1.
Royal Statistical Society
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The Royal Statistical Society is a British learned society for statistics, a professional body for statisticians, and a charity which promotes statistics for the public good. The society was founded in 1834 as the Statistical Society of London, at that time there were many provincial statistics societies throughout Britain, but most have not survived. The Manchester Statistical Society is a notable exception, the associations were formed with the object of gathering information about society. The idea of statistics referred more to knowledge rather than a series of methods. The original logo had the motto Aliis Exterendum but this separation was found to be a hindrance and it was many decades before mathematics was regarded as part of the statistical project. Instrumental in founding the LSS were Richard Jones, Charles Babbage, Adolphe Quetelet, William Whewell, among its famous members was Florence Nightingale, who was the societys first female member in 1858. Stella Cunliffe was the first female president, other notable RSS presidents have included William Beveridge, Ronald Fisher, Harold Wilson, and David Cox. The LSS became the RSS by Royal Charter in 1887, today the society has 7,200 members around the world, of whom some 1,500 are professionally qualified, with the status of Chartered Statistician. In January 2009, the RSS received Licensed Body status from the UK Science Council to award Chartered Scientist status, since February 2009 the society has awarded Chartered Scientist status to suitably qualified members. Unusually among professional societies, all members of the RSS are known as Fellows—fellowship is nowadays not usually used as a mark of distinction. However, before the 1993 merger with the Institute of Statisticians, the RSS has premises in Errol Street, EC1, in the London Borough of Islington close to the boundary with the City of London, between Old Street and Barbican stations. The society has various groups in the UK, together with a wide range of topic-related sections. Each of these sections and groups organizes lectures and seminars on statistical topics, the society was particularly engaged with the passage of the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, having long argued for legislation on statistics. The RSS organises an annual conference, among the societys awards are the Guy Medals in gold, silver and bronze, in honour of William Guy. The RSS team reached the finals of University Challenge, The Professionals 2006, in September 2013, the society established StatsLife, an online magazine website that features news, interviews and opinion from the world of statistics and data

2.
Statistician
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A statistician is someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics. The profession exists in both the private and public sectors and it is common to combine statistical knowledge with expertise in other subjects, and statisticians may work as employees or as statistical consultants. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of 2014,26,970 jobs were classified as statistician in the United States, of these people, approximately 30 percent worked for governments. Statisticians are included with the professions in various national and international occupational classifications, in the United States most employment in the field requires either a masters degree in statistics or a related field or a PhD. List of statisticians Statistician entry, Occupational Outlook Handbook, U. S

3.
Chartered accountant
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Chartered Accountants were the first accountants to form a professional accounting body, initially established in Scotland in 1854. The Edinburgh Society of Accountants, the Glasgow Institute of Accountants and Actuaries, the title is an internationally recognised professional designation, and is generally equivalent to the American certified public accountant designation. Chartered accountants work in all fields of business and finance, including audit, taxation, some are engaged in public practice work, others work in the private sector and some are employed by government bodies. Chartered accountants institutes require members to undertake a minimum level of continuing professional development to stay professionally competitive and they facilitate special interest groups which lead in their fields. They provide support to members by offering services, technical helplines. They also offer opportunities for networking, career and business development. Chartered accountants in Australia belong to the Chartered Accountants Australia & New Zealand formerly Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia, some senior members of the institute may be elected fellows and use the letters FCA. Of equal legal status and recognition in Australia as qualified professional accountants are Institute of Public Accountants, established in 1973, it is the sole organization with the right to award the chartered accountant designation in Bangladesh. Senior members of the institute are called fellow members and use the letters FCA, in Canada, chartered accountants belong to the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants by way of membership in at least one provincial or territorial institute. In order to become a member, a candidate requires an undergraduate degree plus experience and, depending on the province, candidates in all provinces are required to pass the three-day Uniform Evaluation. Since 2012, the CICA has been in a process of unification with the two accounting bodies in Canada. In the Czech Republic, chartered accountants are generally members of Institute of Chartered Accountants of the Czech Republic, Chartered accountants may also be members of the Chamber of the Chartered Accountants. Under the Mutual Recognition Directive, EEA and Swiss nationals holding a qualification can become members of the equivalent bodies in another member state. They must, however, pass an aptitude test in understanding local conditions, the local title is, however, not available for use if the professional does not choose to join the local professional body. Within the EEA, only the UK and Ireland have bodies that issue the chartered accountant title, in India, chartered accountants are regulated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India which was established by the Chartered Accountants Act,1949. Prior to 1949, restricted state auditors were registered with the princely states. Associate members of the ICAI are entitled to add the prefix CA to their names, Members who are in full-time practice, and have completed five years of practice, can add FCA as a prefix to their names. As of April 2014, the ICAI had nearly 230,000 registered members, entry to the profession can be made by taking the CPT after completion of schooling

4.
London Borough of Hackney
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The London Borough of Hackney is a North East London Borough within Inner London, United Kingdom. Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, the London Plan issued by the Greater London Authority assigns whole boroughs to sub-regions for statutory monitoring, engagement and resource allocation purposes. The most recent iteration of this plan assigns Hackney to the ‘East’ sub-region, while the 2008 and 2004 versions assigned the borough to ‘North’ and ‘East’ sub-regions respectively. Hackney is bounded by Islington to the west, Haringey to the north, Waltham Forest to the north-east, Newham to the east, Tower Hamlets to the south-east and the City of London to the south-west. Much of Hackney retains an inner-city character, but in places as Dalston large housing estates have been joined by newly developed gated communities. In South Hackney, near Victoria Park, terraced Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian housing still survives, the historical and administrative heart of Hackney is the area roughly extending north from Mare Street and surrounding the Church of St John-at-Hackney, known as Hackney Central. To the north of the borough are Upper Clapton and Lower Clapton, Stamford Hill, to the east is the large open space of Hackney Marshes and the districts of Hackney Wick and Homerton. Light industries in the area around the River Lea employ over 3,000 people, some of the area was used for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The borough was formed in 1965 from the area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hackney, Shoreditch. The shield is surmounted by a representation of St. Augustines Tower, the old metropolitan borough of Hackney was closely based on the unusually large ancient parish of the same name. The council displays, in Hackney Town Hall, a portrait of the Queen wearing the robes of the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem, in the 13th century the name appears as Hackenaye or Hacquenye, but no certain derivation is advanced. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names discusses the origin of the name, the first surviving records of the place name are as Hakney and Hakeneye. This was once a much wilder place than today, the Dictionary suggests that the ‘Hack’ element may also derive from, The Old English ‘Haecc’ meaning a hatch – an entrance to a woodland or common. Or alternatively from ‘Haca’ meaning a hook, and in this context, given the island context, the ‘hatch’ option is unlikely to be correct, so the favoured Hakas Island or the Island on the bend seem more likely. The place name will have originally referred to just the island or possibly both the island and the manor of the name based around it. Subsequently, the name Hackney was applied to the ancient parish of Hackney. At one time most of the area was covered with oak and hazel woodlands, with marshland around the rivers. In Roman times and for a time after, the River Lea was an estuary

5.
Trustee Savings Bank
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The Trustee Savings Bank was a British financial institution. Trustee savings banks originated to accept deposits from those with moderate means. Directors were appointed as trustees on a voluntary basis, between 1970 and 1985, the various trustee savings banks in the United Kingdom were amalgamated into a single institution named TSB Group plc, which was floated on the London Stock Exchange. In 1995, the TSB merged with Lloyds Bank to form Lloyds TSB, at point the largest bank in the UK by market share. In July 2012 however, it was announced that the TSB brand would be resurrected by Lloyds Banking Group for the 632 branches it would divest as a separate business. The new TSB Bank began operations in September 2013 and was divested via a public offering in 2014. From the outset, savings banks were retail finance institutions set up under democratic and philanthropic principles, in the first half of the 19th century, bank runs or bank collapses were common, so savings banks had no safe outlet for their own deposits. To create trust among potential depositors, the Savings Bank Act 1817 required funds to be invested in government bonds or deposited at the Bank of England and this requirement was extended to Scottish savings banks in 1835. Funds would be under control of voluntary managers or trustees, hence the roots of the name and this guarantee could not be achieved unless funds were held in securities with a similar guarantee. The Act specified duties of the treasurers, managers and trustees of the savings banks and this feature was to dominate the management of the TSBs until the 1970s. Savings banks paying interest on deposits proliferated, the number of successful institutions in the UK grew until there were 645 in 1861. Their business remained in collecting low-volume deposits, as attempts at market diversification had been curtailed by the Savings Bank Act 1891. By the inter-war years it had become clear that trustee savings banks could compete in the bank market. By 1919 the sum of cash and assets held on deposit for all the TSBs reached £100 million, upon the partition of Ireland, the Government of Ireland Act 1920 separated the TSB. From the 1970s the Irish banks followed a path of amalgamation to their UK counterparts, becoming, in 1992, a single entity. Together, the TSBs were as big as any of the four main London clearing banks, there was little competition between the various trustee savings banks. Each individual TSB served a separate area, although other organisations competed with them. In 1955, inter-savings-bank clearing was extended to the whole country, also in 1955, increased competition for deposits led to calls for the Trustee Savings Banks Association to ask the Exchequer and the National Debt Commissioners to allow withdrawals by cheque

6.
Edward William Brabrook
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Sir Edward William Brabrook C. B. F. S. A. was an English civil servant and author, and an anthropologist with a special interest in folklore. He was a member of the Folklore Society and a fellow of Society of Antiquaries of London, awarded the silver Guy Medal in 1909. Born in 1839 in London, Brabrook was a lawyer by training and he wrote extensively on the law relating to working-class self-help institutions, promoting legal guides for industrial and provident societies, trade unions, and savings banks. He was appointed CB in the 1897 Diamond Jubilee Honours and he was president of the Anthropological Institute in 1895–1897, and president of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society from 1910 to 1930. He died in 1930 in Wallington, Surrey and was buried at West Norwood Cemetery, works written by or about Edward William Brabrook at Wikisource Eugenics and pauperism Eugen Rev.1910 January,1, 229–241

7.
The Times
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The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967 and its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in touch with 10 Downing Street. In these countries, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope, in November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern. The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, the Sunday Times remains a broadsheet. The Times had a daily circulation of 446,164 in December 2016, in the same period. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006 and it has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning. The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a Jamaican hurricane. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up and it was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise. Walter bought the patent and to use it, he decided to open a printing house. The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785, unhappy because people always omitted the word Universal, Ellias changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name, the Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its life, the profits of The Times were very large. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig, in 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed editor in 1817

8.
Charles Booth (social reformer)
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Charles James Booth was an English social researcher and reformer. Booths wife, Mary Macaulay, was a cousin of the Fabian socialist and author Martha Beatrice Webb, Booth worked closely with Potter for his research on poverty. St Pauls Cathedral is the recipient of his gift of Holman Hunts painting. Charles Booth was born in Liverpool, Lancashire on 30 March 1840 to Charles Booth and his father, a scion of the ancient Cheshire family, was a wealthy shipowner and corn merchant as well as being a prominent Unitarian. He attended the Royal Institution School in Liverpool before being apprenticed in the business at the age of sixteen. Booths father died in 1860, leaving him in control of the company to which he added a successful glove manufacturing business. Booth entered the skins and leather business with his elder brother Alfred, after learning shipping trades, Booth was able to persuade Alfred and his sister Emily to invest in steamships and established a service to Pará, Maranhão and Ceará in Brazil. Booth himself went on the first voyage to Brazil on 14 February 1866 and he was also involved in the building of a harbour at Manaus which overcame seasonal fluctuations in water levels. Booth described this as his monument when he visited Manaus for the last time in 1912, Booth also had some involvement in politics, although he canvassed unsuccessfully as the Liberal parliamentary candidate in the General Election of 1865. Following the Conservative Party victory in elections in 1866, his interest in active politics waned. This result changed Booths attitudes, and he foresaw that he could influence people more by educating the electorate and he rejected subsequent offers from Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone of elevation to the House of Lords as a Peer. Booth engaged in Joseph Chamberlains Birmingham Education League, a survey which looked into levels of work, the survey found that 25,000 children in Liverpool were neither in school or work. On 29 April 1871, Booth married Mary Macaulay, who was niece of the celebrated historian Thomas Babington Macaulay and his eldest daughter married the Hon Sir Malcolm Macnaghten, and others married into the Ritchie and Gore Browne families. Booth publicly criticised the claims of the leader of the Social Democratic Federation H. M. Hyndman – leader of Britains first socialist party, in the Pall Mall Gazette of 1885, Hyndman stated that 25% of Londoners lived in abject poverty. This research, which looked at incidences of pauperism in the East End of London and this work was published under the title Life and Labour of the People in 1889. A second volume, entitled Labour and Life of the People, covering the rest of London, Booth also popularised the idea of a poverty line, a concept originally conceived by the London School Board. Booth set this line at 10 to 20 shillings, which he considered to be the amount necessary for a family of 4 or 5 people to subsist. After the first two volumes were published Booth expanded his research and this investigation was carried out by Booth himself and his team of researchers

9.
Robert Giffen
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Sir Robert Giffen KCB FRS, was a Scottish statistician and economist. Giffen was born at Strathaven, Lanarkshire and he entered a solicitors office in Glasgow, and while in that city attended courses at the university. He drifted into journalism, and after working for the Stirling Journal he went to London in 1862 and he also assisted John Morley, when the latter edited the Fortnightly Review. In 1868 he became Walter Bagehots assistant-editor on The Economist, and his services were secured in 1873 as city editor of the Daily News. As chief statistical adviser to the government, he drew up reports, gave evidence before commissions of inquiry, Giffen was president of the Statistical Society, He was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1891. In 1892 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1897. He was awarded a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1895 and he died somewhat suddenly in Fort Augustus, Scotland on 12 April 1910. Giffen published essays on financial subjects, the concept of a Giffen good is named after him. Alfred Marshall wrote in the edition of his Principles of Economics. R. S. Mason Robert Giffen and the Giffen Paradox, Philip Allan A. E. Bateman, ‘Sir Robert Giffen’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society,73, edgeworth, ‘Sir Robert Giffen’, Economic Journal,20, pp. 318–321

10.
Francis Ysidro Edgeworth
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Francis Ysidro Edgeworth FBA was an Anglo-Irish philosopher and political economist who made significant contributions to the methods of statistics during the 1880s. From 1891 onward he was appointed the editor of The Economic Journal. Edgeworth was born in Edgeworthstown, County Longford, Ireland and he did not attend school, but was educated by private tutors at the Edgeworthstown estate until he reached the age to enter university. One of the outcomes of their marriage was Ysidro Francis Edgeworth, richard Lovell Edgeworth was his grandfather, and the writer Maria Edgeworth his aunt. As a student at Trinity College, Dublin, and Balliol College, Oxford, Edgeworth studied ancient, a voracious autodidact, he studied mathematics and economics only after he had completed university. He qualified as a barrister in London in 1877 but did not practise, also in 1891 he was appointed the founding editor of The Economic Journal. He continued as editor or joint-editor until his death 35 years later, Edgeworth was a highly influential figure in the development of neo-classical economics. He was the first to apply certain formal mathematical techniques to individual decision making in economics and he developed utility theory, introducing the indifference curve and the famous Edgeworth box, which is now familiar to undergraduate students of microeconomics. He is also known for the Edgeworth conjecture, which states that the core of an economy shrinks to the set of competitive equilibria as the number of agents in the economy gets large, in statistics, Edgeworth is most prominently remembered by having his name on the Edgeworth series. The book was difficult to read. He frequently referenced literary sources and interspersed the writing with passages in a number of languages, including Latin, French, the mathematics was similarly difficult, and a number of his creative applications of mathematics to economic or moral issues would be judged as incomprehensible. His readers may wish that he had kept his work by him a little longer till he had worked it out a little more fully. But taking it as what it claims to be, a study, we can only admire its brilliancy, force. Edgeworths close friend, William Stanley Jevons, said of Mathematical Psychics, Whatever else readers of this book may think about it, there can be no doubt that in the style of his composition Mr. Edgeworth does not do justice to his matter. His style, if not obscure, is implicit, so that the reader is left to puzzle out every important sentence like an enigma, the Royal Statistical Society awarded him the Guy Medal in 1907. Edgeworth served as the president of the Royal Statistical Society, 1912–14, in 1928, Arthur Lyon Bowley published a book entitled and devoted to F. Y. Edgeworths range of final settlements was later resurrected by Martin Shubik as the concept of the core. Edgeworths conjecture As the number of agents in an economy increases, in the limit case of an infinite number of agents, contract becomes fully determinate and identical to the equilibrium of economists

11.
Udny Yule
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George Udny Yule FRS, usually known as Udny Yule, was a British statistician, born at Beech Hill, a house in Morham near Haddington, Scotland and died in Cambridge, England. He came from an established Scottish family composed of officers, civil servants, scholars. His father, Sir George Udny Yule was a brother of the noted orientalist Sir Henry Yule, in 1899, Yule married May Winifred. The marriage was annulled in 1912, they didnt have any children, Udny Yule was educated at Winchester College and at the age of 16 at University College London where he read engineering. Pearson was beginning to work in statistics and Yule followed him into new field. Yule progressed to an assistant professorship but he left in 1899 to a position as secretary to an examination board. In 1912 Yule moved to Cambridge University to a newly created Lectureship in Statistics, during the First World War Yule worked for the army and then for the Ministry of Food. A heart attack in 1931 left him semi-invalided and led to his early retirement and his flow of publications almost ceased but, in the 1940s he found new interests, one of which led to a book, The Statistical Study of Literary Vocabulary. Yule was a writer, the highlight of his publications being perhaps the textbook Introduction to the Theory of Statistics. He was active in the Royal Statistical Society, was awarded its Guy Medal in Gold in 1911, yule’s first paper on statistics appeared in 1895, On the Correlation of Total Pauperism with Proportion of Out-relief. Yule was interested in applying statistical techniques to problems and he quickly became a member of the Royal Statistical Society. For many years the members interested in mathematical statistics were Yule, Edgeworth. In 1897–99 Yule wrote important papers on correlation and regression), after 1900 he worked on a theory of association. His approach to association was quite different from Pearson’s and relations between them deteriorated, Yule had broad interests and his collaborators included the agricultural meteorologist R. H. Hooker, the medical statistician Major Greenwood and the agricultural scientist Sir Frank Engledow. Yule’s sympathy towards the newly rediscovered Mendelian theory of genetics led to several papers, in 1925 Yule published the paper A Mathematical Theory of Evolution, based on the Conclusions of Dr. J. C. Willis, F. R. S. where he proposes a process that leads to a distribution with a power-law tail — in this case. This was later called the Yule process, but is now known as preferential attachment. Herbert A. Simon dubbed the resulting distribution the Yule distribution in his honor, Yule made important contributions to the theory and practice of correlation, regression, and association, as well as to time series analysis

12.
Major Greenwood
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Major Greenwood FRS was an English epidemiologist and statistician. Major Greenwood junior was born in Shoreditch in Londons East End and he was educated on the classical side at Merchant Taylors School and went on to study medicine at University College London and the London Hospital. On qualifying in 1904 he worked for a time as assistant to his father but after a few months he gave up practice for good. He went to work as a demonstrator for the physiologist Leonard Hill at the London Hospital Medical College. Leonard Hill recalled, By recognising the ability of a student with nothing behind him to show his worth, while Greenwood made a good start in physiological research he was already drawn to statistics, his first paper in Biometrika appeared in 1904. After a period of study with Karl Pearson he was appointed statistician to the Lister Institute in 1910, there he worked on a wide range of problems, including a study of the effectiveness of inoculation with the statistician Udny Yule. In the First World War Greenwood first served in the Royal Army Medical Corps, there he investigated the health problems associated with factory work, one result of which was an influential study of accidents which he produced with Yule. In 1919 Greenwood joined the newly created Ministry of Health with responsibility for medical statistics, in 1928 he became the first professor of Epidemiology and Vital Statistics at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine where he stayed until he retired in 1945. He established a group of researchers, of whom the most important was Austin Bradford Hill, Greenwood played the same role in A. B. Hill’s career as Hill’s father had played in his. The Royal Society awarded the Buchanan Medal to Greenwood in 1927, the election certificate stated Engaged in medical research. Has applied the method to the elucidation of many problems of physiology, pathology, hygiene. Is the author, or joint author, of more than sixty papers dealing with these applications and he was elected President of the Royal Statistical Society in 1934 and awarded its Guy Medal in Gold in 1945. A statistical method invented by Major Greenwood in a study of infectious diseases is still used in present day research. Greenwood lived at Loughton, where among his neighbours were Sir Frank Baines, Millais Culpin, a First Study of the Weight, Variability, and Correlation of the Human Viscera, with Special Reference to the Healthy and Diseased Heart. The Statistics of Anti-typhoid and Anti-cholera Inoculations, and the Interpretation of such Statistics in general, proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. Greenwood, Major & Udny Yule, G, an Inquiry into the Nature of Frequency Distributions Representative of Multiple Happenings with Particular Reference to the Occurrence of Multiple Attacks of Disease or of Repeated Accidents. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, edgar L. Collis and Major Greenwood The health of the industrial worker. 1921 Major Greenwood The natural duration of cancer, London, England, His Majesty’s Stationery Office, Reports on Public Health and Medical Subjects, No.33

13.
Ronald Fisher
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Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher FRS, who published as R. A. Fisher, was an English statistician and biologist who used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics and natural selection. This helped to create the new Darwinist synthesis of evolution known as the evolutionary synthesis. He was also a prominent eugenicist in the part of his life. He is known as one of the three founders of population genetics. He outlined Fishers principle as well as the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection and he also made important contributions to statistics, including the maximum likelihood, fiducial inference, the derivation of various sampling distributions among many others. Anders Hald called him a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science, not only was he the most original and constructive of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis, Fisher also was the father of modern statistics and experimental design. He therefore could be said to have provided researchers in biology and medicine with their most important research tools, geoffrey Miller said of him To biologists, he was an architect of the modern synthesis that used mathematical models to integrate Mendelian genetics with Darwins selection theories. To psychologists, Fisher was the inventor of various tests that are still supposed to be used whenever possible in psychology journals. To farmers, Fisher was the founder of agricultural research. Fisher was born in East Finchley in London, England, one of twins with the other being still-born, from 1896 until 1904 they lived at Inverforth House in London, where English Heritage installed a blue plaque in 2002, before moving to Streatham. He entered Harrow School age 14 and won the schools Neeld Medal in mathematics, in 1909, he won a scholarship to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. In 1919 he began working at Rothamsted Research and his fame grew and he began to travel and lecture widely. In 1937, he visited the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, mahalanobis, often returning to encourage its development, being the guest of honour at its 25th anniversary in 1957 when it had 2000 employees. His marriage disintegrated during World War II and his oldest son George and his daughter and one of his biographers, Joan, married the noted statistician George E. P. Box. Fisher gained a scholarship to study Mathematics at the University of Cambridge in 1909, in 1915 he published a paper The evolution of sexual preference on sexual selection and mate choice. He published The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance in 1918, in which he introduced the term variance, Joan Box, Fishers biographer and daughter says that Fisher had resolved this problem in 1911. Between 1912 and 1922 Fisher recommended, analyzed and vastly popularized Maximum likelihood, in 1928 Joseph Oscar Irwin began a three-year stint at Rothamsted and became one of the first people to master Fishers innovations. His first application of the analysis of variance was published in 1921 and he pioneered the principles of the design of experiments and the statistics of small samples and the analysis of real data

14.
Austin Bradford Hill
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Hill is widely known for pioneering the Bradford Hill criteria for determining a causal association. He served as a pilot in the First World War but was invalided out when he contracted tuberculosis, two years in hospital and two years of convalescence put a medical qualification out of the question and he took a degree in economics by correspondence at London University. In 1922 Hill went to work for the Industry Fatigue Research Board and he was associated with the medical statistician Major Greenwood and, to improve his statistical knowledge, Hill attended lectures by Karl Pearson. Hill had a career in research and teaching and as author of a very successful textbook, Principles of Medical Statistics. The use of randomisation in agricultural experiments had been pioneered by Ronald Aylmer Fisher, the second study was rather a series of studies with Richard Doll on smoking and lung cancer. The first paper, published in 1950, was a study comparing lung cancer patients with matched controls. Doll and Hill also started a long-term prospective study of smoking and this was an investigation of the smoking habits and health of 40,701 British doctors for several years. Fisher was in disagreement with the conclusions and procedures of the smoking/cancer work and from 1957 he criticised the work in the press. Hill was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1954, Fisher was actually one of the proposers. In 1950–52 Hill was president of the Royal Statistical Society and was awarded its Guy Medal in Gold in 1953, on Hills death Peter Armitage wrote, to anyone involved in medical statistics, epidemiology or public health, Bradford Hill was quite simply the world’s leading medical statistician. In 1965, built upon the work of Hume and Popper, Hill suggested several aspects of causality in medicine and biology, note that Austin Bradford Hills surname was Hill and he always used the name Hill, AB in publications. However, he is referred to as Bradford Hill. To add to the confusion, his friends called him Tony, furthermore, there is often a misleading hyphen such as in Bradford-Hill criteria. Principles of Medical Statistics London, The Lancet,1937, smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung. The mortality of doctors in relation to their habits, a preliminary report. The Environment and Disease, Association or Causation, proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. Chalmers, I. Fisher and Bradford Hill, Theory and pragmatism, Armitage, P. Fisher, Bradford Hill, and randomization. Doll, R. Fisher and Bradford Hill, Their personal impact, Fisher and Bradford Hill, A discussion

15.
Harold Jeffreys
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Sir Harold Jeffreys, FRS was an English mathematician, statistician, geophysicist, and astronomer. His book Theory of Probability, which first appeared in 1939, Jeffreys was born in Fatfield, Washington, County Durham, England, the son of Robert Hal Jeffreys, headmaster of Fatfield Church School, and his wife, Elizabeth Mary Sharpe. He was educated at his fathers school then studied at Armstrong College in Newcastle upon Tyne, then part of the University of Durham, Jeffreys became a fellow of St Johns College, Cambridge in 1914. At the University of Cambridge he taught mathematics, then geophysics and he married another mathematician and physicist, Bertha Swirles, in 1940 and together they wrote Methods of Mathematical Physics. One of his contributions was on the Bayesian approach to probability. By 1924 Jeffreys had developed a method of approximating solutions to linear, second-order differential equations. Jeffreys received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1937, the Royal Societys Copley Medal in 1960, in 1948, Jeffreys received the Prix Charles Lagrange from the Académie royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. From 1939 to 1952 he was established as Director of the International Seismological Summary further known as International Seismological Centre, the textbook Probability Theory, The Logic of Science, written by the physicist and probability theorist Edwin T. Jaynes, is dedicated to Jeffreys. The dedication reads, Dedicated to the memory of Sir Harold Jeffreys and it is only through an appendix to the third edition of Jeffreys book Scientific Inference that we know about Mary Cartwrights method of proving that the number π is irrational. Like most of his contemporaries, Jeffreys was an opponent of continental drift as proposed by Alfred Wegener. For him, continental drift was out of the question because no force even remotely enough to move the continents across the Earths surface was evident. 1970, 6th edn.1976 Operational Methods in Mathematical Physics, Cambridge University Press,1927 The Future of the Earth, Norton & Company, c.1929 Scientific Inference, Macmillan,1931,1937, 3rd edn.1973 Cartesian Tensors. Cambridge University Press 1946, 2nd edn, Harold Jeffreys Probabilistic Epistemology, Between Logicism And Subjectivism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, (A review of Jeffreys approach to probability, includes remarks on R. A. Fisher, Frank P. Ramsey, and Bruno de Finetti, interpreting Probability, Controversies and Developments in the Early Twentieth Century. Reminiscences and Discoveries, Harold Jeffreys from 1891 to 1940, works by or about Harold Jeffreys at Internet Archive Photographs of Harold Jeffreys at Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, American Institute of Physics. Biography of Vetlesen Prize Winner – Sir Harold Jeffreys Harold Jeffreys as a Statistician

16.
Jerzy Neyman
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Neyman first introduced the modern concept of a confidence interval into statistical hypothesis testing and co-devised null hypothesis testing. He was born into a Polish family in Bendery, in the Bessarabia Governorate of the Russian Empire and his family was Roman Catholic and Neyman served as an altar boy during his early childhood. Later, Neyman would become an agnostic, neymans family descended from a long line of Polish nobles and military heroes. He graduated from the Kamieniec Podolski gubernial gymnasium for boys in 1909 under the name Yuri Cheslavovich Neyman and he began studies at Kharkov University in 1912, where he was taught by Russian probabilist Sergei Natanovich Bernstein. After he read Lessons on the integration and the research of the functions by Henri Lebesgue, he was fascinated with measure. In 1921 he returned to Poland in a program of repatriation of POWs after the Polish-Soviet War and he earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree at University of Warsaw in 1924 for a dissertation titled On the Applications of the Theory of Probability to Agricultural Experiments. He was examined by Wacław Sierpiński and Stefan Mazurkiewicz, among others and he spent a couple of years in London and Paris on a fellowship to study statistics with Karl Pearson and Émile Borel. After his return to Poland he established the Biometric Laboratory at the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology in Warsaw and he published many books dealing with experiments and statistics, and devised the way which the FDA tests medicines today. Neyman proposed and studied randomized experiments in 1923 and he introduced the confidence interval in his paper in 1937. Another noted contribution is the Neyman–Pearson lemma, the basis of hypothesis testing, in 1938 he moved to Berkeley, where he worked for the rest of his life. Thirty-nine students received their Ph. Ds under his advisorship, in 1966 he was awarded the Guy Medal of the Royal Statistical Society and three years later the U. S. s National Medal of Science. He died in Oakland, California in 1981, list of Poles Fisher, Ronald Statistical methods and scientific induction Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B17, 69—78. Note on an Article by Sir Ronald Fisher, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B. Reid, Constance, Jerzy Neyman—From Life, Springer Verlag, ISBN 0-387-90747-5 OConnor, John J. Robertson, Edmund F. Jerzy Neyman, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews

17.
David Cox (statistician)
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Sir David Roxbee Cox FRS FBA is a prominent British statistician. His father was a die sinker and part-owner of a jewellery shop, Cox studied mathematics at St Johns College, Cambridge and obtained his PhD from the University of Leeds in 1949, advised by Henry Daniels and Bernard Welch. From 1956 to 1966 he was Reader and then Professor of Statistics at Birkbeck College, in 1966, he took up the Chair position in Statistics at Imperial College London where he later became head of the mathematics department. In 1988 he became Warden of Nuffield College and a member of the Department of Statistics at Oxford University and he formally retired from these positions in 1994. Cox has received honorary doctorates, including from Heriot-Watt University in 1987. He has been awarded the Guy Medals in Silver and Gold of the Royal Statistical Society and he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1973, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1985 and became an Honorary Fellow of the British Academy in 2000. He is a Foreign Associate of the US National Academy of Sciences, in 1990, he won the Kettering Prize and Gold Medal for Cancer Research for the development of the Proportional Hazard Regression Model. In 2010 he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his contributions to the theory. He is also the first ever recipient of the International Prize in Statistics and he has supervised, collaborated with, and encouraged many younger researchers now prominent in statistics. He has served as President of the Bernoulli Society, of the Royal Statistical Society and he is an Honorary Fellow of Nuffield College and St Johns College, Cambridge, and is a member of the Department of Statistics at the University of Oxford. An example is survival times in medical research that can be related to information about the such as age. The Cox process was named after him, in 1947, Cox married Joyce Drummond. They have four children and two grandchildren, Cox has written or co-authored 300 papers and books. From 1966 to 1991 he was the editor of Biometrika and his books are as follows, Planning of experiments Queues. With Walter L. Smith Renewal Theory, with Hilton David Miller Analysis of binary data. With Joyce E. Snell Theoretical statistics, with D. V. Hinkley Point processes. With Valerie Isham Applied statistics, principles and examples, with Joyce E. Snell Analysis of survival data. With David Oakes Asymptotic techniques for use in statistics, with Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen Inference and asymptotics

18.
R. G. D. Allen
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Sir Roy George Douglas Allen, CBE, FBA was an English economist, mathematician and statistician. Allen was born in Worcester and educated at the Royal Grammar School Worcester and he gained a First Class Honours in Mathematics. He became a lecturer at the London School of Economics later becoming Professor of Statistics and he wrote many papers and books on mathematical economics including the famous paper on A Reconsideration of the Theory of Value published in Economics in 1934 with Sir John Hicks. Other books include, Mathematical Analysis for Economists, Statistics for Economists, Mathematical Economics, Allen was knighted in 1966 for his services to economics and became president of the Royal Statistical Society, who awarded him the Guy Medal in Gold in 1978. He was also treasurer of the British Academy of which he was a fellow and he introduced the concept of partial elasticity of substitution to economics in his famous 1938 book Mathematical Analysis for Economists. Allen became a fellow of Sidney Sussex, Cambridge and died in 1983 and he had a son Jeremy who was a co-founder of the consultancy International Planning and Research and a grandson Dion aka Neon. The Nature of Indifference Curves,1934, RES, the Concept of the Arc Elasticity of Demand,1934, RES A Reconsideration of the Theory of Value,1934, Economica, Part II1, pp. 196-219. Family Expenditure with A. L. Bowley,1935, review fragments by J. R. Hicks and Carl F. Christ. The Supply of Engineering Labor under Boom Conditions, with B, index Numbers of Retail Prices, 1938-51,1952, Applied Statistics. Review fragments by Oskar Morgenstern, C. F, on Official Statistics and Official Statisticians,1970, J of Royal Statistical Society. Index Numbers in Theory and Practice,1975, introduction to National Accounts Statistics,1980. Obituaries E. Grebenik Roy George Douglas Allen 1906-1983, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, obituary, Sir Roy Allen, CBE, FBA (1906-1983, The Statistician, Vol.33, No. New School, Roy G. D. Allen

19.
David George Kendall
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David George Kendall FRS was an English statistician and mathematician, known for his work on probability, statistical shape analysis, ley lines and queueing theory. He spent most of his life in the University of Oxford. He worked with M. S. Bartlett during World War II, David George Kendall was born on 15 January 1918 in Ripon, West Riding of Yorkshire, and attended Ripon Grammar School before attending Queens College, Oxford, graduating in 1939. He worked on rocketry during the World War II, before moving to Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1962 he was appointed the first Professor of Mathematical Statistics in the Statistical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, in which post he remained until his retirement in 1985. He was elected to a fellowship at Churchill College. In 1986, he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Bath, Kendall was an expert in probability and data analysis, and pioneered statistical shape analysis including the study of ley lines. He defined Kendalls notation for queueing theory, the Royal Statistical Society awarded him the Guy Medal in Silver in 1955, followed in 1981 by the Guy Medal in Gold. In 1980 the London Mathematical Society awarded Kendall their Senior Whitehead Prize and he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1964. He was married to Diana Fletcher from 1952 until his death and they had two sons and four daughters, including Wilfrid Kendall, professor in the Department of Statistics at the University of Warwick and journalist Bridget Kendall MBE. Geometric ergodicity and the theory of queues, in Arrow, Kenneth J. 176–195, janus, The Papers of Professor David Kendall Royal Society citation

20.
George E. P. Box
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George Edward Pelham Box FRS was a British statistician, who worked in the areas of quality control, time-series analysis, design of experiments, and Bayesian inference. He has been called one of the great minds of the 20th century. He was born in Gravesend, Kent, England, upon entering university he began to study chemistry, but was called up for service before finishing. During World War II, he performed experiments for the British Army exposing small animals to poison gas, to analyze the results of his experiments, he taught himself statistics from available texts. After the war, he enrolled at University College London and obtained a degree in mathematics and statistics. He received a PhD from the University of London in 1953, from 1948 to 1956, Box worked as a statistician for Imperial Chemical Industries. While at ICI, he took a leave of absence for a year and he later went to Princeton University where he served as Director of the Statistical Research Group. In 1960, Box moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison to create the Department of Statistics and he was appointed Vilas Research Professor of Statistics in 1980. Box and Bill Hunter co-founded the Center for Quality and Productivity Improvement at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1984, Box officially retired in 1992, becoming an Emeritus Professor. Box published books including Statistics for Experimenters, Time Series Analysis, Forecasting and Control, Box served as President of the American Statistical Association in 1978 and of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1979. Box was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1974 and his name is associated with results in statistics such as Box–Jenkins models, Box–Cox transformations, Box–Behnken designs, and others. Box wrote that essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful in his book on response surface methodology with Norman R. Draper, Box married Joan Fisher, the second of Ronald Fishers five daughters. In 1978, Joan Fisher Box published a biography of Ronald Fisher, Box married Claire Quist in 1985. Box died on 28 March 2013, box-Behnken designs from a handbook on engineering statistics at NIST ASQ, George E. P. Box Accomplishments in statistics Articles and Reports by George Box Statistics for Experimenters - Second Edition,2005 by George Box, Hunter and Stuart Hunter Biography of George E. P. Box from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences

21.
John Nelder
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John Ashworth Nelder FRS was a British statistician known for his contributions to experimental design, analysis of variance, computational statistics, and statistical theory. Nelders work was influential in statistics, GLIM influenced later environments for statistical computing such as S-PLUS and R. Both GLIM and GenStat have powerful facilities for the analysis of variance for block experiments, in statistical theory, Nelder and Wedderburn proposed the generalized linear model. They proposed an iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters, in statistical inference, Nelder emphasized the importance of the likelihood in data analysis, promoting this likelihood approach as an alternative to frequentist and Bayesian statistics. In response-surface optimization, Nelder and Roger Mead proposed the Nelder-Mead simplex heuristic, widely used in engineering, born in Brushford, near Dulverton, Somerset, Nelder was educated at Blundells School and Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, where he read mathematics. During his time at Wellesbourne he spent a year at the Waite Institute in Adelaide, South Australia and he held an appointment as Visiting Professor at Imperial College London from 1972 onwards. Nelder died on 7 August 2010 in Luton and Dunstable Hospital, taken there after a fall at home, Nelder was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1976 and received the Royal Statistical Societys Guy Medal in Gold in 2005. He was also the recipient of the inaugural Karl Pearson Prize of the International Statistical Institute, with Peter McCullagh, the first annual John Nelder memorial lecture was held at Imperial College London, on 8 March 2012, as part of the Mathematics department Colloquium series. The lecture was given by Johns long term co-author, Prof Peter McCullagh, an interview with Peter McCullagh, about statistical modelling, includes some reminiscences about John. JN and R. W. M. Wedderburn, Generalized Linear Models, 2nd ed. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Florida. Generalized Linear Models with Random Effects, Unified Analysis via H-likelihood, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Florida. ISBN 1-58488-631-5 A Conversation with John Nelder Photographs

22.
James Durbin
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James Durbin FBA was a British statistician and econometrician, known particularly for his work on time series analysis and serial correlation. The son of a greengrocer, Durbin was born in Widnes and he studied mathematics at St Johns College, Cambridge where his contemporaries included David Cox and Denis Sargan. He served as president of the International Statistical Institute in 1983–5, in 2008 he was awarded the highest distinction of the RSS, the Guy Medal in Gold. The citation read, His last book, Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods, was published by Oxford University Press in May 2012 and his last books were co-authored by Siem Jan Koopman of VU University Amsterdam

23.
C. R. Rao
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Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao, FRS known as C R Rao is an Indian-born, naturalized American, mathematician and statistician. He is currently professor emeritus at Penn State University and Research Professor at the University at Buffalo, Rao has been honoured by numerous colloquia, honorary degrees, and festschrifts and was awarded the US National Medal of Science in 2002. The Times of India listed Rao as one of the top 10 Indian scientists of all time, Rao is also a Senior Policy and Statistics advisor for the Indian Heart Association non-profit focused on raising South Asian cardiovascular disease awareness. C. R. Rao was born in Hadagali, Bellary, Karnataka and he received an M. Sc. in mathematics from Andhra University and an M. A. in statistics from Calcutta University in 1943. He was among the first few people in the world to hold a degree in Statistics. Among his best-known discoveries are the Cramér–Rao bound and the Rao–Blackwell theorem both related to the quality of estimators, other areas he worked in include multivariate analysis, estimation theory, and differential geometry. His other contributions include the Fisher–Rao Theorem, Rao distance, and he is the author of 14 books and has published over 400 journal publications. Rao has received 38 honorary doctoral degrees from universities in 19 countries around the world and numerous awards and medals for his contributions to statistics and he is a member of eight National Academies in India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Italy. Rao was awarded the United States National Medal of Science, that nations highest award for achievement in fields of scientific research. The latest addition to his collection of awards is the India Science Award for 2010 and he has been the President of the International Statistical Institute, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and the International Biometric Society. The Journal of Quantitative Economics published an issue in Raos honour in 1991. Dr Rao is a distinguished scientist and a highly eminent statistician of our time. He is a teacher and has guided the research work of numerous students in all areas of statistics. His early work had influenced the course of statistical research during the last four decades. One of the purposes of special issue is to recognize Dr Raos own contributions to econometrics. Bush, on June 12,2002, honoured him with the National Medal of Science, also honorary doctorates from a number of universities and institutes around the world. The Pennsylvania State University has established C. R, the road from IIIT Hyderabad passing along Central University of Hyderabad crossroads to Alind Factory, Lingampally is named as Prof. C. R. Rao Road. Testing Point Null Hypothesis of a Normal Mean and the Truth, Data Mining Using Neural Networks, A Guide for Statisticians

24.
Adrian Smith (statistician)
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Sir Adrian Frederick Melhuish Smith, FRS is a distinguished British statistician and was Principal of Queen Mary, University of London from 1998 to 2008. From 1977–1990 he was Professor of Statistics and Head of Department of Mathematics at the University of Nottingham and he was previously at Imperial College, London, where he was head of the mathematics department. Smith is a former Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the University of London, Smith is a member of the governing body of the London Business School. He is a former President of the Royal Statistical Society and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2001. His FRS citation included his contributions to Bayesian statistics. His monographs are the most comprehensive available and his work has had a impact on the development of monitoring tools for clinicians. In statistical theory, Smith is a proponent of Bayesian statistics, with Antonio Machi, he translated Bruno de Finettis Theory of Probability into English. He wrote a paper in 1990 along with Alan E. Gelfand. He was also co-author of the paper on the particle filter. Smith was educated at Selwyn College, Cambridge, and University College London where his PhD supervisor was Dennis Lindley, in mathematics and statistics education, Smith led the team which produced the Smith Report on secondary mathematics education in the United Kingdom. In April 2008, Smith was appointed as Director General of Science and Research at the Department for Innovation, Universities and he took up his post in September 2008. His annual remuneration for this role is £160,000, Smith was knighted in the 2011 New Year Honours. In 2011 Smith was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Science from Plymouth University and in 2015, Gelfand, A. E. Smith, A. F. M. Sampling-Based Approaches to Calculating Marginal Densities. Journal of the American Statistical Association, novel Approach to Nonlinear/Non-Gaussian Bayesian State Estimation. Making Mathematics Count, The Report of Professor Adrian Smiths Inquiry into Post-14 Mathematics Education, list of Vice-Chancellors of the University of London Making Mathematics Count There is a photograph at Adrian F M Smith on the Portraits of Statisticians page

25.
Yves Guyot
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Yves Guyot was a French politician and economist. Educated at Rennes, he took up the profession of journalism and he was for a short period editor-in-chief of LIndependent du midi of Nîmes, but joined the staff of Le Rappel on its foundation, and worked subsequently on other journals. He took a part in municipal life, and waged a keen campaign against the prefecture of police. He entered the chamber of deputies in 1885 as representative of the 1st arrondissement of Paris and was general of the budget of 1888. He became minister of works under the premiership of P. E. Tirard in 1889, retaining his portfolio in the cabinet of Charles de Freycinet until 1892, although of strong liberal views, he lost his seat in the election of 1893 owing to his militant attitude against socialism. An uncompromising free-trader, he published the following works, trois ans au Ministère des Travaux Publics, Expériences et Conclusions. Histoire des Prolétaires depuis les Temps les plus Reculés jusquà nos jours, les Lieux Communs, Précédés de lHistoire dun Petit Chapitre, dun Petit Journal et dun Grand Général. Dialogue entre John Bull et George Dandin sur le Traité de Commerce Franco-anglais, la Famille Pichot, Scènes de lEnfer Social. La Morale, la Morale Théologique, la Morale Métaphysique, Variations de lIdéal Moral, lOrganisation Municipale de Paris et de Londres, Présent et Avenir. Les Principes de 89 et le Socialisme, voyages et Découvertes de M. Faubert. La Révision du Procès Dreyfus, Faits et Documents Juridiques, lInnocent et le Traître, Dreyfus et Esterhazy, le Devoir du Garde des Sceaux. Dictionnaire du Commerce, de lIndustrie et de la Banque, lÉvolution Politique et Sociale de lEspagne. La Politique Boer, Faits et Documents en Réponse au Dr Kuyper, la Question des Sucres en 1901. Le Repêchage des Cinq Cent Millions à lEau, le Programme Baudin au Sénat, Le Trust du Pétrole aux États-Unis. La Crise Américaine, ses Effets et ses Causes, la Crise des Transports, Illusions et Réalités. Les Chemins de fer et la Grève, la Gestion par lÉtat et les Municipalités. La Province Rhénane et la Westphalie, Étude Économique, les Causes et les Conséquences de la Guerre