45th United States Congress
The Forty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1877, to March 4, 1879, during the first two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870; the Senate had a Republican majority, the House had a Democratic majority. The 45th Congress remained politically divided between a Democratic Republican Senate. President Hayes vetoed an Army appropriations bill from the House which would have ended Reconstruction and prohibited the use of federal troops to protect polling stations in the former Confederacy. Striking back, Congress overrode another of Hayes’s vetoes and enacted the Bland-Allison Act that required the purchase and coining of silver. Congress approved a generous increase in pension eligibility for Northern Civil War veterans.
March 4, 1877: Rutherford B. Hayes became President of the United States February 28, 1878: Bland–Allison Act, Sess. 2, ch. 20, 20 Stat. 25 April 29, 1878: National Quarantine Act, Sess. 2, ch. 66, 20 Stat. 37 June 3, 1878: Timber and Stone Act, Sess. 2, ch. 151, 20 Stat. 89 June 18, 1878: Posse Comitatus Act, Sess. 2, ch. 263, §15, 20 Stat. 152 The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. During this Congress, two Senate seats and one House seat were added for Colorado. President: William A. Wheeler President pro tempore: Thomas W. Ferry Republican Conference Chairman: Henry B. Anthony Democratic Caucus Chairman: William A. Wallace Speaker: Samuel J. Randall Democratic Caucus Chairman: Hiester Clymer Republican Conference Chair: Eugene Hale Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Joseph Clay Stiles Blackburn This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1880. Skip to House of Representatives, below The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 5 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss deaths: 2 resignations: 3 interim appointments: 1 contested elections: 0 Total seats with changes: 5 replacements: 10 Democratic: 5 seat net gain Republican: 5 seat net loss deaths: 7 resignations: 1 contested election: 5 Total seats with changes: 13 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click or tap on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Agriculture Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections of 1878 Engrossed Bills Epidemic Diseases Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service Finance Foreign Relations Hot Springs Commission Indian Affairs Judiciary Late Presidential Election Louisiana Manufactures Mexican Relations Military Affairs Mines and Mining Mississippi River Levee System Naval Affairs Ordnance and War Ships Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Privileges and Elections Public Lands Railroads Revision of the Laws Revolutionary Claims Rules Tariff Regulation Tenth Census Territories Transportation Routes to the Seaboard Treasury Department Account Discrepancies Whole Accounts Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency Claims Coinage and Measures Commerce District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections Enrolled Bills Expenditures in the Interior Department Expenditures in the Justice Department Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Mines and Mining Mississippi Levees Naval Affairs Pacific Railroads Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Railways and Canals Revision of Laws Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories War Claims Ways and Means
Bedford is a borough in and the county seat of Bedford County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It is located 102 miles west of Harrisburg, the state capital, 107 miles east of Pittsburgh. Bedford's population was 2,841 at the 2010 census. Growing up around Fort Bedford, constructed near the trading post called Raystown, Bedford was settled about 1751 and laid out in 1766. Bedford was incorporated on March 13, 1795. For many years it was an important frontier military post; the Espy House in Bedford is notable for having been the headquarters of George Washington and his force of 13,000 while putting down the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, which had started around the Jean Bonnet Tavern just west of Bedford. In 1758 the British Army came to the vicinity of John Ray's trading post to set up Fort Bedford, named for the politically powerful Duke of Bedford in England; some believe this is how the town got its name. Fort Bedford was built as one of the many British Army stepping stones through the state leading to the forks of the Ohio River.
The British used the fort to drive out the French to ensure the new continent would be British controlled. The fort was a safe house for settlers escaping Indian raids. Fort Bedford was "liberated" ten years before the Revolution by American rebels, James Smith's Black Boys, was the first fort taken from the British; the fort collapsed. George Washington marched his army to Bedford in 1794 to subdue the Whiskey Rebellion. There was much more at stake than quieting the uprising of rebels angered by a tax on whiskey; the rebellion consisted of farmers who could, due to the high cost of pack mule transport to the eastern cities, earn more selling whiskey instead of grain. The rebellion spread fast, when it reached Pittsburgh some rebels threatened to burn the city to the ground. Anarchy was on its way. Washington knew he had to make a statement. 12,950 militiamen were called to Bedford leaving the rebels without many choices. One historian stated, "It was at Bedford that the new federal government was to establish itself as sovereign in its own time and place."Bedford, at one time, was famous for its medicinal springs.
There is a mineral spring, a chalybeate spring, a limestone spring, a sulfur spring and two sweet springs. In the year 1804, a mechanic from Bedford, Jacob Fletcher, drank some of the water; the rheumatic pains and ulcers he had been suffering from troubled him less that night. From on he drank from the spring and soaked his limbs in the water. In a few weeks he was cured. News spread and the "healing springs" became popular; the discovery of the curative springs led Dr. John Anderson to purchase the nearby land and build a spa in 1804. Due to the lack of medicines in that time, people from great distances flocked to the hotel in search of a cure for their illness; the Bedford Springs Hotel was the first place in America to have an Olympic sized pool. President James Buchanan made it his "summer White House". While Buchanan was there the first trans-Atlantic cable message was sent to his room from Queen Victoria on August 17, 1858; the hotel, in 1855 housed the only Supreme Court hearing to be held outside of the capital.
Chalybeate Springs Hotel, along with the nearby Bedford Springs Hotel, were popular resorts during the 19th century among the wealthy. Notable visitors to Bedford Springs included William Henry Harrison, James Polk, Zachary Taylor, Thaddeus Stevens. Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison visited Chalybeate Springs Hotel, as did many other notable people. U. S. Route 30 known as the Lincoln Highway, passes through Bedford. Up until the opening of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1940, U. S. Route 30 was the key east-west route connecting Philadelphia to the west. In 1927, David Koontz built a coffee pot-shaped building, a diner; this building, a landmark in Bedford, was moved in 2003 to the Bedford County Fairgrounds. The Bedford Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Bedford is located in the center of Bedford County at 40°0′59″N 78°30′15″W, it is surrounded by Bedford Township. The borough is accessible from Exit 146 of the Pennsylvania Turnpike at the midpoint between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh.
U. S. Route 220 is a four-lane north-south highway that bypasses Bedford to the west and becomes Interstate 99 just north of town where it crosses the Pennsylvania Turnpike. US-220 Business passes through the center of Bedford as Richard Street; the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River, a tributary of the Susquehanna River, flows west to east through the center of Bedford. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.11 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 2.51%, is water. A Fall Foliage Festival is held in the beginning of October on the first two weekends of the month; the celebration stretches from Penn Street, down Juliana Street, to the park by the Fort Bedford Museum. The event includes many vendors, touring of the fort, the Children's Theater, pony rides, an antique car show; the Bedford County Fair takes place annually in August. Alongside a classic midway of rides and food vendors are a multitude of 4-H-sponsored events, automobile racing, demolition derbies, a petting zoo.
The automobile racing and demolition derbies take place at the Bedford Fairgrounds Speedway, adjacent to the remainder of the Fair. As
46th United States Congress
The Forty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1879, to March 4, 1881, during the last two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870; the Senate had a Democratic majority. The Democrats were still able to control the House, with the help of the Independent politicians who caucused with them. President: William A. Wheeler President pro tempore: Allen G. Thurman Democratic Caucus Chairman: William A. Wallace Republican Conference Chairman: Henry B. Anthony Speaker: Samuel J. Randall Democratic Caucus Chairman: John Ford House Republican Conference Chair: William P. Frye Depression of 1873–79 March 18, 1879: Samuel J. Randall was elected in one of the most fought contests for the speakership after the Civil War.
Randall, who favored the protective tariff and "hard money," drew his greatest strength from northern cities and greatest opposition from the west and south. The midterm elections of 1878 had gone badly for the Democrats, with the Greenback Party making inroads in key districts; this emboldened Randall's opponents. In the end, Randall prevailed in the Democratic caucus to receive the nomination, with 75 votes to Blackburn's 57 and a scattering of 9 votes to three other candidates. Blackburn, in moving to make Randall's nomination unanimous, steered his supporters away from the nomination of Hendrick B. Wright, a Democrat from Pennsylvania, nominated by the Greenbacks. In the eventual vote in the House to elect the Speaker, Randall prevailed with 144 votes, to 125 for James Garfield, 13 for Wright, one for William "Pig Iron" Kelley. November 2, 1880: U. S. presidential election, 1880: James Garfield defeated Winfield S. Hancock February 19, 1881: Kansas became the first state to prohibit alcohol.
This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1880; the names of members are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 4 Democratic: no net change Republican: no net change deaths: 3 resignations: 1 interim appointments: 2 Total seats with changes: 5 replacements: 8 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss deaths: 4 resignations: 3 contested election: 2 Total seats with changes: 11 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress Agriculture Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Cabinet Officers on the Floor of the Senate Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections of 1878 Emigration of Negroes from the South to North Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Epidemic Diseases Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service Finance Foreign Relations Freedman's Savings and Trust Company Indian Affairs Indian Territory Manufactures Military Affairs Mines and Mining Mississippi River and its Tributaries Naval Affairs Nicaraguan Claims Ordnance and War Ships Patents Pensions Plueropneumonia among Animals Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Privileges and Elections Public Lands Railroads Revision of the Laws Revolutionary Claims Rules Tariff Regulation Tenth Census Territories Transportation Routes to the Seaboard Treasury Department Account Discrepancies Whole Accounts Alcoholic Liquor Traffic Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency Claims Coinage and Measures Commerce District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections Enrolled Bills Expenditures in the Interior Department Expenditures in the Justice Department Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Judiciary Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Mines and Mining Naval Affairs Pacific Railroads Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Pub
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Illinois's 9th congressional district
The 9th Congressional District of Illinois covers parts of Cook County, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Chicago, Des Plaines, Glenview, Morton Grove, Mount Prospect, Park Ridge, Prospect Heights, Skokie and Winnetka and Arlington Heights are included, it is anchored in Chicago's North Side along Lake Michigan, covers many of Chicago's northern suburbs. Democrat Jan Schakowsky has represented the district since January 1999; the district is one of the most reliably Democratic districts in Chicago, in all of Illinois. It has been in Democratic hands without interruption since 1949, for all but six years since 1935. Only three people have held the district since 1949--Sidney Yates, Edward Finnegan, Schakowsky. Yates gave up the seat in 1962 to run for United States Senate; when he lost, Chicago machine officials persuaded Finnegan, who had succeeded Yates after his former district was merged with the 9th, to hand the seat back to Yates. Schakowsky won the seat in 1998.
Jan Schakowsky defeated John Elleson in the November 2018 election, winning by a margin of nearly 70 percent. The district has a Cook Partisan Voting Index score of D +20. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Washington Post page on the 9th District of Illinois U. S. Census Bureau - 9th District Fact Sheet
The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly, the legislative branch of the government of the State of Illinois in the United States. The body was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the Illinois Senate is made up of 59 senators elected from individual legislative districts determined by population. S. census each senator represents 217,468 people. Under the Illinois Constitution of 1970, senators are divided into three groups, each group having a two-year term at a different part of the decade between censuses, with the rest of the decade being taken up by two four-year terms; this ensures that the Senate reflects changes made when the General Assembly redistricts itself after each census. Depending on the election year one-third, two-thirds, or all Senate seats may be contested. In contrast, the Illinois House of Representatives is made up of 118 members with its entire membership elected to two-year terms. House districts are formed by dividing each Senate district in half, with each senator having two "associated" representatives.
The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois. Its first official working day is the second Wednesday of January each year, its primary duties are to pass bills into law, approve the state budget, confirm appointments to state departments and agencies, act on federal constitutional amendments and propose constitutional amendments for Illinois. It has the power to override gubernatorial vetoes through a three-fifths majority vote; the Illinois Senate tries impeachments made by the House of Representatives, can convict impeached officers by a two-thirds vote. Voting in the Illinois Senate is done by members pushing one of three buttons. Unlike most states, the Illinois Senate allows members to present, it takes 30 affirmative votes to pass legislation during final action. The number of negative votes does not matter. Therefore, voting present has the same effect on the tally as voting no. President of the Senate: John Cullerton Majority Leader: Kimberly A. Lightford Assistant Majority Leaders: David Koehler Terry Link Iris Martinez Don Harmon Antonio Munoz Majority Caucus Chair: Mattie Hunter Majority Caucus Whips: Jacqueline Collins Linda Holmes Martin Sandoval Minority Leader: Bill Brady Deputy Minority Leader: Dave Syverson Assistant Minority Leaders: Jason Barickman Michael Connelly Sue Rezin Chapin Rose Minority Caucus Chair: Dale Righter Minority Caucus Whips: Jim Oberweis Jill Tracy Secretary of the Senate: Tim Anderson Assistant Secretary of the Senate: Scott Kaiser Sergeant-at-Arms: Joe Dominguez Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms: Dirk R. Eilers In 1924, Florence Fifer Bohrer became the body's first female member and Adelbert H. Roberts became its first African American member.
In 1977, Earlean Collins became the first African American woman to serve in the Illinois Senate. Barack Obama the President of the United States, served in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate during session. ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected. Illinois General Assembly – Senate official government website Illinois Senate Republicans official party website Illinois Senate Democrats official party website Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org Illinois Senate at Ballotpedia