Thomas Arundel was an English clergyman who served as Lord Chancellor during the reign of Richard II, as well as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1397 and from 1399 until his death, an outspoken opponent of the Lollards. He was instrumental in the usurpation of Richard by his uncle Henry Bolingbroke, who became Henry IV. Arundel was born in Etchingham, England, a younger son of Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster, his elder brother was 1st Baron Arundel. Arundel studied at Oriel College, until papally provided as Bishop of Ely on 13 August 1373 by reason of his father's status and financial leverage with the Crown during the dotage of Edward III, abandoning his student days at Oxford, from which he gained little pleasure. A hugely wealthy near-sinecure, Ely seems to have captured the young bishop's genuine interest until his brother's political opposition to Richard II's policies both at home and towards France grew rancorous and dragged him in. In an grave crisis, teetering towards civil war, 1386-8, the bishop found himself, at least in formal terms, right at the front of the dangerous attempts by five leading temporal lords to purge the king's advisors and control future policy.
On 3 April 1388, Arundel was elevated to the position of Archbishop of York at a time when Richard II was, in effect, suspended from rule. Given Ely's wealth and ease, this promotion was as much to do with status and consolidating the conspirators' control in the north as with remuneration. Arundel served twice as Lord Chancellor, during the reign of King Richard II, first from 1386 to 1389, again from 1391 to 1396. For whatever reason, the king, working his way astutely back into real authority, contrived to assure Arundel of his confidence right until the "counter-coup" of 1397, when the archbishop was deceived into bringing his brother out of hiding under a royal safe conduct—to his death. Throughout his life Arundel was more trustful. Despite his political preoccupations, which led to him being absent from York, he has been credited with sponsoring a lively revival of personal religious piety in the northern province. Besides, as was to prove the case at Canterbury too, he was a good spotter of administrative talent.
On 25 September 1396, Arundel was made Archbishop of Canterbury. The king's nomination seemed to wish him nothing but success. Yet, within a year, he was exiled by the king during Richard's fierce counter-attack against his enemies of ten years earlier, was replaced by Roger Walden. Arundel spent his exile in Florence, where in 1398, at Richard II's request, the Roman Pope Boniface IX translated him to become Bishop of St. Andrews, a cruel, empty fate because Scotland during the Great Schism recognised the Pope in Avignon had a bishop in place and would never have accepted him anyway in peaceful times. However, shortly afterwards, he joined up with his fellow-exile Henry Bolingbroke. Although not soul-mates, they invaded England together and forced Richard to yield the crown to Bolingbroke as Henry IV. Arundel played a prominent part in the usurpation and may have been the most hawkishly determined of all that the king should be removed entirely: whether he lied on oath to Richard II to lure him out of Conwy Castle remains altogether open to debate.
The new regime secured the reversal of several of Richard's acts, including the pope's installation of Walden at Canterbury. Arundel returned to his primacy, while Walden—with the support of Arundel—was translated to the important see of London; as the king collapsed into ill-health from 1405, Arundel returned to the forefront of government. At one point, he took the sick king into Lambeth Palace itself for care. In 1405–06 he had to deal with the crisis with the papacy provoked by the king's decision to execute Richard Scrope, Archbishop of York who had participated in the Percy rebellion. Formally, under Henry IV, Arundel served twice as Lord Chancellor, first in 1399 and again from 1407 to 1410; when Henry IV's son succeeded as Henry V, Arundel's influence at court decreased. Arundel was a vehement opponent of the Lollards, the followers of John Wycliffe, who in his 1379 treatise De Eucharistia had opposed the dogma of Transubstantiation. King Henry IV passed the De heretico comburendo statute in 1401, which recited in its preamble that it was directed against a certain new sect "who thought damnably of the sacraments and usurped the office of preaching."
It empowered the bishops to arrest and examine offenders and to hand over to the secular authorities such as had relapsed or refused to abjure. The condemned were to be burnt "in an high place" before the people; this act was pushed through by the authoritative Arundel. Its passing was followed by the burning of William Sawtrey, curate of St Margaret's, Lynn, he had abjured but had relapsed, he now refused to declare his belief in transubstantiation or to recognise the authority of the Church. In 1407, Arundel presided at a synod at Oxford, which passed a number of constitutions to regulate preaching, the translation and use of the Scriptures, the theological education at schools and the university. In 1410, a body of Oxford censors condemned 267 propositions collected out of Wycliffe's writings; these different measures seem to have been successful at least as far as the clergy were concerned, Lollardy came to be more and more a lay movement connected with political discontent. The death penalty was carried out.
Until 1410, no further Lollards were executed. The 1414 Oldcastle Revolt saw a minority of the seventy or so who were hanged burned. Thereafter, executions were again few until the Tu
Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel
Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel and 10th Earl of Surrey KG was an English nobleman, one of the principals of the deposition of Richard II, a major figure during the reign of Henry IV. He was the only surviving son of 5th earl of the second creation and his first wife, Elizabeth de Bohun; when he was 16 his father was executed and his lands and titles forfeited. Fitzalan was a royal ward of King Richard's half-brother John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, along with a large part of the Arundel estates. Holland mistreated him, a matter FitzAlan would cruelly repay many years later. Fitzalan escaped from his guardian and joined his uncle Thomas Arundel, the deposed Archbishop of Canterbury, in exile; the two joined with another exile, the King's cousin Henry Bolingbroke. Fitzalan followed Henry in his return to England in July 1399, in the following events which led to the deposition of King Richard II and Henry's crowning as King Henry IV, he functioned as butler at the coronation, shortly afterward the new King restored him to his titles and estates.
These included two notable Earldoms. Early the next year a group of Barons, close to the deposed King Richard II revolted—known as the Epiphany Rising—amongst them Fitzalan's former guardian John Holland; the latter was captured by followers of Fitzalan's aunt Joan, Countess of Hereford, at Fitzalan's behest was soon executed. The next few years Fitzalan was much occupied by events in the Welsh marches, where he had to help deal with the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr which ran in full from 1400 to maybe 1412 but gained a great deal of early momentum until 1405. After the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 he was appointed to defend the Marches from further attacks along its full length and focused on defeating Glyndwr in the northern March adjacent to North Wales. In 1405 there was a revolt in the north of England, led by the Archbishop of York, Richard le Scrope, the Earl of Norfolk, Thomas de Mowbray. Fitzalan was the head of the Commission; this led to a falling out between Fitzalan and his uncle, Archbishop Thomas Arundel, who objected to the execution of a fellow prelate.
King Henry's sister, Philippa of Lancaster, had married King John I of Portugal, to further cement the alliance between England and Portugal, Fitzalan married Beatrice, the illegitimate daughter of King John. The wedding took place in London on 26 November 1405, with King Henry IV in attendance. In the following years Fitzalan again had to help suppress revolts in the Welsh Marches. Politically, Fitzalan allied himself with the King's half-brothers the Beauforts, when Thomas Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter was appointed Chancellor in 1410, Fitzalan became one of the King's principal councillors. Beaufort favored an alliance with Burgundy, Fitzalan was one of the leaders of those sent to help fight the rival Armagnac faction in France. Sometime in this period Fitzalan was made a Knight of the Garter. Henry IV fell ill in 1411, but was determined to forge an alliance with John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy; the King announced his intention that a fleet would be sailing to Calais, issued instructions to ambassadors to go to Burgundy's offer of a military aid against Orleans.
But two days before the fleet was due to sail, the king changed his mind, on 21 September 1411 declared Parliament would meet in November. Instead Arundel set sail with a private fleet and a mercenary force hired by the Burgundians from the Prince of Wales. Arundel found himself in a difficult dilemma: the king wanted an Armagnac alliance, but the prince preferred to deal with Burgundy. A double-dealing policy commenced negotiating with the duke of Berry while continuing to reinforce Burgundy, but the old king recovered at the November Parliament, the prince's Regency council was dismissed. On 9 November, Arundel led 1000 archers to aid the Burgundians to victory before the bridge at the Battle of St Cloud, near Paris; some of Arundel's men fought in the ranks of Duke's bodyguard. The Peace of Chartres signed by Henry IV in 1409 was broken, his policy of pro-Valois Armagnac diplomacy was enshrined in the Treaty of Bourges. But no sooner had it been signed on 20 May, the friends of the Burgundian elites declared it illegal, because it was.
John the Fearless raised a royal army forcing Berry to surrender Bourges in the name of Charles VI on 15 July. The next day the peace was renewed by the French nobility in a promissory letter to Henry IV signed by the dukes of Berry, Orleans and Burgundy. On 10 August 1412, the peace was again threatened by Thomas, Duke of Clarence who extorted an humiliating ransom from the Armagnacs after he had landed at St Vaast-le-Hogue; the King favoured Clarence over his older brother, so the Beauforts lost influence, Arundel retired to his estates. Clarence was instructed to proceed to Gascony to await. Arundel was with Henry at Westminster for Christmas 1414. One of the king's close friends he displayed the cardinal virtues of loyalty to the Lancastrian monarchy, as well as enjoying the honour of personal comradeship; some lords threatened rebellion throughout the north. There were those on the Welsh Marches, such as the Chamberlain of Chester who had deserted to Owain Glendower.} The new King Henry V restored the Earl of Arundel to a place of influence appointing him Lord Treasurer, as well as constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports.
On 19 March 1415 The Lord Warden was ordered to summon and array seamen for a forthcoming fleet operations
Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour
Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour was the eldest son of Sir Matthew Arundell of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire, Margaret Willoughby, the daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby, of Wollaton and wife Margaret Markham. He distinguished himself in battle against the Ottoman Turks in the service of the Emperor Rudolf II, was created a Count of the Holy Roman Empire, his assumption of the title displeased Queen Elizabeth, who refused to recognize it, imprisoned him in the Fleet Prison. In 1605 Arundell was created 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour. In the same year he was suspected of complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. Sir Thomas Arundell was the eldest son of Sir Matthew Arundell of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire, a member of the ancient family of Arundell of Cornwall, Margaret Willoughby, the daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby, of Wollaton and wife Margaret Markham, his father inherited extensive former monastic lands, served in a number of administrative capacities, including high sheriff, custos rotulorum, Deputy Lieutenant of Dorset.
In her youth his mother served for several years in the household of Princess Elizabeth at Hatfield. Arundell's paternal grandparents were Sir Thomas Arundell and Margaret Howard, sister of Queen Catherine Howard. In 1580 Arundell was imprisoned for his fervent Roman Catholicism. By licence dated 18 June 1585 he married Mary, the daughter of Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton, Mary, the daughter of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montague. Arundell's wife was the sister of 3rd Earl of Southampton. Arundell was fond of Southampton as a youth, writing to Lord Burghley when Southampton was 15 that'Your Lordship doth love him', that'My love and care of this young Earl enticeth me'. Although a Roman Catholic throughout his life, Arundell demonstrated his loyalty to the Crown in 1588 by subscribing £100 towards the defeat of the Spanish Armada. According to Akrigg, Arundell was'gifted and scholarly', but by the time he had reached his 30s had failed to find any outlet for his talents and had'sunk into a melancholic existence', living a'studious solitary life' at the Wriothesley estates in Hampshire or in the family apartments at Southampton House in London.
In 1595 Arundell's father agreed to provide him with horses and £1100 to leave England and serve in the Imperial forces against the Turks. The Queen recommended him to the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II. On 7 September 1595 Arundell stormed the breach at Gran, replacing the Turkish standard with the Imperial eagle. In recognition of his service, Arundell was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire on 14 December 1595, became known as'the Valiant'. Against his father's wishes Arundell took his leave of the Imperial court in mid-December and returned to England, his ship wrecked near Aldeburgh on the Suffolk coast. He lost all his belongings in the wreck, counted himself fortunate to stand'extreamely cold & wett upon the shore', his assumption of a foreign title created jealousy among his fellow peers in England, was resented by his father, who objected to his superior rank and disinherited him. The Queen was furious, threatened to make him renounce the title, she committed Arundell to the Fleet Prison, remarking that'I would not have a sheep branded with another man's mark'.
Arundell remained under arrest till mid-April 1597, when he was freed, but forbidden to appear at court. In the following months he made frequent appeals to the Queen, but was still denied her favour, again fell prey to depression. In July his father grudgingly allowed Arundell to live with him at Wardour provided that he not bring his wife with him. In 1597 Arundell was arrested on vague suspicions of Catholic espionage; the authorities searched his chamber but could prove nothing against him, released him to his father's custody on the grounds of his wife's failing health. Arundell's father'insisted on behaving as a jailer', Arundell was transferred elsewhere. Arundell succeeded his father in December 1598. In 1601, his brother-in-law, was on trial for his part in the Essex Rebellion of 8 February 1601. Attempting to distance himself from Southampton's misfortune, Arundell wrote a'treacherous' letter on 18 February to Sir Robert Cecil, protesting that Southampton's'ears were hardened against wholesome counsel, for which I thought good to estrange myself from him'.
In March 1605 Arundell and Southampton sent Captain George Weymouth to found a colony in Virginia. The colonists arrived back in England in mid-July. According to the account written by James Rosier, these were the colonists'we were to leave in the Country by their agreement with my Lord the Right Honourable Count Arundell'. According to Akrigg, Arundell figures much more prominently in Rosier's account than Southampton, leading Akrigg to conclude that'the whole voyage may best be regarded as a first attempt to found an American colony that would be an asylum for English Catholics', that Arundell, who in 1596 had planned a venture to the East Indies, was the principal impetus behind the Weymouth voyage. On 4 May 1605 King James I created him Baron Arundell of Wardour. Appointed by the new King as colonel of the English regiment serving the Archduke in Spanish Flanders, Arundell made an unauthorized crossing to the continent in September 1605, disobeying royal orders and incurring the King's anger.
A few months he was named by Guy Fawkes under torture, suspected of complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. In 1607 Arundell's eldest son and heir, married Blanche Somerset, the
Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle
Sir Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire was a Cornish administrator and alleged conspirator. Arundell was connected by birth and marriage to the crown and to several of the most important families in England, by the time of the death of King Henry VIII was one of the most experienced government officers in England; those in power had his family's devotion to the old religion. Vague and unproven allegations of complicity in the south-western rebellion in 1549 were made against him. In late 1551 he temporarily aligned himself with the Protector Somerset, thereby putting himself in conflict with John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, he was charged with conspiring to overthrow the government and murder the Earl. He was convicted, beheaded on Tower Hill on 26 February 1552, his property was confiscated, but in June 1552 the Crown began restoring it to his widow and, from 1553, to his son. Thomas Arundell, born about 1502, was the younger of the two sons of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, St. Mawgan-in-Pyder, Receiver General of the Duchy of Cornwall and "the most important man in the county", by his first wife, Lady Eleanor Grey, the daughter of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset.
Arundell was educated at Lincoln's Inn, began his career in the household of Cardinal Wolsey, where he was a contemporary of Thomas Cromwell. He was knighted at the coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn. Arundell held a number of administrative positions, principally in the West Country, he was the first receiver of the Court of Augmentations for Cornwall, Devon and Dorset, in 1533 succeeded his father as Receiver-General of the Duchy of Cornwall. He was a Justice of the Peace for Cornwall and Somerset during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, was appointed to commissions for gaol delivery and terminer, the defence of the counties of the south-west coastline, he commanded the Dorset militia during both the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536-7, King Henry VIII's expedition to France in 1544. He was twice High Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset, was keeper of the royal parks in Dorset, in 1539 sat on the Council of the West with his father, he was elected Member of Parliament for Dorset in 1545 and 1547. Both his cousin, Henry Grey, 3rd Marquess of Dorset, Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, employed Arundell in the management of their estates.
He served as receiver to Queen Anne of Cleves, Chancellor of the Household to Queen Catherine Parr. Arundell's role as one of the commissioners for the dissolution of the monasteries in the West Country enabled him to acquire a number of properties belonging to religious houses. In 1547 he purchased Wardour Castle in Wiltshire. Arundell was connected by birth and marriage to the crown and to several of the most important families in England, by the time of the death of King Henry VIII was one of the most experienced government officers in England. However, those in power at the beginning of the reign of King Edward VI removed his name from the late King's list of proposed honours, reflecting their concern with his influence and his family's devotion to the old religion. Vague and unproven allegations of complicity in the south-western rebellion in 1549 were made against him and against his brother, Sir John Arundell, leading to their imprisonment in 1550 and again in 1551, marking the end of Sir Thomas Arundell's career.
In late 1551 he temporarily aligned himself with the Protector Somerset, thereby putting himself in conflict with John Dudley, Earl of Warwick. He was charged with conspiring to overthrow the government and murder the Earl. Arundell protested his innocence, but was convicted, beheaded on Tower Hill on 26 February 1552, buried in the Church of St Peter ad Vincula, his property was confiscated, although in June 1552 the Crown began restoring it to his widow and, from 1553, to his son Matthew Arundell. His widow, died 10 October 1571, was buried at Tisbury, Wiltshire. By settlement dated 20 November 1530 Arundell married Margaret Howard, the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard, Joyce Culpeper. Margaret was the sister of Queen Katherine Howard, the fifth wife of King Henry VIII, a first cousin of the King's second wife, Queen Anne Boleyn. By Margaret Howard, Arundell had two sons and three daughters: Sir Matthew Arundell of Wardour Castle, who married his second cousin Margaret Willoughby, the daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby of Wollaton and Anne Grey, the daughter of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, Margaret Wotton, by her had two sons, Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour, William Arundell, esquire.
Charles Arundell, who died unmarried and without issue. Margaret Arundell. Dorothy Arundell, who married Sir Henry Weston. Jane Arundell, who married Sir William Bevyle; the Arundells of Lanherne, of Chideock, are descended from Sir Thomas Arundell's elder brother, Sir John Arundell. Byrne, Muriel St. Clare, ed.. The Lisle Letters. 1. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. P. 307. De Lisle, Leanda; the Sisters Who Would Be Queen. London: HarperPress. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. I. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373. Richardson, Dou