The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in
Absolutely Fabulous: The Movie
Fabulous: The Movie is a 2016 British comedy film directed by Mandie Fletcher and written by Jennifer Saunders, based on the television show Absolutely Fabulous. It stars Saunders, Joanna Lumley, Julia Sawalha, June Whitfield in her final film role and Jane Horrocks; the film finds the drug-addicted, alcoholic PR agent Edina Monsoon and her best friend/codependent Patsy Stone on the run from the authorities after it's suspected they killed supermodel Kate Moss. The film serves as a de facto series finale for the show. Principal photography began on 12 October 2015 in the south of France; the film premiered in London on 29 June 2016. Theatrically released in the United Kingdom on 1 July 2016, the film is distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures worldwide; the ever-glamorous and self-indulgent Edina and Patsy are now in their 60s, Edina is still running her PR agency, running out of money and interest. The duo realise that Edina needs a miracle to renew her reputation. Bubble wakes up a hungover Edina.
Edina realises. Edina wakes Patsy up and tells her about her book, how it will be "made into a film because it's about her life", whilst Patsy self-applies Botox; the company head rejects Edina's book because it is lazily written and there is little interest in Edina's PR agency. While Patsy is setting up designer Huki Muki's fashion event, Patsy learns that supermodel Kate Moss is changing her PR, informs Edina. Patsy phones whilst Edina is at a PR meeting with rival PR Claudia Bing and during the phone call with Patsy she accidentally leaves her phone on "speaker" and Claudia learns that Kate Moss needs a new PR. Edina and Patsy go to the fashion event with Edina's granddaughter Lola while Saffron "Saffy" Monsoon, Edina's daughter and Lola's mother, has a night out with her new boyfriend Nick. Edina finds Kate Moss on the balcony overlooking the Thames; as she moves to speak to her, she notices that Claudia is heading for her. Rushing to get to Kate first, Edina accidentally bumps into her and she falls off the balcony and into the river.
Among the witnesses is Lulu, at odds with Edina over missed singing engagements. Hysteria pervades the event; the media storms the scene to report her disappearance and assumed death. Edina and Patsy, along with Lola, are taken into police custody. Saffy arrives to see them and make sure Lola is all right in company with Nick, revealed to be a police detective. Edina returns home the next day. Patsy arrives angry; the pair make up and return to the Thames to look for Kate, using Bubble with a flashing beacon upon her head to simulate and retrace how Moss may have been carried away, but the beacon comes loose and unable to find Bubble, they presume her dead, too. They decide to flee before the media firestorm gets worse, taking her credit card along; the three land in Cannes while Saffy searches for Lola or clues to her whereabouts back in London consulting Christopher, Edina's friend and stylist. In Cannes and Patsy call upon Patsy's ex-lover, billionaire Charlie. After Charlie rejects them, they seek help from Edina's mother, celebrating her cousin Violet's birthday.
During this party, they encounter the Richest Woman in the World. To attract the Woman and get quick money, Patsy changes her identity to a male alter-ego, "Pat" Stone; the following day, Patsy marries the Rich Woman and Edina and Patsy find the wealth they were looking for as they stay in a high-class hotel with Dame Joan Collins and Dame Edna Everage as fellow guests. Meanwhile and Patsy are seen in public by Emma Bunton who tells Lulu about their whereabouts. Saffy arrives in Cannes with Nick and heads to the hotel to find Lola. Lola is with Emma who tells Saffy of Edina's whereabouts though it is the least of Saffy's concerns. Lulu flies out to Cannes and meets with Bubble, who reveals that Kate just swam off and did not drown in the Thames. Bubble reveals that she is a millionaire and owns a massive Cannes pavilion because she has had control of Edina's accounts for years, has been embezzling from the company. Lulu reports Edina and Patsy's whereabouts to the police, since her only desire is to destroy Edina for what she has done.
The police find Edina and Patsy and chase them through the town, the duo escaping in a small three-wheeled fish-market van. As they reach Bubble's pavilion, the van's brakes fail and they roll backwards and fall into an infinity pool attached to Bubble's house. Saffy arrives at the scene to find Edina and Patsy sinking into the pool, still inside the van. Edina apologises to Saffy for being a careless mother and wishes to drown in the pool, to embrace the fact that she is old and can't run from justice forever. Saffy tells her that she loves her. Bubble reveals that Kate Moss didn't drown in the Thames, Edina exits the van, realizing she's innocent. A montage plays of countries celebrating that Kate Moss is still alive and that Edina is her new PR. Edina's PR agency is renewed, Kate is in more demand now that she has been found; the film finishes with Patsy revealing to her rich wife that she isn't a man called "Pat" and is a woman. Her wife reveals that she is a man and the film closes with the series's popular theme song, "This Wheel's on Fire" sung by Kylie Minogue.
Multiple celebrity cameo appearances in the film were announced over the course of filming. In April 2016, Fox and the
The Byrds were an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1964. The band underwent multiple lineup changes throughout its existence, with frontman Roger McGuinn remaining the sole consistent member. Although they only managed to attain the huge commercial success of contemporaries like the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Rolling Stones for a short period in the mid-1960s, the Byrds are today considered by critics to be nearly as influential as those bands, their signature blend of clear harmony singing and McGuinn's jangly twelve-string Rickenbacker guitar was "absorbed into the vocabulary of rock" and has continued to be influential. The band pioneered the musical genre of folk rock as a popular format in 1965, by melding the influence of the Beatles and other British Invasion bands with contemporary and traditional folk music on their debut album and the hit singles "Mr. Tambourine Man" and "Turn! Turn! Turn!". As the 1960s progressed, the band was influential in originating psychedelic rock and raga rock, with their song "Eight Miles High" and the albums Fifth Dimension, Younger Than Yesterday and The Notorious Byrd Brothers.
They played a pioneering role in the development of country rock, with the 1968 album Sweetheart of the Rodeo representing their fullest immersion into the genre. The original five-piece lineup of the Byrds consisted of Jim McGuinn, Gene Clark, David Crosby, Chris Hillman, Michael Clarke; this version of the band was short-lived. The Byrds continued as a quartet until late 1967, when Crosby and Clarke departed. McGuinn and Hillman decided to recruit new members, including country rock pioneer Gram Parsons, but by late 1968, Hillman and Parsons had exited the band. McGuinn elected to rebuild the band's membership. McGuinn disbanded the then-current lineup in early 1973 to make way for a reunion of the original quintet; the Byrds' final album was released in March 1973, with the reunited group disbanding that year. Several former members of the band went on to successful careers of their own, either as solo artists or as members of such groups as Crosby, Nash & Young, the Flying Burrito Brothers and the Desert Rose Band.
In 1991, the Byrds were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, an occasion that saw the five original members performing together for the last time. Gene Clark died of a heart attack that year, while Michael Clarke died of liver failure in 1993. McGuinn and Hillman remain active; the nucleus of the Byrds formed in early 1964, when Jim McGuinn, Gene Clark, David Crosby came together as a trio. All three musicians had a background rooted in folk music, with each one having worked as a folk singer on the acoustic coffeehouse circuit during the early 1960s. In addition, they had all served time, independently of each other, as sidemen in various "collegiate folk" groups: McGuinn with the Limeliters and the Chad Mitchell Trio, Clark with the New Christy Minstrels, Crosby with Les Baxter's Balladeers. McGuinn had spent time as a professional songwriter at the Brill Building in New York City, under the tutelage of Bobby Darin. By early 1964, McGuinn had become enamored with the music of the Beatles, had begun to intersperse his solo folk repertoire with acoustic versions of Beatles' songs.
While performing at The Troubadour folk club in Los Angeles, McGuinn was approached by fellow Beatles fan Gene Clark, the pair soon formed a Peter and Gordon-style duo, playing Beatles' covers, Beatlesque renditions of traditional folk songs, some self-penned material. Soon after, David Crosby introduced himself to the duo at The Troubadour and began harmonizing with them on some of their songs. Impressed by the blend of their voices, the three musicians formed a trio and named themselves the Jet Set, a moniker inspired by McGuinn's love of aeronautics. Crosby introduced McGuinn and Clark to his associate Jim Dickson, who had access to World Pacific Studios, where he had been recording demos of Crosby. Sensing the trio's potential, Dickson took on management duties for the group, while his business partner, Eddie Tickner, became the group's accountant and financial manager. Dickson began utilizing World Pacific Studios to record the trio as they honed their craft and perfected their blend of Beatles pop and Bob Dylan-style folk.
It was during the rehearsals at World Pacific that the band's folk rock sound—an amalgam of their own Beatles-influenced material, their folk music roots and their Beatlesque covers of contemporary folk songs—began to coalesce. This blend arose organically, but as rehearsals continued, the band began to attempt to bridge the gap between folk music and rock. Demo recordings made by the Jet Set at World Pacific Studios would be collected on the compilation albums Preflyte, In the Beginning, The Preflyte Sessions and Preflyte Plus. Drummer Michael Clarke was added to the Jet Set in mid-1964. Clarke was recruited due to his good looks and Brian Jones-esque hairstyle, rather than for his musical experience, limited to having played congas in a semi-professional capacity in and around San Francisco and L. A. Clarke did not own his own drum kit and had to play on a makeshift setup consisting of cardboard boxes and a tambourine; as the band continued to rehearse, Dickson arranged a one-off single deal for the group with Elektra Records' founder Jac Holzman.
Adrian Charles Edmondson is an English comedian, actor and television presenter. He was part of the alternative comedy boom in the early 1980s and had roles in the television series The Young Ones and Bottom, which he wrote together with his long-time collaborative partner Rik Mayall. Edmondson appeared in The Comic Strip Presents... series of films throughout the 1980s and 1990s. For one episode of this he created the spoof heavy metal band Bad News, for another he played his nihilistic alter-ego Eddie Monsoon, an offensive South African television star, he played the lead role in The Comic Strip's 1985 feature film, The Supergrass. In the 2000s, Edmondson appeared in numerous TV programmes in drama roles including Jonathan Creek, Holby City, Miss Austen Regrets, as himself on Hell's Kitchen and created the sitcom Teenage Kicks. Since 2006 Edmondson has concentrated on music instead of acting, forming a band, The Bad Shepherds, performing and writing for the Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Band. In 2011 he presented a series of shows for ITV: The Dales, which focused on people working in the Yorkshire Dales, Ade in Britain in which he undertook a tour of numerous places in Britain.
A second series aired in 2012. Edmondson has been married to fellow comedian Jennifer Saunders since 1985 and they have three daughters and three grandchildren. Edmondson is a gifted amateur chef, was a finalist in the 2009 season of Hell's Kitchen, was the champion of Celebrity Masterchef in 2013. Edmondson, the second of four children, was born in Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire to Dorothy Eileen Sturgeon and Fred Edmondson; as a child, he lived with his family in a variety of places including Cyprus and Uganda, where his father was a teacher in the armed forces. In the mid-1980s, his father became the deputy headmaster at the former Drummond Middle School in Manningham, Bradford. Edmondson attended Pocklington School, East Riding of Yorkshire from 1968 to 1975. In an interview with the Times Educational Supplement, he stated that he did not enjoy his education at Pocklington. Edmondson calculated that during his time at Pocklington, he received a total of 66 strokes of the cane as well as frequent slipperings.
By the time he was in sixth form, with his parents working abroad, Edmondson began to enjoy himself, "which involved lots of drinking and smoking and petty acts of vandalism." He had a favourite teacher, Michael Aubrey. Aubrey taught English and encouraged Edmondson to pursue drama, casting him in a number of school plays, allowing him to take time out of other lessons to do drama. After Pocklington, Edmondson went to the University of Manchester to study drama, where he met his future comedy partner Rik Mayall, graduated with a 2:1 degree. Edmondson and Mayall soon became best friends and before long found work on the burgeoning alternative comedy scene. Under the name 20th Century Coyote and Mayall became one of the star attractions at The Comedy Store; as their popularity grew, Edmondson and other upcoming comedians, including Nigel Planer, Peter Richardson, Alexei Sayle, French and Saunders moved from the Comedy Store to The Comic Strip club. The Comic Strip soon gained a reputation as one of the most popular comedy clubs in London and soon came to the attention of Channel 4.
Edmondson and the others were commissioned to act in 6 self-contained half-hour films, using the group as comedy actors rather than stand-up performers. The series, entitled The Comic Strip Presents... debuted on 2 November 1982. The first episode to be broadcast was "Five Go Mad in Dorset", a parody of Enid Blyton's Famous Five, which drew anger from some viewers for the way it mercilessly satirised a children's classic. Edmondson starred as one of the five. By the same time as The Comic Strip Presents... was being negotiated, the BBC signed Edmondson, Richardson and Sayle to star in The Young Ones, a sitcom in the same anarchic style as The Comic Strip. The show revolved around the shared house where four students lived during their studies at Scumbag College, it was noted at the time of its first airing for its violent slapstick, the series retains a cult following. During this time, Edmondson appeared in a bank advertisement in what was his "Vyvyan" guise. Following the success of The Comic Strip Presents... and, to a greater extent, The Young Ones and Mayall returned to their "Coyote" dynamic in the double act "The Dangerous Brothers" with Edmondson as "Sir Adrian Dangerous" in Saturday Live.
In 1983, he appeared as the lead singer "Vim Fuego" in the spoof heavy metal band called "Bad News" with his Young Ones co-stars Rik Mayall, Nigel Planer, Peter Richardson of "Comic Strip Presents...". On 11 May 1985, Edmondson married fellow Comic Strip actor Jennifer Saunders, with whom he has three daughters: Eleanor and Freya. In 1985 Edmondson starred with Saunders in Happy Families, a rural comedy drama written by Ben Elton which appeared on the BBC and told the story of the dysfunctional Fuddle family. In 1987, Edmondson reunited with Planer and Mayall to star in Filthy Rich and Catflap, a comic attack on showbiz, again written by Elton, he played "Edward Catflap", a coarse, drunken minder of light-entertainment nonentity "Richie Rich". In this show Edmondson displayed the same slapstick characteristics as Vyvyan in The Young Ones but was closer in personality to his character "Eddie Hitler" in Bottom; the show was cancelled after one series. Edmondson co-starred in 1987 with Mayall in the ITV sit-com Hardwicke House.
Due to the adv
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Kylie Ann Minogue known mononymously as Kylie, is an Australian-British singer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson. Appearing in the series for two years, Minogue's character married Scott Robinson in an episode viewed by nearly 20 million people in the United Kingdom, making it one of the most watched Australian TV episodes ever. Since Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames, most notably the "Princess of Pop." She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Born and raised in Melbourne, Minogue has worked and lived in the United Kingdom since the 1990s, she released her first studio album Kylie the next year. In 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records where she released her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics.
Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and released Light Years. The followup, was a hit in many countries, including the United States; the lead single "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became one of the most successful singles of the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her "signature song" and was named "the catchiest song ever" by Yahoo! Music. Other successful singles by Minogue include "I Should Be So Lucky", "The Loco-Motion", "Especially for You", "Hand on Your Heart", "Better the Devil You Know", "Confide in Me", "Spinning Around", "Love at First Sight", "Slow", "2 Hearts" and "All the Lovers". In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a "triumph". Minogue made her film debut in The Delinquents and portrayed Cammy in Street Fighter. Minogue has appeared in the films Moulin Rouge!, Jack & Diane, Holy Motors.
In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the third series of The Voice Australia. Her other ventures include children's books and fashion; as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and received a Mo Award for "Australian Entertainer of the Year" for her live performances. Minogue was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours for services to Music, she was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture. Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, she was inducted by the Australian Recording Industry Association into the ARIA Hall of Fame. In December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time.
Minogue signed a new global recording contract with BMG Rights Management in early 2017. Her latest album Golden was released on 6 April 2018, debuting at No. 1 in the Australia. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia, on 28 May 1968, her father is a fifth generation Australian, has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father and Denis Jones, decided to move to Australia for a better life. Just before Kylie's birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylie's younger brother, Brendan, is a news cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is a singer and television host; the Minogue family moved around various suburbs in Melbourne to sustain their living expenses, which Kylie found unsettling as a child. After the birth of Dannii, the family moved to South Oakleigh; because money was tight, Ron worked as an accountant at a family-owned car company and Carol worked as a tea lady at a local hospital.
After moving to Surrey Hills, Minogue attended Studfield Primary School before attending Camberwell Primary School. She went on to Camberwell High School. During her schooling years, Minogue found it difficult to make friends, she got her HSC with subjects including English. Minogue described herself as being of "average intelligence" and "quite modest" during her high school years. From the age of 11, Kylie appeared in small roles in soap operas including The Sullivans and Skyways. In 1985, she was cast in one of the lead roles in The Henderson Kids. Minogue took time off school to film The Henderson Kids and while Carol was not impressed, Minogue felt that she needed the independence to make it into the entertainment industry. During filming, co-star Nadine Garner labelled Minogue "fragile" after producers yelled at her for forgetting her lines. Minogue was dropped from the second season of the show after producer Alan Hardy felt the need for her character to be "written off". In retrospect, Hardy stated that removing her from the showing "turned out to be the best thing for her".
Interested in following a career in music, Minogue made a demo tape for the producers of weekly music programme Young Talent Time, which featured Dannii as a regular performer