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Third Council of the Lateran

The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the eleventh ecumenical council. Pope Alexander III presided and 302 bishops attended. By agreement reached at the Peace of Venice in 1177 the bitter conflict between Alexander III and Emperor Frederick I was brought to an end; when Pope Adrian IV died in 1159, the divided cardinals elected two popes: Roland of Siena, who took the name of Alexander III, Octavian of Rome who, though nominated by fewer cardinals, was supported by Frederick and assumed the name of Pope Victor IV. Frederick, wishing to remove all that stood in the way of his authority in Italy, declared war upon the Italian states and the Church, enjoying great authority. A serious schism arose out of this conflict, after Victor IV's death in 1164, two further antipopes were nominated in opposition to Alexander III: Paschal III and Callistus III. At the Peace of Venice, when Alexander gained victory, he promised Frederick that he would summon an ecumenical council. Besides removing the remains of the recent schism, the Council condemned the Cathar heresies and pushed for the restoration of ecclesiastical discipline.

It became the first general Council of the Church to legislate against sodomy. Three sessions were held, on 5, 14, 19 March, in which 27 canons were promulgated; the most important of these were: Canon 1. In order to prevent the possibility of future schisms, only cardinals were to possess the right to elect a pope. In addition a two-thirds majority was to be required in order for the election to be valid. If any candidate should declare himself pope without receiving the required majority, he and his supporters were to be excommunicated. Canon 2 declared null and void those ordinations performed by the antipopes Octavian, Guy of Crema, John de Struma. Canon 3 forbade the promotion of anyone to a parish before the age of 25 and to the episcopate before the age of 30. Canon 5 forbade the ordination of clerics not provided with any means of proper support. Canon 7 forbade the charging of money to conduct burials, bless a marriage or indeed the celebration of any of the sacraments. Canon 11 forbade clerics to have women in their houses or to visit the monasteries of nuns without a good reason.

Canon 18 required every cathedral church to appoint a master to teach the clerics and the poor scholars of the church. Canon 19 declared excommunication for those who tried to tax churches and clergy without the consent of the bishop. Canon 23 concerns the proper organisation of accommodation for lepers. Canon 25 excommunicates those. Canon 26 forbade Jews and Muslims from having Christian servants and states that the evidence of Christians is always to be accepted against Jews. Canon 27 stressed the duty of princes to repress heresy and condemned "the Brabantians, Basques and others who practice such cruelty toward Christians that they respect neither churches nor monasteries, spare neither widows nor orphans, neither age nor sex, but after the manner of pagans and lay waste everything". Among the many attendees at the Council was William of Tyre, the famous historian and, at the time, archbishop of Tyre. William was sent by Baldwin IV as the representative of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, wrote about the journey to the Council in his history.

Catholic Encyclopedia: Third Lateran Council Third Lateran Council Full Latin text of the canons preceded by an analysis of the Council's legislation

Chris Skelley

Christopher Skelley is a British Paralympic judoka who competes in the visually impaired under 100kg category. In 2016 it was announced that he has been selected to represent Great Britain at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio. Skelley grew up in Kingston upon England; as a youth he enjoyed many sports playing rugby for Hull Ionians. After leaving school he took a job at a local garage, but it was noticed that his eyesight was deteriorating, he was diagnosed with ocular albinism. Skelley took up judo as a sport at the age of five. A successful judoka, he was part of the England squad when his eyesight began to fail, he began to focus more on his judo and was brought onto the Great Britain visually impaired team. Competing in the under 100kg category, Skelley took three bronze medals at the under-20 national tournament between 2010 and 2013. In 2014 he represented his country at the Scottish Open; the same year he won silver in the Welsh Senior Open. In December 2015 Skelley represented Britain at the IBSA European Judo Championship in Portugal.

There he missed out on the final after being beaten by a last second yuko scoring throw by his Russian opponent Abdula Kuramagomedov, the current world champion. Skelley secured the bronze by beating Ibrahim Bolukbasi of Turkey. In February 2016 Skelly was selected as part of a four-man to compete for Great Britain at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio, along with Sam Ingram, Jack Hodgson and Jonathan Drane. In the build-up to the Games and his three team-mates travelled to Rio in early March to take part in a Judo Grand Prix competition. Skelley took bronze in his match in a contest which featured many of the competitors who had qualified for the Summer Paralympics

Dancemania 3

Dancemania 3 is the third set in the Dancemania series of dance music compilation albums, released in 1996 by EMI Music Japan. The non-stop mixing was done by a Danish dance label; the non-stop mixing was handled by Danish dance label Flex Records its two main producers. The album's overall average tempo is 138 bpm. Several tracks are cover versions or remix versions. #4 "Let's Groove Rap" is a cover version of Earth, Wind & Fire's "Let's Groove". #6 "Xanadu" is a cover remix version of Olivia Newton-John's "Xanadu". #7 "Sunshine" sampled Gipsy Kings' "Bamboleo". #20 "Where Have All the Flowers Gone" is a cover version of Marlene Dietrich's "Where Have All the Flowers Gone?". Several tracks on the album can be found on other Dancemania albums, such as Delux, Zip Mania, Best Red or Summers

Llewellya Hillis

Llewellya Williams Hillis Llewellya Hillis-Colinvaux, was a Canadian-born American marine biologist. Llewellya Hillis was born in Windsor and raised in Walkerville, she graduated from Walkerville Collegiate Institute. Her father Llewellyn Hillis worked at an automotive plant, her mother Pearl Evelina Hillis was a teacher, she earned her bachelor's degree at Queen's University in 1952. In 1957 she completed her doctoral work in botany at the University of Michigan; as a graduate student, she did research at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Hillis held a post-doctoral appointment at the University of New Brunswick, before joining the botany faculty at Ohio State University in 1964. "It was a ten-year fight to be recognized. No recognition has come to me as as it has to my male counterparts," she said of her academic career. "However, the progress, made is now so entrenched that it will be hard to dismantle it completely."Though landlocked Ohio was not the ideal place to be a marine biologist, she continued her work on coral reef algae in the genus Halimeda.

She secured funding from the U. S. Office of Naval Research and from the National Science Foundation, she imported seawater to Ohio to cultivate a seaweed colony for study. In 1976, she traveled to Enewetak Atoll to find Halimeda in a nuclear bomb crater. Hillis and Colinvaux left Ohio in the 1990s and continued their research at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, she published a monograph on Halimeda in 1980. Hillis held fellowships at the Bunting Institute. Two coral reef species are named for her: Carpathea llewellyae and Leckhamptonella llewellyae. Hillis married fellow biologist Paul Colinvaux in 1961, they had two children and Catherine. They retired to Cape Cod, were active in the Woods Hole community in their years. Hillis was widowed when Colinvaux died in 2016, she died in 2019, on Cape Cod, aged 89 years

Yasuharu Konishi

Yasuharu Konishi is a Japanese musician, composer and DJ. He was a founding member of Pizzicato Five and the only such to stay with the group until its breakup in 2001. Konishi's current activities are through his company readymade entertainment and his record label 524 records. Konishi is a prolific producer, composer and remixer, he has written and arranged in collaboration with many artists, such as Unicorn, Towa Tei, Mari Natsuki, Yumi Yoshimura of Puffy AmiYumi, Alisa Mizuki, Akiko Wada, SMAP and Mika Nakashima. Konishi's remixes are featured in a far greater range of recordings. In addition to remixing individual tracks for a wide variety of artists for inclusion in their own releases, Konishi has been a prominent figure in several remix-only projects; some of these have centered on music from cartoons, such as Astro Boy. Others have focused on specific artists, such as Tom Jones. In 2003, he introduced Franco-English pop singer-songwriter MeeK to the Japanese public by writing an introductory essay on MeeK's debut album "Psychotique" released on the Indie Tokyo record label MINF.

Konishi produced a video game called "Beatmania – The Sound of Tokyo" for Konami's long running Bemani series. In 2009, he was responsible for the music and music direction of "Talk Like Singing," a musical starring Shingo Katori of SMAP that made its world premiere in New York City; the Unofficial Yasuharu Konishi Discography readymade entertainment, tokyo https://web.archive.org/web/20060508105438/http://www.pulp-mag.com/archives/5.11/pulpman.shtml

Werner Mölders

Werner Mölders was a World War II German Luftwaffe pilot, wing commander, the leading German fighter ace in the Spanish Civil War. He became the first pilot in aviation history to claim 100 aerial victories—that is, 100 aerial combat encounters resulting in the destruction of the enemy aircraft—and was decorated for his achievements. Mölders was instrumental in the development of new fighter tactics that led to the finger-four formation, he died in an air crash. Mölders joined the Luftwaffe, the air force of Nazi Germany, in 1934. In 1938, he volunteered for service in the Condor Legion, which supported General Francisco Franco's Nationalist side in the Spanish Civil War, shot down 14 aircraft. With the start of World War II, he took part in the "Phoney War", Battle of France, the Battle of Britain. With his tally standing at 68 victories, Mölders and his unit, the Jagdgeschwader 51, were transferred to the Eastern Front in June 1941 for the opening of Operation Barbarossa, achieving 101 victories by mid-July 1941.

Prevented from flying further combat missions for propaganda reasons, at the age of 28 Mölders was appointed Inspector of Fighters. He was inspecting the Luftwaffe units in the Crimea when he was ordered to Berlin to attend the state funeral of Ernst Udet, a Luftwaffe general and World War I flying ace. On the flight to Berlin, the aircraft in which he was traveling as a passenger attempted an emergency landing due to an engine failure, it crashed at killing Mölders and two others. The Wehrmacht and the West German Bundeswehr both honoured him by naming two fighter wings, a destroyer and barracks after him. In 1998, the German Parliament decided that members of the Condor Legion such as Mölders, should "no longer be honoured". In 2005, the German Ministry of Defence decided to remove the name "Mölders" from the fighter wing still bearing his name. Mölders was born on 18 March 1913 in Gelsenkirchen, the son of teacher Victor Mölders and his wife Annemarie Mölders, née Riedel, he was the third of four children, with an older sister, Annemarie, an older brother, a younger brother, Victor.

After his father, a Reserve Leutnant in the King's 145th Infantry Regiment, was killed in action on 2 March 1915 in the Argonne Forest in France, his mother moved the family into her parents' house in Brandenburg an der Havel. In Brandenburg, Mölders found a father figure in Chaplain Erich Klawitter, who instilled firm religious beliefs in him. From 1919 to 1931, Mölders attended, the elementary school and from 1922 the Saldria-Realgymnasium, a secondary school that enjoyed a supraregional reputation. In school he discovered his love for water sports rowing, he joined two rowing clubs, first the Saldria-Brandenburg and the Brandenburger Ruderclub, enjoyed success at rowing-regattas. From 1 October 1925, he was a member of the Bund Neudeutschland in der katholischen Jugendbewegung, a Catholic youth organisation. Mölders graduated from school in early 1931 with the Abitur and expressed a desire to become an officer in the armed forces. Mölders joined the Preußisches Infanterieregiment Nr. 2, an infantry regiment under the command of Oberst Siegfried Haenicke and subordinated to the 1st Division of the Reichswehr in Allenstein, East Prussia on 1 April 1931, serving as an officer cadet in the infantry.

He attained the rank of Fahnenjunker-Gefreiter on 1 October 1931, rising to Fahnenjunker-Unteroffizier on 1 April 1932. After completing his basic military training in October 1932, he transferred to the Military School Dresden. On 1 June 1933, he completed his training in Dresden and was promoted to ensign, he again was transferred, this time to the 1st Prussian Pioneer Battalion at the Pioneer School in Munich. During his training years, Mölders made his first attempt to fulfil his dream of flying and volunteered for pilot training, but was declared unfit for flying, he was given conditional permission to begin flight training. After his promotion to Oberfähnrich on 1 February 1934, Mölders began his pilot training at the Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule in Cottbus, lasting from 6 February 1934 to 31 December 1934. On 1 March 1934, he was promoted to Leutnant and assigned to the established Luftwaffe. In the early stages of his pilot training, he suffered continually from nausea and vomiting, but he overcame these problems and finished the course at the top of his class.

The next phase of his military pilot's training was from 1 January 1935 to 30 June 1935 at the combat flying school in Tutow and the Jagdfliegerschule at Schleißheim near Munich. He received the newly created Pilot's Badge of the Luftwaffe on 21 May 1935. On 1 July 1935, Leutnant Mölders was posted to Fliegergruppe Schwerin. On 7 March 1936, during the remilitarisation of the Rhineland, Mölders and his squadron were moved to Düsseldorf. During this period, Mölders met Luise Baldauf, whom he was to marry a few years shortly before his death. On 20 April 1936, Adolf Hitler's birthday, numerous promotions were handed out, Mölders advanced to Oberleutnant, effective as of 1 April 1936. At the same time, he became leader of the fighter training squadron of the 2nd Group of Jagdgeschwader 134 "Horst Wessel"; this group was under the command of Major Theo Osterkamp, who became another of Mölders' early mentors. Mölders was appointed squadron leader of the 1st squadron of Jagdgeschwader 334 on 15 March 1937 and served as an instructor in Wiesbaden.

In 1936, the Germans sent a Luftwaffe force, the Condor Legion, to assist the Nationalists in the Spanish Civ