Epidaurus was a small city in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf. Two modern towns bear the name Epidavros:Palaia Epidavros and Nea Epidavros. Since 2010 they belong to the new municipality of part of the regional unit of Argolis; the seat of the municipality is the town Lygourio. Epidaurus was independent of Argos and not included in Argolis until the time of the Romans. With its supporting territory, it formed. Reputed to be founded by or named for the Argolid Epidaurus, to be the birthplace of Apollo's son Asclepius the healer, Epidaurus was known for its sanctuary situated about five miles from the town, as well as its theater, once again in use today; the cult of Asclepius at Epidaurus is attested in the 6th century BC, when the older hill-top sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas was no longer spacious enough. The asclepeion at Epidaurus was the most celebrated healing center of the Classical world, the place where ill people went in the hope of being cured. To find out the right cure for their ailments, they spent a night in the enkoimeteria, a big sleeping hall.
In their dreams, the god himself would advise them. Within the sanctuary there was a guest house with 160 guestrooms. There are mineral springs in the vicinity, which may have been used in healing. Asclepius, the most important healer god of antiquity, brought prosperity to the sanctuary, which in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC embarked on an ambitious building program for enlarging and reconstruction of monumental buildings. Fame and prosperity continued throughout the Hellenistic period. After the destruction of Corinth in 146 BC Lucius Mummius visited the sanctuary and left two dedications there. In 87 BC the sanctuary was looted by the Roman general Sulla. In 74 BC a Roman garrison under Marcus Antonius Creticus had been installed in the city causing a lack of grain. Still, before 67 BC the sanctuary was plundered by pirates. In the 2nd century AD the sanctuary enjoyed a new upsurge under the Romans, but in AD 395 the Goths raided the sanctuary. After the introduction of Christianity and the silencing of the oracles, the sanctuary at Epidaurus was still known as late as the mid 5th century as a Christian healing center.
The prosperity brought by the asclepeion enabled Epidaurus to construct civic monuments, including the huge theatre that delighted Pausanias for its symmetry and beauty, used again today for dramatic performances, the ceremonial hestiatoreion, a palaestra. The ancient theatre of Epidaurus was designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC; the original 34 rows were extended in Roman times by another 21 rows. As is usual for Greek theatres, the view on a lush landscape behind the skênê is an integral part of the theatre itself and is not to be obscured, it seats up to 14,000 people. The theatre is admired for its exceptional acoustics, which permit perfect intelligibility of unamplified spoken words from the proscenium or skēnē to all 14,000 spectators, regardless of their seating. Famously, tour guides have their groups scattered in the stands and show them how they can hear the sound of a match struck at center-stage. A 2007 study by Nico F. Declercq and Cindy Dekeyser of the Georgia Institute of Technology indicates that the astonishing acoustic properties may be the result of the advanced design: the rows of limestone seats filter out low-frequency sounds, such as the murmur of the crowd, amplify the high-frequency sounds of the stage.
The municipality Epidavros was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Asklipieio EpidavrosThe municipality has an area of 340.442 km2, the municipal unit 160.604 km2. Arafat, K. W.. "N. Yalouris: Die Skulpturen des Asklepiostempels in Epidauros. Pp. 92. Munich: Hirmer, 1992. Cased"; the Classical Review. 45: 197–198. Doi:10.1017/S0009840X00293244. ISSN 1464-3561. Retrieved 14 August 2018. Burford, Alison. 1969. The Greek Temple Builders At Epidauros: A Social and Economic Study of Building In the Asklepian Sanctuary, During the Fourth and Early Third Centuries B. C. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Fossum, Andrew. "Harmony in the Theatre at Epidauros". American Journal of Archaeology. 30: 70–75. Doi:10.2307/497923. JSTOR 497923. Hartigan, Karelisa V. 2009. Performance and Cure: Drama and Healing in Ancient Greece and Contemporary America. Classical Interfaces. London: Duckworth. Holland, Leicester B. 1948. Thymele: Recherches sur la of Archaeology, 85, no.
3, pp. 387–400. Holland, Leicester B.. "Review of Thymele. Recherches sur la signification et la destination des monuments circulaires dans l'architecture religieuse de la Grèce". American Journal of Archaeology. 52: 307–310. Doi:10.2307/500631. JSTOR 500631. Lembidaki, Evi. 2002. "Three Sacred Buildings in the Asklepieion at Epidauros: New Evidence from Recent Archaeological Research." In Peloponnesian Sanctuaries and Cults: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 11-13 June 1994. Edited by Robin Hägg. Stockholm: Svenska Institutet i Athen, 123-136. LiDonnici, Lynn R. 1995. The Epidaurian Miracle Inscriptions: Text and Commentary. Atlanta: Scholars. Melfi, Milena. Galli, Marco, ed. "Religion and Communication in the Sanctuaries of Early-Roman Greece: Epidauros and Athens". Roman Power and Greek Sanctuaries: Forms of Interaction and Communication. Tripodes. Athens: Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene. 14: 143–158. Miller, Stephen G. Robert C. Knapp, David Chamberlain.
2001. Excavations at Nemea II: The Early Hellenistic Stad
First National Assembly at Epidaurus
The First National Assembly of Epidaurus was the first meeting of the Greek National Assembly, a national representative political gathering of the Greek revolutionaries. The assembly opened in December 1821 at Piada, it was attended by representatives from regions involved in the revolution against Ottoman rule. The majority of the representatives were local notables and clergymen from the Peloponnese, Central Greece and the islands. In addition, a number of Phanariotes and academics attended. However, a number of prominent revolutionaries, including Alexander Ypsilantis and the most prominent military leaders were absent. Of the 59 representatives at the assembly, 20 were landowners, 13 were ship-owners, 12 were intellectuals, 4 were military leaders, 3 were archpriests, 3 were merchants, with and 4 others; the assembly passed a number of important documents, including: The Provisional Regime of Greece, sometimes translated as Temporary Constitution of Greece, which included a Declaration of Independence.
The Assembly elected a five-member executive on 15 January 1822, presided over by Alexandros Mavrocordatos. The executive in turn appointed the first government; the first legislature had 33 members. Another characteristic of the First National Assembly is the absence of any reference in the Constitution to the Filiki Eteria, although Dimitrios Ypsilantis, brother of Alexandros Ypsilantis and official representative of the Filiki Eteria, was appointed president of the legislature, a body controlled by the local notables
1902 Greek legislative election
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 17 November 1902. Supporters of Theodoros Deligiannis emerged as the largest bloc in Parliament, with 110 of the 235 seats. Deligiannis became Prime Minister for the fourth time on 6 December
Count Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias, sometimes anglicized as John Capodistrias, was a Greek statesman who served as the Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and was one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe. After a long and distinguished career in European politics and diplomacy he was elected as the first head of state of independent Greece, he is considered a founder of the modern Greek state, the architect of Greek independence. Ioannis Kapodistrias was born in Corfu, the most populous Ionian Island to a distinguished Corfiote family. Kapodistrias's father was the nobleman and politician Antonios Maria Kapodistrias. An ancestor of Kapodistrias had been created a conte by Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy, the title was inscribed in the Libro d'Oro of the Corfu nobility, his family's name in Capodistria had been Vittori. His mother was Adamantine Gonemis, a countess, daughter of the noble Christodoulos Gonemis; the Gonemis were a Greek family from the island of Cyprus, they had migrated to Crete when Cyprus fell to the Ottomans in the 16th century.
They migrated to Epirus when Crete fell in the 17th century settling on the Ionian island of Corfu. The Gonemis family, like the Kapodistriases, had been listed in the Libro d'Oro of Corfu. Kapodistrias, though born and raised as a nobleman, was throughout his life a liberal thinker and had democratic ideals, his ancestors fought along with the Venetians during the Turkish sieges of Corfu and had received a title of nobility from them. Kapodistrias studied medicine and law at the University of Padua in 1795–97; when he was 21 years old, in 1797, he started his medical practice as a doctor in his native island of Corfu. In 1799, when Corfu was occupied by the forces of Russia and Turkey, Kapodistrias was appointed chief medical director of the military hospital. In 1802 he founded an important scientific and social progress organisation in Corfu, the "National Medical Association", of which he was an energetic member. After two years of revolutionary freedom, triggered by the French Revolution and the ascendancy of Napoleon, in 1799 Russia and the Ottoman Empire drove the French out of the seven Ionian islands and organised them as a free and independent state – the Septinsular Republic – ruled by its nobles.
Kapodistrias, substituting for his father, became one of two ministers of the new state. Thus, at the age of 25, Kapodistrias became involved in politics. In Kefalonia he was successful in convincing the populace to remain united and disciplined to avoid foreign intervention and, by his argument and sheer courage, he faced and appeased rebellious opposition without conflict. With the same peaceful determination, he established authority in all the seven islands; when Russia sent an envoy, Count George Motsenigo, a Noble from Zakynthos who had served as Russian Diplomat in Italy, Kapodistrias became his protégé. Motsenigo helped Kapodistrias to join the Russian diplomatic service; when elections were carried for a new Senate, Kapodistrias was unanimously appointed as Chief Minister of State. In December, 1803, a less feudal and more liberal and democratic constitution was voted by the Senate; as minister of state, he organised the public sector. In 1807 the French dissolved the Septinsular Republic.
In 1809 Kapodistrias entered the service of Alexander I of Russia. His first important mission, in November 1813, was as unofficial Russian ambassador to Switzerland, with the task of helping disentangle the country from the French dominance imposed by Napoleon, he secured Swiss unity and neutrality, which were formally guaranteed by the Great Powers, facilitated the initiation of a new federal constitution for the 19 cantons that were the component states of Switzerland, with personal drafts. In the ensuing Congress of Vienna, 1815, as the Russian minister, he counterbalanced the paramount influence of the Austrian minister, Prince Metternich, insisted on French state unity under a Bourbon monarch, he obtained new international guarantees for the constitution and neutrality of Switzerland through an agreement among the Powers. After these brilliant diplomatic successes, Alexander I appointed Kapodistrias joint Foreign Minister of Russia. In the course of his assignment as Foreign Minister of Russia, Kapodistrias's ideas came to represent a progressive alternative to Metternich's aims of Austrian domination of European affairs.
Kapodistrias's liberal ideas of a new European order so threatened Metternich that he wrote in 1819: Kapodistrias is not a bad man, but speaking he is a complete and thorough fool, a perfect miracle of wrong-headedness... He lives in a world to which our minds are transported by a bad nightmare. Realising that Kapodistrias's progressive vision was antithetical to his own, Metternich tried to undermine Kapodistrias's position in the Russian court. Although Metternich was not a decisive factor in Kapodistrias's
1932 Greek legislative election
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 25 September 1932. All 254 seats in the Lower House of the Greek Parliament, the Vouli, were elected, as well as one-third of the seats in the Senate; the outcome was an ambivalent result for the two biggest parties, the Liberal Party of Eleftherios Venizelos and the People's Party. The People's Party received a plurality of votes in the Lower House elections, but won fewer seats than the Liberal Party; the Liberals won the most seats in the Senate. These were the last elections for the Senate, as it was abolished in 1935
August 1910 Greek legislative election
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 21 August 1910. The United Parties won 211 of the 362 seats. Eleftherios Venizelos became Prime Minister on 18 October, early elections were held in November
1926 Greek legislative election
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 7 November 1926. The Liberal Union emerged as the largest faction in Parliament with 108 of the 286 seats; the composition of the new parliament meant that the parties and factions had to work together to form a viable parliamentary government. On Kafandaris' initiative negotiations began among the main parties, leading to the swearing-in on the 4 December of a government under the premiership of Alexandros Zaimis, not a member of parliament; the coalition consisted of the Liberal Union, the Democratic Union, the People's Party and the Freethinkers' Party. This government came to be known as the "Ecumenical government". A The Electoral Committees reported a total votes figure of 962,304. However, this was due to a flaw in their minutes