negligible. In practice, the weakly nonlinear assumption may not hold for the upper end of the input power range, be it during measurement or during use of the amplifier; as a consequence, measured or simulated data will deviate from the ideal slope of n. The intercept point according to its basic definition should be determined by drawing the straight lines with slope 1 and n through the measured data at the smallest possible power level, it is a frequent mistake to derive intercept points by either changing the slope of the straight lines, or fitting them to points measured at too high power levels.

In certain situations such a measure can be useful, but it is not an intercept point according to definition. Its value depends on the measurement conditions that need to be documented, whereas the IP according to definition is unambiguous. One of the useful applications of third-order intercept point is as a rule-of-thumb measure to estimate nonlinear products; when comparing systems or devices for linearity, a higher intercept point is better. It can be seen that the spacing between two straight lines with slopes of 3 and 1 closes with slope 2. For example, assume a device with an input-referred third-order intercept point of 10 dBm is driven with a test signal of −5 dBm; this power is 15 dB below the intercept point, therefore nonlinear products will appear at 2×15 dB below the test signal power at the device output. A rule of thumb that holds for many linear radio-frequency amplifiers is that the 1 dB compression point falls 10 dB below the third-order intercept point; the third-order intercept point is a property of the device transfer function O.

This transfer function relates the output signal voltage level to the input signal voltage level. We assume a “linear” device having a transfer function whose small-signal form may be expressed in terms of a power series containing only odd terms, making the transfer function an odd function of input signal voltage, i.e. O = −O. Where the signals passing through the actual device are modulated sinusoidal voltage waveforms, device nonlinearities can be expressed in terms of how they affect individual sinusoidal signal components. For example, say the input voltage signal is the sine wave s = V cos ⁡, the device transfer function produces an output of the form O = G s − D 3 s 3 + …, where G is the amplifier gain, D3 is cubic distortion. We may substitute the first equ


Zafirlukast is an orally administered leukotriene receptor antagonist used for the chronic treatment of asthma. While zafirlukast is well tolerated and stomach upset occur; some rare side effects can occur, such as liver failure. Churg-Strauss syndrome has been associated with zafirlukast, but the relationship isn't thought to be causative in nature. Overdoses of zafirlukast tend to be self-limiting. Zafirlukast, like other LTRAs, works by inhibiting the immune system. Through its action on inflammatory cells in the lungs, zafirlukast reduces the production of inflammatory mediators that are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Zafirlukast is extensively hepatically metabolized by an enzyme called CYP2C9. Zafirlukast inhibits the action of CYP3A4, leading to drug-drug interactions with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A4. Genetic differences in LTC4 synthase and CYP2C9 may predict how a person reacts to zafirlukast treatment. Zafirlukast was the first cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist approved in the United States.

It is now approved in many other countries under other brand names. Zafirlukast is FDA-approved for the prevention and treatment of asthma in adults and children older than 5 years old. Like other leukotriene receptor antagonists, zafirlukast is thought to be useful for the long-term treatment of asthma, but it is less effective than inhaled glucocorticoids as monotherapy or long-acting beta-2 agonists in combination therapy. Notably, zafirlukast is ineffective in the event of an acute asthma attack. There are two dosage forms for zafirlukast, notable for their age-adjustments; the 20 mg tablet is for adults and children older than age 12, whereas the 10 mg tablet is for children between the ages of 5 and 12. Tablets should be stored at room temperature, out of direct sunlight, away from sources of moisture. Tablets are for oral administration only; as a general rule, leukotriene receptor antagonists like zafirlukast are more effective in children that are younger and whose asthma is less atopic.

Atopy refers to a predisposition towards developing allergic conditions, including asthma, hay fever, eczema. The hepatic clearance of zafirlukast is impaired in adults 65 years of age and older, resulting in a 2–3 fold increase in the maximum plasma concentration and the total area under the curve. Zafirlukast may increase the risk for infections lower respiratory tract infections, in older adults, though the infections noted were not severe. Zafirlukast is considered to be "pregnancy category B." This is due, in part, to the wide safety margin of zafirlukast in animal studies investigating teratogenicity. No teratogenicity has been observed in doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day in cynomolgus monkeys, representing an equivalent 20x exposure of the maximum recommended daily oral dose in human adults. However, spontaneous abortions occurred in cynomolgus monkeys at 2000 mg/kg/day, though the dose itself was maternally toxic. There is limited research on the use of zafirlukast in women. Based on data from the manufacturer, it is expected that 0.6% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose would reach a breastfed infant, though the effects in the infant are unknown.

Renal impairment does not appear to affect the pharmacokinetic profile of zafirlukast. The hepatic clearance of zafirlukast is impaired by significant hepatic impairment. Cirrhosis of the liver can result in an increase in the maximum plasma concentration and the total area under the curve by 50–60%. Zafirlukast is contraindicated in people that are allergic to it. Zafirlukast is well tolerated, though headache and gastrointestinal upset can occur; the incidence of headache is between 12 and 20%, similar to the incidence of headache found in patients taking placebos in the studies that lead to zafirlukast's approval. GI upset may include nausea, stomach discomfort/pain, diarrhea. GI complaints can be lessened by taking zafirlukast with food, though this can impair the amount of drug that gets absorbed into the body. Other common side effects include flu-like symptoms, sleep disturbances and daytime drowsiness. Neuropsychiatric side effects have been reported with the use of other LTRAs. While some side effects are less severe, others are more serious.

These effects were discovered through post-marketing reports, as the initial trials were not designed to monitor for neuropsychiatric side effects. Zafirlukast can cause rare but serious side effects like acute liver injury. Zafirlukast-induced hepatotoxicity occurs within the first 2–6 months of initiating therapy, though cases have been reported up to 13 months after starting zafirlukast. Zafirlukast-induced hepatotoxicity is characterized by a spectrum of liver damage symptoms, including fatigue and right upper quadrant pain followed by dark urine and pruritus. Liver enzyme elevations are common, the pattern reflects hepatocellular damage, resembling acute viral hepatitis, it is unclear how the hepatotoxicity occurs, but it may be due to a metabolic intermediate of zafirlukast, since it is metabolized in the liver through the enzyme CYP2C9. When it does occur it can be fatal, reexposure with zafirlukast may result in a worse injury. Switching zafirlukast to another medication in the same class or in the related class of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors can be attempted, but caution should be employed.

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Silvia Lulcheva

Silvia Krasteva Lulcheva is a Bulgarian actress. She is known for her role as Slavka Lyutova on the bTV series Sofia Residents in Excess, as well as for her voice over roles in famous television series and films. In 1990, Lulcheva graduated from VITIZ, Bulgaria's National Academy for Theatre and Film Arts, with a degree in acting from Stefan Danailov's class. After graduation she joined the "Nikolay Binev" Youth Theater, she started in television series into Bulgarian. Her most popular character dubbed in Bulgarian is Carrie Bradshaw in the HBO series Sex and the City, portrayed by Sarah Jessica Parker. Other productions which she has dubbed into Bulgarian include the American TV series are: Married... with Children, Grace Under Fire, CSI: Miami, Cold Case, Rules of Engagement, The Tudors, Band of Brothers, Cashmere Mafia, Lipstick Jungle. The Mexican telenovella La viuda de Blanco, the Greek series Lampsi and the Brazilian telenovella O Clone, the American animated series Stuart Little: The Animated Series and The Flintstones, the German animated series Simsala Grimm and Italian animated series Winx Club.

In 2004, Lulcheva won the Icarus award in the category "Golden Voice" for her work on the TV series Married... with Children and Sex and the City. She was married at the age of 23 years and divorced. In 1997 Lulcheva began a relationship with the actor Vasil Binev, they have Elitsa. Силвия Лулчева в Младежки театър „Николай Бинев“ Silvia Lulcheva on IMDb


DAD-IS is the acronym of the worldwide Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, within the FAO's management of animal genetic resources programme. It includes a searchable database of information about breeds, the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources. Data from the Global Databank is used for reporting on the global status and trends of animal genetic resources; the fourth version of the DAD-IS was launched on 21 November 2017. There were 11,116 mammalian national breed populations in DAD-IS as of February 2016, 3,799 avian national breed populations; these national breed populations represent a global total of 8,822 breeds, which includes 643 breeds that are reported to be extinct. Local breeds make up 7,761 of entries, while 1,061 are transboundary breeds, meaning they are found in more than one region. A total of 17% of all DAD-IS breeds are classified as being at risk of extinction, though this figure includes those that are extinct but were entered into the database before disappearing.

A further 58% are classified as being of unknown risk status. Template:As of 2016 these risk statuses have not been updated since 2014. Figure 1: Total Number of Livestock Breeds by region. Local and regional transboundary breeds are combined and international transboundary breeds are ones that are found in more than 1 country. Note: Figures exclude extinct breeds. Figures for Alpaca, American bison, dog, dromedary × Bactrian camel, llama, vicuña, Chilean tinamou, duck × Muscovy duck, guinea fowl, ñandu, peacock and swallow are combined in the “others” category. Source: FAO 2016 Status of Animal Genetic Resources-2016. Http:// List of horse breeds in DAD-IS. DAD-IS homepage

Lavochkin La-160

The Lavochkin La-160, known as Strelka, was the first Soviet swept-winged jet fighter research prototype. It was designed and manufactured by the Lavochkin Design Bureau from 1946. USAF reporting name - Type 6 Aircraft 160 was an all-metal pod and boom style aircraft with tri-cycle undercarriage like the Lavochkin La-152 but its mid-set wings incorporated 35° sweep at 1/4 chord; the afterburning engine was underslung in the nose with the air intake at the extreme nose, exhaust under the rear fuselage. The tricycle undercarriage was housed within the fuselage, when retracted allowing the wing to be built thinner and lighter. A conventional tail layout with 35o swept; the swept wings were of low taper with 1/2 span flaps/ailerons and two wing fences each side. Although designed as a fighter, Aircraft 160 was intended for research into high-speed swept-wing flight, of which little was known in the mid-1940s. Following the layout of his previous jet-fighter prototypes Lavochkin was able to produce an aircraft capable of providing useful data and experience of high-speed flight near the speed of sound.

The first flight was on 24 June 1947. Successful flight trials were followed by public display at the 1947 Aviation Day airshow at Tushino. Trials continued until Aircraft 160 broke up in flight, due to wing flutter, during tests to establish the maximum attainable speed; the experience gained with Aircraft 160 spurred on Soviet aircraft designers to design swept winged fighters, albeit cautiously. The title'Aircraft 160' was used by Lavochkin for a'Heavy' twin engined fighter to be produced concurrently with Aircraft 150; this project was still-born, but led to the Alekseyev twin-engined I-21 series of fighters, after Alekseyev left Lavochkin's design bureau to head OKB-21 at Gor'kiy. Data from General characteristics Crew: One Length: 10.06 m Wingspan: 8.95 m Height: 4.125 m Wing area: 15.9 m2 Empty weight: 2,738 kg Gross weight: 4,060 kg Powerplant: 1 × YuF afterburning RD-10, 8.83 kN thrust dry, 11.17 kN with afterburnerPerformance Maximum speed: 970 km/h Range: 1,000 km Service ceiling: 12,000 m Rate of climb: 19.84 m/s Armament 2 x 37mm cannon Lavochkin Aircraft 174TK Aircraft of comparable role and era Mikoyan-Guryevich I-310 Yakovlev Yak-30 Related lists List of aircraft List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS Gunston, Bill.

The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995. London:Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9. Gordon,Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Midland Publishing. Hinkley. 2002. ISBN 1-85780-139-3 Gordon,Yefim. Lavochkin's Last Jets. Midland Publishing. Hinkley. 2007. ISBN 1-85780-253-5

Thomas Crush

Thomas George Crush was an Australian politician who represented the Electoral district of Northern Territory in the South Australian House of Assembly from 1908 until the removal of the Northern Territory from South Australian jurisdiction. Born in Plaistow, the son of William Henry Crush, Crush worked as a teacher in Essex before moving to Australia in 1888, where he worked a number of different jobs around Australia, settled in the Northern Territory at Wandi, near Pine Creek in 1897 to work a goldmine. Crush married local identity Fannie Cody on 3 August 1898 and together they built the Federation Hotel at Brock’s Creek, while becoming involved in local issues. In May 1901, Crush founded and became secretary of the Brocks Creek branch of the North Australian League, which fought for local issues. Following the 1908 death of Vaiben Louis Solomon, one of the two members for the Northern Territory in the South Australian House of Assembly, Crush stood as a Labor candidate in the resulting by-election, becoming the first successful Labor candidate in the Northern Territory.

When Crush first arrived in Adelaide there was speculation about his political leanings despite his election on the Labor ticket due to so little being known about him and the fact he had not signed the Labor pledge. In parliament Crush pushed for Northern Territory-related issues, like the direction of the Darwin to Adelaide railway and, with Fannie's help, was comfortably re-elected at the 1910 South Australian legislative election, with John Alexander Voules Brown as his colleague. In 1911 the Northern Territory was moved from South Australian to federal administration, leading to the abolition of the Northern Territory electorate. Crush believed it would only be a short time before the Northern Territory was granted political representation in the Parliament of Australia and declared his intention to run at the federal election. However, Crush's health began to deteriorate and after a lengthy stay at Darwin Hospital, he died of heart failure on 27 August 1913, aged about 48. Called "a fluent and convincing speaker" and gaining recognition for his "unassuming good nature and sincerity" around Adelaide, South Australian Labor colleagues erected a memorial to him at his burial place in the Darwin Pioneer Cemetery.

James, B. Occupation Citizen, Self-published. ISBN 0 646 26430 3. James, B. "Crush, Thomas George", Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, Revised Edition, ed. Carment, D, Edward, C. et al. Charles Darwin University Press: Darwin. ISBN 9780980457810