History of Australia
The history of Australia is the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia with its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago; the artistic and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such traditions in human history. The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606; that year, Spanish explorer Luís Vaz de Torres sailed through, navigated, Torres Strait islands. Twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, dubbed the continent New Holland. Macassan trepangers visited Australia's northern coasts after 1720 earlier. Other European explorers followed until, in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook charted the east coast of Australia for Great Britain and returned with accounts favouring colonisation at Botany Bay, New South Wales.
A First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 to establish a penal colony, the first colony on the Australian mainland. In the century that followed, the British established other colonies on the continent, European explorers ventured into its interior. Indigenous Australians were weakened and their numbers diminished by introduced diseases and conflict with the colonists during this period. Gold rushes and agricultural industries brought prosperity. Autonomous parliamentary democracies began to be established throughout the six British colonies from the mid-19th century; the colonies voted by referendum to unite in a federation in 1901, modern Australia came into being. Australia fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars and became a long-standing ally of the United States when threatened by Imperial Japan during World War II. Trade with Asia increased and a post-war immigration program received more than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. Supported by immigration of people from more than 200 countries since the end of World War II, the population increased to more than 23 million by 2014, sustains the world's 12th largest national economy.
The ancestors of Indigenous Australians are believed to have arrived in Australia 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, as early as 70,000 years ago. They developed a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, established enduring spiritual and artistic traditions and used stone technologies. At the time of first European contact, it has been estimated the existing population was at least 350,000, while recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained. There is considerable archaeological discussion as to the route taken by the first colonisers. People appear to have arrived by sea during a period of glaciation, when New Guinea and Tasmania were joined to the continent; the journey still required sea travel however. Scott Cane wrote in 2013. If they arrived around 70,000 years ago, they could have crossed the water from Timor, when the sea level was low. Given that the landfall regions have been under around 50 metres of water for the last 15,000 years, it is unlikely that the timing will be established with certainty.
The earliest known human remains were found at Lake Mungo, a dry lake in the southwest of New South Wales. Remains found at Mungo suggest one of the world's oldest known cremations, thus indicating early evidence for religious ritual among humans. According to Australian Aboriginal mythology and the animist framework developed in Aboriginal Australia, the Dreaming is a sacred era in which ancestral totemic spirit beings formed The Creation; the Dreaming established the laws and structures of society and the ceremonies performed to ensure continuity of life and land. It remains a prominent feature of Australian Aboriginal art. Aboriginal art is believed to be the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world. Evidence of Aboriginal art can be traced back at least 30,000 years and is found throughout Australia. In terms of age and abundance, cave art in Australia is comparable to that of Lascaux and Altamira in Europe. Manning Clark wrote that the ancestors of the Aborigines were slow to reach Tasmania owing to an ice barrier existing across the South East of the continent.
The Aborigines, he noted, did not develop agriculture owing to a lack of seed bearing plants and animals suitable for domestication. Thus, the population remained low. Clark considered that the three potential pre-European colonising powers and traders of East Asia—the Hindu-Buddhists of southern India, the Muslims of Northern India and the Chinese—each petered out in their southward advance and did not attempt a settlement across the straits separating Indonesia from Australia, but trepang fisherman did reach the north coast, which they called "Marege" or "land of the trepang". For centuries, Makassan trade flourished with Aborigines on Australia's north coast with the Yolngu people of northeast Arnhem Land; the greatest population density for Aborigines developed in the southern and eastern regions, the River Murray valley in particular. Aborigines lived and used resources on the continent sustainably, agreeing to cease hunting and gathering at particular times to give populations and resources the chance to replenish.
The arrival of Australia's first people affected the continent and, along with climate chan
Richmond is a town in Tasmania about 25 km north-east of Hobart, in the Coal River region, between the Midland Highway and Tasman Highway. At the 2006 census, Richmond had a population of 880. Richmond's most famous landmark is the Richmond Bridge, built in 1823 to 1825, around the time of the town's first settlement, it is Australia's oldest bridge still in use. St John's Catholic church was built in 1836, is considered the oldest Roman Catholic church in Australia; the town was part of the route between Hobart and Port Arthur until the Sorell Causeway was constructed in 1872. Present-day Richmond is best known as being preserved, it is a vibrant tourist town, with many of the sandstone structures still standing. Richmond Post Office opened on 1 June 1832. Richmond bridge is known as the largest stone span bridge in Australia; some notable tourist attractions in Richmond are the Richmond Bridge, the Richmond Gaol, Zoodoo Wildlife Park, a model of Old Hobart Town in the 1800s, numerous old and heritage-listed buildings and parks
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, with a total population of 205,400 residents. The city of Portsmouth is nicknamed Pompey and is built on Portsea Island, a flat, low-lying island measuring 24 square kilometres in area, just off the south-east coast of Hampshire. Uniquely, Portsmouth is the only island city in the United Kingdom, is the only city whose population density exceeds that of London. Portsmouth is located 70 miles south-west of London and 19 miles south-east of Southampton. With the surrounding towns of Gosport, Fareham and Waterlooville, Portsmouth forms the eastern half of the South Hampshire metropolitan area, which includes Southampton and Eastleigh in the western half. Portsmouth's history can be traced back to Roman times. A significant naval port for centuries, Portsmouth has the world's oldest dry dock. In the sixteenth century, Portsmouth was England's first line of defence during the French invasion of 1545. By the early nineteenth century, the world's first mass production line was set up in Portsmouth Dockyard's Block Mills, making it the most industrialised site in the world and birthplace of the Industrial Revolution.
Portsmouth was the most fortified town in the world, was considered "the world's greatest naval port" at the height of the British Empire throughout Pax Britannica. Defences known as the Palmerston Forts were built around Portsmouth in 1859 in anticipation of another invasion from continental Europe. In 1926, Portsmouth was elevated in status from a town to a city; the motto "Heaven's Light Our Guide" was registered to the City of Portsmouth in 1929. During the Second World War, the city of Portsmouth was a pivotal embarkation point for the D-Day landings and was bombed extensively in the Portsmouth Blitz, which resulted in the deaths of 930 people. In 1982, a large proportion of the task force dispatched to liberate the Falkland Islands deployed from the city's naval base, her Majesty's Yacht Britannia left the city to oversee the transfer of Hong Kong in 1997, which marked for many the end of the empire. In 1997, Portsmouth became a Unitary Authority, with Portsmouth City Council gaining powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined, responsibilities held by Hampshire County Council.
Portsmouth is one of the world's best known ports. HMNB Portsmouth is considered to be the home of the Royal Navy and is home to two-thirds of the UK's surface fleet; the city is home to some famous ships, including HMS Warrior, the Tudor carrack Mary Rose and Horatio Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory. The former HMS Vernon naval shore establishment has been redeveloped as a retail park known as Gunwharf Quays. Portsmouth is among the few British cities with two cathedrals: the Anglican Cathedral of St Thomas and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St John the Evangelist; the waterfront and Portsmouth Harbour are dominated by the Spinnaker Tower, one of the United Kingdom's tallest structures at 560 feet. Nearby Southsea is a seaside resort with a pier amusement medieval castle. Portsmouth F. C. the city's professional football club, play their home games at Fratton Park. The city has several mainline railway stations that connect to Brighton, London Victoria and London Waterloo amongst other lines in southern England.
Portsmouth International Port is a commercial cruise ship and ferry port for international destinations. The port is the second busiest in the United Kingdom after Dover, handling around three million passengers a year; the city had its own airport, Portsmouth Airport, until its closure in 1973. The University of Portsmouth enrols 23,000 students and is ranked among the world's best modern universities. Portsmouth is the birthplace of author Charles Dickens and engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel; the Romans built a fort, at nearby Portchester in the late third century. The city's Old English name "Portesmuða" is derived from port, meaning a haven, muða, the mouth of a large river or estuary; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has a warrior called Port and his two sons killing a noble Briton in Portsmouth in 501. Winston Churchill, in his A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, says that Port was a pirate and he founded Portsmouth in 501; the south coast was vulnerable to Danish Viking invasions during the 9th centuries.
In 787, it was assaulted and conquered by Danish pirates, during the reign of Æthelwulf, King of Wessex in 838, a Danish fleet landed between Portsmouth and Southampton and the surrounding area was plundered. In response, Æthelwulf sent Wulfherd and the governor of Dorsetshire to confront the Danes at Portsmouth, where most of their ships were docked, they were successful. In 1001, the Danes returned and pillaged Portsmouth and surrounding locations, threatening the English with extinction; the Danes were massacred by the survivors the following year and rebuilding began, although the town suffered further attacks until 1066. Portsmouth was not mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, but Bocheland and Frodentone were; some sources maintain. When King Henry II died in 1189, his son Richard I, who had spent most of his life in France, arrived in Portsmouth before he was crowned in London; when Richard returned from captivity in Austria in May 1194, he summoned a fleet of 100 ships and an army to the port.
He granted the town a royal charter on 2 May, giving permission for an annual fifteen-day free market fair, weekly markets, a local court to deal with minor matters, exempted its inhabitants from paying an annual tax of £18. Richard granted the town the arm
Convicts in Australia
Between 1788 and 1868, about 162,000 convicts were transported from Britain to various penal colonies in Australia. The British Government began transporting convicts overseas to American colonies in the early 17th century; when transportation ended with the start of the American Revolution, an alternative site was needed to relieve further overcrowding of British prisons and hulks. Earlier in 1770, James Cook charted and claimed possession of the east coast of Australia for Britain. Seeking to pre-empt the French colonial empire from expanding into the region, Britain chose Australia as the site of a penal colony, in 1787, the First Fleet of eleven convict ships set sail for Botany Bay, arriving on 20 January 1788 to found Sydney, New South Wales, the first European settlement on the continent. Other penal colonies were established in Van Diemen's Land in 1803 and Queensland in 1824, while Western Australia, founded in 1829 as a free colony, received convicts from 1850. South Australia and Victoria, established in 1836 and 1850 remained free colonies.
Penal transportation to Australia peaked in the 1830s and dropped off the following decade as protests against the convict system intensified throughout the colonies. In 1868 two decades after transportation to the eastern colonies had ceased, the last convict ship arrived in Western Australia; the majority of convicts were transported for petty crimes. More serious crimes, such as rape and murder, became transportable offences in the 1830s, but since they were punishable by death, comparatively few convicts were transported for such crimes. 1 in 7 convicts were women, while political prisoners, another minority group, comprise many of the best-known convicts. Once emancipated, most ex-convicts stayed in Australia and joined the free settlers, with some rising to prominent positions in Australian society. However, convictism carried a social stigma, for some Australians, the nation's convict origins instilled a sense of shame and cultural cringe. Attitudes became more accepting in the 20th century and it is now considered by many Australians to be a cause for celebration to have a convict in one's lineage.
Around 20% of modern Australians, in addition to 2 million Britons, are descended from transported convicts. The convict era has inspired famous novels and other cultural works, the extent to which it has shaped Australia's national character has been studied by many writers and historians. According to Robert Hughes in The Fatal Shore, the population of England and Wales, which had remained steady at 6 million from 1700 to 1740, began rising after 1740. By the time of the American Revolution, London was overcrowded, filled with the unemployed, flooded with cheap gin. Poverty, social injustice, child labor and dirty living conditions and long working hours were prevalent in 19th-century Britain. Dickens' novels best illustrate this. Only in 1833 and 1844 were the first general laws against child labour passed in the United Kingdom. Crime had become a major problem and in 1784 a French observer noted that "from sunset to dawn the environs of London became the patrimony of brigands for twenty miles around."
Each parish had a watchman. Jeremy Bentham avidly promoted the idea of a circular prison, but the penitentiary was seen by many government officials as a peculiar American concept. All malefactors were caught by informers or denounced to the local court by their victims. Pursuant to the so-called "Bloody Code", by the 1770s there were 222 crimes in Britain which carried the death penalty all of which were crimes against property; these included such offences as the stealing of goods worth over 5 shillings, the cutting down of a tree, the theft of an animal the theft of a rabbit from a warren. The Industrial Revolution led to an increase in petty crime due to the economic displacement of much of the population, building pressure on the government to find an alternative to confinement in overcrowded gaols; the situation was so dire that hulks left over from the Seven Years' War were used as makeshift floating prisons. Eight of every 10 prisoners were in jail for theft; the Bloody Code was rescinded in the 1800s because judges and juries considered its punishments too harsh.
Since lawmakers still wanted punishments to deter potential criminals, they applied transportation as a more humane alternative to execution. Transportation had been employed as a punishment for both major and petty crimes since the seventeenth century. Around 60,000 convicts were transported to the British colonies in North America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Transportation to the Americas ceased following Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the number of convicts transported to North America is not verified although it has been estimated to be 50,000 by John Dunmore Lang and 120,000 by Thomas Keneally. The British American colony of Maryland received a larger felon quota than any other province. Alternatives to the American colonies were investigated and the newly discovered and mapped East Coast of New Holland was proposed; the details provided by James Cook during his expedition to the South Pacific in 1770 made it the most suitable. On 18 August 1786 the decision was made to send a colonisation party of convicts and civilian personnel to Botany Bay under the command of Admiral Arthur Phillip, to be the Governor of the new colony.
There were 775 convicts on board six transport ships. They were accompanied by officials, members of the crew, the families thereof and their own children wh
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions, magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters. In ancient Rome, the word magistratus referred to one of the highest offices of state. Analogous offices in the local authorities, such as municipium, were subordinate only to the legislature of which they were members, ex officio a combination of judicial and executive power, constituting one jurisdiction. In Rome itself, the highest magistrates were members of the so-called cursus honorum -'career of honors'.
They held both judicial and executive power within their sphere of responsibility, had the power to issue ius honorarium, or magisterial law. The Consul was the highest Roman magistrate; the Praetor was the highest judge in matters of private law between individual citizens, while the Curule Aediles, who supervised public works in the city, exercised a limited civil jurisdiction in relation to the market. Roman magistrates were advised by jurists who were experts in the law; the term was maintained in most feudal successor states to the western Roman Empire. However, it was used in Germanic kingdoms in city-states, where the term magistrate was used as an abstract generic term denoting the highest office, regardless of the formal titles when, a council; the term "chief magistrate" applied to the highest official, in sovereign entities the head of state and/or head of government. Under the "civil law" systems of European countries, such as Belgium, France and the Netherlands, magistrat and magistraat are generic terms which comprise both prosecutors and judges, distinguished as the'standing' versus'sitting' magistrature, respectively.
In Portugal, besides being used in the scope of the judiciary to designate prosecutors and judges, the term magistrado was used to designate certain government officials, like the former civil governors of district. These were referred as "administrative magistrates" to distinguish them from the judiciary magistrates; the President of Portugal is considered the Supreme Magistrate of the Nation. In Finland, maistraatti is a state-appointed local administrative office whose responsibilities include keeping population information and public registers, acting as a public notary and conducting civil marriages. In Mexico's Federal Law System, a magistrado is a superior judge, hierarchically beneath the Supreme Court Justices; the magistrado reviews the cases seen by a judge in a second term if any of the parties disputes the verdict. For special cases, there are magistrados superiores who review the verdicts of special court and tribunal magistrates. In the courts of England and Wales, magistrates—also known as justices of the peace —are volunteers who hear prosecutions for and dispose of'summary offences' and some'triable-either-way offences' by making orders with regard to and placing additional requirements on offenders.
Magistrates/JPs are limited to issuing sentences of no longer than twelve months. Magistrates/JPs have other limitations in their sentencing authority with powers extending to fines, community orders which can include curfews, electronic tagging, requirements to perform unpaid work up to 300 hours, supervision for up to three years. In more serious cases, magistrates can send'either-way' offenders to the Crown Court for sentencing when the magistrate feels a penalty should be imposed, more severe than the magistrate is capable of sentencing. A wide range of other legal matters is within the remit of magistrates. In the past, magistrates have been responsible for granting licenses to sell alcohol, for instance, but this function is now exercised by local councils. Magistrates are responsible for granting search warrants to the police and other authorities. However, commission areas were replaced with Local Justice Areas by the Courts Act 2003, meaning magistrates no longer need to live within 15 miles.
Section 7 of the Courts Act 2003 states that "There shall be a commission of the peace for England and Wales—…b) addressed and not by name, to all such persons as may from time to time hold office as justices of the peace for England and Wales". Thus, every magistrate in England and Wales may act as a magistrate anywhere in Wales. There are two types of magistrates in England and Wales: justices of the peace and district judges who hold office as members of the professional judiciary. According to requirements, arou
Rosehill, New South Wales
Rosehill is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Rosehill is located 23 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Parramatta and is part of the Greater Western Sydney region. Rosehill contains a mixture of residential, commercial and recreational land. However, the redevelopment of this land is imminent. In the early days of the colony, the hill behind old Government House had been named ‘Rose Hill’ by Governor Arthur Phillip, before the suburb had been named Parramatta. Nearly a hundred years in 1883, 850 acres of John Macarthur’s Elizabeth Farm were subdivided for industrial purposes. Part of the estate was set aside for a recreation area. A public school opened here in 1886 and the railway station opened in 1888 on the Carlingford line, a private railway line until it was taken over by the state government in 1904. Rosehill has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 60 Prospect Street: Camden 62 Prospect Street: Comfort Lodge 70 Alice Street: Elizabeth Farm Arthur Street: Elizabeth Farm Reserve Rosehill Gardens Racecourse hosts some of the most important events on the Australian horse racing calendar, including the prestigious Golden Slipper.
Historic Elizabeth Farm was the home of wool pioneer, John Macarthur Rosehill railway station is on the Carlingford Line of the Sydney Trains network. Mercure Sydney Parramatta Hotel Travelodge Rosehill Rosehill Public School At the 2016 census, Rosehill recorded a population of 3,806. Of these: The age distribution was unusual, with a preponderance of younger adults compared to the country in general, but similar to the neighbouring suburb of Silverwater; the median age was 31 years, compared to the national median of 38 years. There was a large concentration of people between 20–34 years of age. Children aged 0–14 years made up 16.9% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up only 4.5% of the population. 28.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were India 25.3%, China 6.6%, Lebanon 3.3% and Philippines 2.8%. About three-quarters of residents had both parents born overseas. 25.3% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Gujarati 9.5%, Arabic 7.6%, Mandarin 7.0%, Hindi 7.0% and Punjabi 4.9%.
The most common responses for religion were Hinduism 24.0%, Catholic 18.9% and No Religion 16.0%. 8.4% of the work-force was unemployed, above the national average of 6.9%. Two-thirds of households were family households and 26.3% were single person households. 71.4% of occupied private residences were flats, units or apartments, 16.7% were separate houses and 9.6% were semi-detached. 62.5% were rented, 23.9% were owned with a mortgage and 9.7% were owned outright. "Rosehill". Dictionary of Sydney. 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2015