Bedfordview is a wealthy town in western Ekurhuleni, sharing an administrative boundary with the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa. Bedfordview has been part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality since 2000; the Eastgate shopping centre is located here. The site of Bedfordview was taken up by the farm Elandsfontein and was administered as part of the District of Potchefstroom in the South African Republic; the coat-of-arms of Bedfordview features an Eland holding a fountain as a tribute to the early rural history of the town. The Witwatersrand Gold Reef had a huge impact on the area. Elandsfontein was purchased for the mineral rights, was divided into smaller farms and small-holdings, many of which were settled by retired miners; the entire area became known as Geldenhuis Estates Smallholdings. One of these farms was owned by Sir George Herbert Farrar, a randlord who played a prominent role in planning the infamous Jameson Raid, one of the main causes of the Second Anglo-Boer War.
His farm, was located in the present-day suburb of St Andrews, parts of the original farm can still be seen in St Andrews' School. The farm itself was named after Sir Farrar's home-town of Bedford in England; the raid itself was planned in a small house close to the farm. Sir George is buried in Milner Ave, close to the only official grave in the town. During the war, British cavalry was based in Bedfordview and planted the oak trees along Van Buuren Ave. There is a legend that an Indian Rajah-based with the unit died and was buried somewhere in Bedfordview in full regalia, including his jewel-encrusted sword; the name "Bedfordview" came about as the result of a competition. A girl who won the competition thought. "Bedford View" was registered. Over the years the name has contracted to one word. On 24 February 1926, the suburb obtained its name. By 1932 the small-holding had developed into a small village; the 1st Bedfordview Scout Troop opened its doors on 26 July 1928, there was a government school and a post office.
However, there were major health concerns. Bill Stewart, headmaster at the school, recalled that sewage would run down Van Buuren Road from Malvern East and that the piggeries and other farms caused swarms of flies. There was talk that the area should become part of a municipality in order to deal with the matter, residents were asked whether they would prefer to join Johannesburg or Germiston. Joining a municipality would mean rates and taxes though, so the residents elected instead to set up a health committee to sort out the problem; this developed into the Bedfordview Village Council and the Bedfordview Town Council. Bedfordview was joined with Germiston and Palm Ridge to form the Transitional Council of Greater Germiston, after the institutition of democracy; this was in turn merged with other East Rand towns to form the City of Ekurhuleni, which incorporated the old municipalities of Alberton, Benoni, Brakpan, Germiston, Kempton Park and Springs. The site Bedfordview.co.za is a dedicated listing for business, shops and property in the Bedfordview area.
Airports Company South Africa has its head office in Bedfordview. TAAG Angola Airlines has an office in Bedfordview. Murray and Roberts has its head office in Bedfordview." Securities and Trading Technology has its head office in Bedfordview." Mochachos has its head office in Bedfordview." The following suburbs form part of Bedfordview: Bedford Gardens Bedford Park Essexwold Morninghill Oriel Senderwood St Andrews Eastgate Shopping Centre Bedford Centre Bedfordview High School Bedfordview Primary School Bishop Bavin School Leeuwenhof Akademie New Crawford School Reddam House School SAHETI School St Andrew's School for Girls St Benedict's Catholic School for Boys
Post office box
A post office box is a uniquely addressable lockable box located on the premises of a post office station. In some regions in Africa, there is no door to door delivery of mail. Renting a PO box has traditionally been the only way to receive mail in such countries. However, some countries, like Egypt, have introduced mail home delivery. Post office boxes are rented from the post office either by individuals or by businesses on a basis ranging from monthly to annual, the cost of rent varies depending on the box size. Central business district PO boxes are more expensive than rural PO boxes. In the United States, the rental rate used to be uniform across the country. Now, however, a postal facility can be in any of seven fee groups by location. In the United Kingdom, Royal Mail PO boxes are little more than pigeon-holes in the secure section of a sorting office and are accessible only by staff. In such cases, the renter of the PO box will be issued with a card showing the PO box number and delivery office name and must produce this to the desk staff when collecting mail.
For an additional fee, the Royal Mail will deliver received items to the renter's geographical address. Some private companies offer similar services of renting a mailbox in a public location; the difference is that mail sent there is addressed to a street address, instead of just addressed to "PO Box CSX". The quantity of post office boxes in a station varies widely. Stations of small areas are equipped with fewer than 100 boxes, while stations in a central business district area may offer a combined quantity of over 200,000 post office boxes. Post office boxes are mounted in a wall of the post office, either an external wall or a wall in a lobby, so that staff on the inside may deposit mail in a box, while a key holder in the lobby or on the outside of the building may open his or her box to retrieve the mail. In many post offices in the U. S. the PO box lobby is separate from the window-service lobby, so that the former may be kept open for longer hours or around the clock, while the latter is locked after business hours.
In the U. S. since the 1980s, in cities and large urban areas, post offices have tended to close box lobbies overnight because of the tendency of homeless people to use them for sleeping quarters. As a result, some box lobbies are accessible after hours by customers who are provided a code to a door keypad. In addition, some post offices are located in rented facilities such as shopping malls; as a result, PO boxes can only be accessed. If a parcel does not fit in a PO box, the postmaster will leave a note advising that customer to pick up that parcel from the counter. In some post offices, a key will be left in the PO box that corresponds to a larger, locked box where the patron may pick up his or her package if a signature is not required. Most in this case, once the key is used to open the larger, locked box, the key cannot be removed again by the patron, but the door cannot be secured either. Notes will be left in the PO box in respect of cash on delivery and registered mail that has to be signed for.
In 2011, the United States Postal Service began a pilot program called "gopost" which installed larger boxes to handle package pickup from an unstaffed station. A given box can be used by multiple customers thanks to the integration of a computer which accepts a delivery code; the system uses U. S. Patent 6,690,997, issued February 10, 2004 to Michael A. Rivalto. Deutsche Post started a similar concept called a Packstation in 2001; the operated Amazon Locker, started in 2011, is a similar one-time-use pickup facility for parcels sent to and from the company. Until 2012, package delivery to USPS post office boxes was not available from private carriers like UPS, FedEx and others. In early 2012, the Postal Service introduced a P. O. Box Street Address service that allows box-holders to combine the street address of the post office where their box is located with their post office box number into a street address format. A mailing industry publication called the new service "a great service for people who have a PO Box and don't want their packages delivered to their home."
Users receiving large quantities of mail can use "locked bags", which are numbered like PO boxes. In the United States, this service is called caller service, the assigned number is called a caller number, although mail is addressed to "PO Box." Each country has its own regulations as to how one can retrieve mail at a PO Box. Some countries, such as the United States or the United Kingdom, may require one or more forms of identification. Not all countries offer locked PO Boxes. In the United States, two forms of identification are required. Many countries offer some type of PO Boxes for different uses. There are an increasing number of private companies that provide similar PO Box services to the official postal service under the guise of mail forwarding. In Namibia, PO boxes are the only form of mail delivery to private individuals. Small settlements feature a block of PO boxes for rent. In Windhoek and the only large town, blocks of PO boxes are scattered all over the city and not located at post of
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Germiston is a small city in the East Rand region of Gauteng, South Africa, administratively forming part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality since the latter's establishment in 2000. It functions as the municipal seat of Ekurhuleni, hosting the municipal administration, it was established in the early days of the gold rush when two prospectors, John Jack from the farm of Germiston near Glasgow and August Simmer from Vacha in Germany, struck paydirt on the farm of Elandsfontein. In August 1887, the pair were on their way to the Eastern Transvaal when they outspanned on the farm Elandsfontein and decided to stay and buy the land. Both men made fortunes and the town sprang up 2 km from the Simmer and Jack mine named after Jack's fathers farm. In 1921 the world's largest gold refinery, the Rand Refinery, was established at Germiston. Seventy percent of the western world's gold passes through this refinery. Although gold mining wound down in Germiston, to the point that by the end of the 20th century it was no longer a mining centre, the Rand Refinery remains as busy as ever.
The city has a number of historic buildings. Among these are the St Andrew's Presbyterian Church, built in 1905, St Boniface Church designed by Sir Herbert Baker, built in 1910; the church houses the historic 1910 English Romantic Norman and Beard Organ. The Alexander Hotel was partly designed by Baker, using his traditional stone appearance; this building has been renovated and now houses a well-known law firm. The builder of the hotel, Alexander Stuart, some of whose descendants still live in Germiston, died when the RMS Lusitania was torpedoed in the First World War on 7 May 1915; the hotel thus remains a memorial to his pioneer work in the city over a hundred years ago. According to the 2001 census, the population of Germiston consisted of 139,719 people living in 49,062 households, its land area was 129 square kilometres. Of this population, 49.8% described themselves as "White", 46.8% as "Black African", 1.9% as "Coloured", 1.5% as "Indian or Asian". No language was predominant, with the breakdown of first languages being as follows: South African Airways moved its head office from Durban to Rand Airport in Germiston on 1 July 1935.
It moved the offices first to Johannesburg to Kempton Park. The city is an industrial centre with steel manufacture and distribution being the largest industries, it has large railway workshops, a large glassworks, engineering companies, gas distribution firms, many other heavy and light industries. Victoria Lake is better known today as Germiston Lake, the famous Sailing and Rowing Club retains the name of the Victoria Lake Club; the club is home to some of the best canoeists and rowing crews in the country, including the twenty-time South African School Champions, St Benedict's College. The lake is popular at weekends for water-skiing and regattas; the lake grounds have been re-landscaped and the braai areas and shelters rebuilt. The WesBank Raceway motorsports facility was located in the city, but it was sold to industrial estate developers in November 2007; the Raceway was the Gosforth Park Race Club, one of the major horse racing facilities in Gauteng. Germiston Stadium, home stadium of Moroka Swallows FC is located in the city.
This is the home ground for the Germiston Simmer Rugby Club and has a tartan track for athletics. Municipal By 1931, the Germiston municipality had assumed a pseudo-heraldic coat of arms, depicting buck in the veld, a scene showing mineshafts, a railway train in a landscape, a half-tented ox-wagon in a landscape, the quarters separated by a red cross; the motto was Salus populi suprema lex. Municipal A proper coat of arms was granted by the College of Arms in August 1935, it was registered with the Transvaal Provincial Administration in August 1963 and at the Bureau of Heraldry in February 1968. The arms were three bezants; the crest was a rising falcon. Germiston is well connected to five mayor freeways or motorways that service the Greater Johannesburg region; these include to the west of Germiston, the M2 motorway that connects the southern Johannesburg CBD, the N3 Eastern Bypass, the N12 South. On the southern side, the N17 and N3 and in the north, the N12 East and the R24 service the city.
Being a mining and industrial city, Germiston is serviced by passenger rail and the CBD has several stations, the main one being Germiston Station. The industrial areas are service by rail spurs and stations and the Transnet has a large depot north of the CBD in Keswick Road. Germiston is the location of Rand Airport, at one time one of the busiest in Africa and the southern hemisphere. Today it caters for light aircraft and flying schools, but is home to the South African Airways Museum; as a result of this, two of the earlier Boeing 747 Jumbo aircraft used by SAA now reside there on permanent display. Germiston is served by a public state hospital. Other private hospitals include Life Roseacres Hospital in Primrose. There are a number of schools in the city; the oldest high school in
Tsakane Mashona is a township located in Ekurhuleni, South Africa. It was established during the early 1960s due to Apartheid's segregationist policies and was formally founded as a designated area. Tsakane is a Tsonga word which means happiness. During the 2011 Census the population of Tsakane consisted of Black Africans, Whites, Indian/Asians - 135,994 in total; the languages that are spoken are as follows: IsiZulu, Xhosa, Xitsonga and English. Tsakane is divided into different extensions: 1, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 5, 8, 9; some of the Public schools in the area are Mamellong Comprehensive school & J. E Malepe Secondary school. Tsakane has one public hospital called Pholosong; the hospital serves a population of 900,000 people from KwaThema and Duduza. There is one public clinic and other smaller surgeries and clinics in the township that take care of the health of the people around the township of Tsakane. Clinics help patients with health issues such as high blood pressure, cancer, HIV/AIDS blood tests and treatment, etc.
Economic development in Tsakane is centred in the area around the mall which accommodates the police station, the Magistrates court, the stadium and the Municipal offices. There are 4 Shoprite stores in Tsakane and the malls and shopping complexes are forever busy throughout the week around the end of the month. There is a range of housing in Tsakane. Residences range from middle class houses normal houses to RDP houses. Tsakane has two shopping centers, Tsakane Corner and The Square, other smaller shopping centers which are located in different sections of the township: Duduza Rank, Extension 11 and Extension 19. Tsakane mall is not big but has many stores and banks. Two well known supermarkets in the mall that most people buy food from are Spar. Shoprite is found in the other two shopping centers: Extension 11 and Extension 19 shopping centers. There are fast-food restaurants and other places that people go to on special occasions, such as on public holidays. Tsakane boasts an active night life with bars such as: Chillas, Dinangwe, A2A and Welcome's place.
The people of Tsakane like to eat out and support their local township food businesses which sell bunny chow or "kota" as it is referred to. Tsakane has Tsakane Stadium; the stadium is not large enough to host matches between big soccer teams like Orlando Pirates and Kaizer Chiefs. Although the stadium has hosted some matches between the reserve teams of these big cubs in a tournament called the Diski Challenge. In addition to soccer games, the stadium is often used for local activities such as government functions, school sports days, music festivals and religious gatherings. There are several Secondary Schools in Tsakane. Primary schools in Tsakane start from Grade 1-7 whereas the secondary schools start from Grade 8 to 12 except for African School for Excellence, the only secondary school that starts from grade 7 in the area as well as being the only Cambridge School in that area. Michael Mkwanazi Primary School The African School for Excellence is the only private school located in Tsakane.
The ASE model was designed to address the needs and challenges of township secondary school scholars. The main difference between it and government public schools in Tsakane is that ASE uses the Cambridge curriculum. Tsakane has one community radio station called EK FM 103.6. The radio station serves as a community development and communication media for Tsakane, Kwathema and Daveyton communities. Tsakane has a local newspaper: The African Reporter; the African Reporter is a weekly newspaper distributed on Fridays across the East Rand with an estimated circulation of 22,000 newspapers. Tsakane has a local magazine
Tembisa is a large township situated to the north of Kempton Park on the East Rand, South Africa. It was established in 1957 when black people were resettled from Alexandra and other areas in Edenvale, Kempton Park and Germiston; the name Thembisa is a Nguni word meaning promise and hope was misspelled as Tembisa. The settlement when it was founded carried with it a lot of hope and promise for a brighter future for its inhabitants. Though its initial residents were forcefully removed from parts of Kempton Park and Edenvale, for the purpose of clearing blacks from "white areas", settling in Tembisa marked the end of years of harassment by apartheid authorities, a reprieve from a life of squalor in their previous settlements. Today Tembisa enjoys better infrastructure and its population has grown exponentially in the past 20 years, with its attraction being its location in the heart of Gauteng province's industrial zone; the township was founded in 1957. After the Afrikaner-dominated National Party gained power in 1948 and began to implement apartheid, the pace of forced removals and the creation of townships outside designated white areas increased.
The Johannesburg council established new townships for black people evicted from the city's freehold areas. In 1956, townships were laid out for particular ethnic groups as part of the state's strategy to sift black people into groupings that would form the building blocks of the so-called "independent homelands", it is the second largest township following Soweto. In 1977 the government initiated the Community Councils and in 1982 upgraded them to Town Councils, under the Black Local Authorities Act; the government vested limited powers on these councils but without financial muscle. Therefore, to raise revenue for purposes of developing the townships, the councils increased rent and service charges; this caused the residents in different townships, including Tembisa, to establish civic structures to resist the rent and service charge increases. In 2016, on July 25, residents were caught off guard; the twister moved over to Tembisa, causing the most destruction here. Around 20 people were injured and more than 400 were left homeless.
One of the most visible sights was the damage to the Phumulani Mall, where the roof collapsed after the tornado passed through. No deaths were reported; the township was not allowed to create employment centres within its area, so all of its residents commute daily to their employment destinations in places such as Kempton Park, Pretoria Johannesburg and Midrand. Metrorail operates commuter trains between central Johannesburg. Tembisa train stations are Limindlela in the center and Leralla in the west. Oakmoor station is used by trains heading to Tshwane. Taxi is used by most people to travel in Tembisa, South Africa and neighbouring countries
Township (South Africa)
In South Africa, the terms township and location refer to the underdeveloped racially segregated urban areas that, from the late 19th century until the end of apartheid, were reserved for non-whites, namely Indians and Coloureds. Townships were built on the periphery of towns and cities; the term township has a distinct legal meaning in South Africa's system of land title, which carries no racial connotations. Townships for non-whites were called locations or lokasies in Afrikaans, are still referred to by that name in smaller towns; the slang term "kasie", a popular short version of "lokasie" is used. Townships sometimes have large informal settlements nearby. KwaGuqa had 130 000 population in census 2011 and should be on the first page of your list of township During the first half of the twentieth century, a clear majority of the black population in major urban areas lived in hostels or servants’ accommodations provided by employers and were single men. In the period during and following World War II urban areas of South Africa experienced a rapid period of urbanisation as the colour bar was relaxed due to the war.
Neither employers nor the government built new accommodation or homes for the influx of new residents. This led to overcrowding, poor living conditions, the absence of amenities thereby contributing to high levels of crime and violence. High rents and overcrowding led to land invasions and the growth of shack settlements which were ignored by government. By 1950 a substantial proportion of the urban black population lived in townships. In 1950, upwards of 100,000 people were living in townships on the Witwatersrand area, 50,000 people in Cato Manor in Durban, an estimated 150,000 black and coloured people lived in townships in Cape Town. Living conditions in the shack township settlements were low but had the advantage over other more established options in the hostels of being cheap and unregulated by the apartheid era South African Police. During the era of ideological apartheid, black people were evicted from properties that were in areas designated as "white only" and forced to move into segregated townships.
Separate townships were established for each of the three designated non-white race groups - black people and Indians - as per the Population Registration Act, 1950. Legislation that enabled the apartheid government to do this included the Group Areas Act. Most South African towns and cities have at least one township associated with them; some old townships have seen rapid development since 1994 with, for instance and middle-income areas sprouting in parts of Soweto and Chatsworth. Despite their origins in apartheid South Africa, today the terms township and informal settlement are not used pejoratively; however policy makers are, as in the 1950s, once again using the term'slums' in a pejorative way. Township communities are faced with several social problems. Most the residents of townships do not own the land on which their houses are built. In effect, these houses are built illegally. Construction is unregulated by the government; this results in a lack of access to basic services such as sewerage, electricity and clean water, which adversely affects residents' quality of life.
Sewerage and electrical Infrastructure within townships is in need of repair, resulting in a lack of sanitation due to problems with accessibility, availability. Electricity and sewerage are managed by different government departments, resulting in inefficiencies in the absence of substantial co-ordination at all stages of the project planning and implementation cycle; the sewerage system within the townships is constructed. The population of the townships grows faster than the infrastructure was planned for, causing overloads which result in blockages and overflows. There are a limited number of public toilets that are over-used and become health hazards for the community. Another that caused by the lack of space between houses is poor access for maintenance activities; some of the areas on the township peripheries or near riverbanks do not have access to facilities because they are not connected to the formal waterborne sewerage system. A consequence of inadequate pumping infrastructure and large populations is that water pressure in townships is low.
With each section of the townships is one pump per section. The water is used for everything from cleaning clothes, drinking and cleaning the house. Having little water accessible to each section makes it hard to get enough water for a day per household. Electrical wires strung along the trees leading to power boxes is an ubiquitous sight in the townships, due to illegal electricity connections; this is dangerous, however every house in the area has a wire coming out of it and every wire is known by their owner in order to fix problems as soon as they arise. Most of the sub-stations are unsecured to begin with so having so many additional wires coming off of it is dangerous for the people nearby and the kids playing in the area; the government does not like that the people using the sub-stations are not actual residents so they refuse to give them electricity but if they were to install more sub-stations the problem would be solved. Some townships, such as Alexandra and Diepsloot, are built near rivers, on flood plains.
These areas are dense with only tortuous, narrow access, few communal water points and banks of chemical toilets on the peripheries of the settlements. The settlements are beginning to be built in the old tributaries due to the continuing growth of the townships. With the houses in the dried up tributaries is