USS Valley Forge (CV-45)
USS Valley Forge was one of 24 Essex-class aircraft carriers built during and shortly after World War II for the United States Navy. The ship was the first US Navy ship to bear the name, was named after Valley Forge, the 1777–1778 winter encampment of General George Washington's Continental Army. Valley Forge was commissioned in November 1946, too late to serve in World War II, but saw extensive service in the Korean War and the Vietnam War, she was reclassified in the early 1950s as an attack carrier to an antisubmarine carrier, to an amphibious assault ship, carrying helicopters and Marines. As a CVS she served in the Caribbean, she was the prime recovery vessel for an early unmanned Mercury space mission. After conversion to an LPH she served extensively in the Vietnam War. Valley Forge was awarded eight battle stars for Korean War service and nine for Vietnam War service, as well as three Navy Unit Commendations. Although she was extensively modified internally as part of her conversion to an amphibious assault ship, external modifications were minor, so throughout her career Valley Forge retained the classic appearance of a World War II Essex-class ship.
She was decommissioned in 1970, sold for scrap in 1971. The citizens of the Philadelphia Area in 1945 bought over $76,000,000 worth of E Bonds during the Seventh War Loan Drive to pay for Valley Forge—equal to $1,058 million today. School children of Philadelphia sold $7,769,351 of these bonds; the ship was one of the "long-hull" Essex-class, laid down on 7 September 1944 at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Like all long-hull Essex-class ships, she was 888 feet long overall and 820 feet at the waterline, her beam was 147 feet 93 feet at the waterline. Her draft was 28 feet 30 feet 10 inches full load; as designed, her displacement was 27,500 33,400 long tons full load. For propulsion, the ships in her class had eight Babcock & Wilcox boilers producing steam at 565 psi and 850 °F delivering 150,000 shaft horsepower, she used four Westinghouse geared turbines connected to four 14-foot-7-inch diameter propellers. She was design for a range of 15,440 nautical miles at 15 knots. During sea trials, her engines produced 154,000 shp and she attained 32.93 knots.
She carried 231,650 US gallons of aviation gasoline. For armament, she was equipped with a battery of twelve 5-inch /38 caliber guns, eight mounts of four 40-mm Bofors guns and 46 20-mm Oerlikon cannon, she was protected by 1.5 inches of armor on the hangar and protective decks while her belt armor was 2.5 to 4 inches thick. Protective bulkheads had 4 inches of armor; the conning tower had 1.5 inches of Special Treatment Steel on the top and there was 1 inch of STS on the sides of the pilot house. The steering gear had a 2.5 inches deck. Her flight deck was 862 by 108 feet and her hangar deck was 654 by 79 feet by 17 feet 6 inches high, she was equipped with two elevators, each 48 by 44 feet with a capacity of 28,000 pounds, two flight deck aircraft catapults, the Mark IV arresting gear. She was designed to carry 36 fighter aircraft, 36 dive bombers, 18 torpedo bombers but this changed through her career as her mission and naval aircraft changed, her design complement was 2363 men. By the end of the war, the Essex-class carriers had a complement of men.
Being one of the youngest Essex-class carriers, Valley Forge did not receive the SCB-27 or SCB-125 modifications that her older sisters received. She maintained the World War II-style straight flight deck throughout her life, her armament was changed in 1954 with her conversion to an antisubmarine carrier CVS-45. Her 20 mm Oerlikon cannon were removed and she carried the original twelve 5-inch /38 caliber guns and a total of 72 40 mm Bofors guns, she was launched on 18 November 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Mildred Vandegrift, wife of Alexander A. Vandegrift the Commandant of the Marine Corps. Valley Forge was commissioned on 3 November 1946, with Captain John W. Harris in command; as a commissioning gift, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania presented Valley Forge with the finest State Silver Service presented to the Navy. The service was designed and made by Philadelphia silversmiths in 1904 and was placed aboard USS Pennsylvania; the elaborate service was decorated in tradition with Neptune, sea horses and dolphins as well as historic scenes and personalities and a State seal.
Following fitting out, on 16 Jan 1947 the first eleven aircraft landed on Valley Forge. A Vought F4U Corsair piloted by Commander H. H. Hirshey, the Commanding Officer of VF5B was the first to land on the new carrier; the next day, 96 aircraft and personnel from Air Group 5 were taken aboard. The carrier got underway on 24 January for shakedown training, which took her, via Naval Station Norfolk, to Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, the Panama Canal Zone, she returned to Philadelphia for post-shakedown overhaul. The ship left Philadelphia on 14 July, headed south, transited the Panama Canal on 5 August and a message was sent to Commander Air Pacific – "USS Valley Forge reporting for duty", she arrived at her new home port, Naval Base San Diego on 14 August and joined the United States Pacific Fleet. Following th
Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola, "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United States Navy base located next to Warrington, Florida, a community southwest of the Pensacola city limits. It is best known as the initial primary training base for all U. S. Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard officers pursuing designation as Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers, the advanced training base for most Naval Flight Officers, as the home base for the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the precision-flying team known as the Blue Angels; because of contamination by heavy metals and other hazardous materials during its history, it is designated as a Superfund site needing environmental cleanup. The air station hosts the Naval Education and Training Command and the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute, the latter of which provides training for all naval Naval Flight Surgeons, Naval Aviation Physiologists, Naval Aviation Experimental Psychologists. With the closure of Naval Air Station Memphis in Millington and the transition of that facility to Naval Support Activity Mid-South, NAS Pensacola became home to the Naval Air Technical Training Center Memphis, which relocated to Pensacola and was renamed NATTC Pensacola.
NATTC provides technical training schools for nearly all enlisted aircraft maintenance and enlisted aircrew specialties in the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Coast Guard; the NATTC facility at NAS Pensacola is home to the USAF Detachment 1, a geographically separated unit whose home unit is the 359th Training Squadron located at nearby Eglin AFB. Detachment 1 trains over 1,100 Airmen annually in three structural maintenance disciplines: Low Observable, Non-Destructive Inspection, Aircraft Structural Maintenance. NAS Pensacola contains Forrest Sherman Field, home of Training Air Wing SIX, providing undergraduate flight training for all prospective Naval Flight Officers for the U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps, flight officers/navigators for other NATO/Allied/Coalition partners. TRAWING SIX consists of the Training Squadron 4 "Warbucks," Training Squadron 10 "Wildcats" and Training Squadron 86 "Sabrehawks," flying the T-45C Goshawk and T-6A Texan II. A select number of prospective U. S. Air Force Navigator/Combat Systems Officers, destined for certain fighter/bomber or heavy aircraft, were trained via TRAWING SIX, under VT-4 or VT-10, with command of VT-10 rotating periodically to a USAF officer.
This previous track for USAF Navigators was termed Joint Undergraduate Navigator Training. Today, all USAF Undergraduate CSO Training for all USAF aircraft is consolidated at NAS Pensacola as a USAF organization and operation under the 479th Flying Training Group, an Air Education and Training Command unit; the 479 FTG is a tenant activity at NAS Pensacola and a GSU of the 12th Flying Training Wing at Randolph AFB, Texas. The 479 FTG operates T-1A Jayhawk aircraft. Other tenant activities include the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, flying F/A-18 Hornets and a single USMC C-130T Hercules. A total of 131 aircraft operate out of Sherman Field, generating 110,000 flight operations each year; the National Naval Aviation Museum, the Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District, the National Park Service-administered Fort Barrancas and its associated Advance Redoubt, the Pensacola Lighthouse and Museum are all located at NAS Pensacola, as is the Barrancas National Cemetery.
The site now occupied. In 1559, Spanish explorer Don Tristan de Luna founded a colony on Santa Rosa Island, considered the first European settlement of the Pensacola area; the Spanish built the wooden Fort San Carlos de Austria on this bluff in 1697–1698. Although besieged by Indians in 1707, the fort was not taken. Spain was competing in North America with the French, who settled lower Louisiana and the Illinois Country and areas to the North; the French destroyed this fort when they captured Pensacola in 1719. After Great Britain defeated the French in the Seven Years' War and exchanging some territory with Spain, British colonists took over this site and West Florida in 1763. In 1781, as an ally of the American rebels during the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish captured Pensacola. Britain ceded West Florida to Spain following the war; the Spanish completed the fort San Carlos de Barrancas in 1797. Barranca is a Spanish word for bluff, the natural terrain feature that makes this location ideal for the fortress.
Pensacola was taken by General Andrew Jackson in November 1814 during the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States. British forces destroyed Fort San Carlos; the Spanish remained in control of the region until 1821, when the Adams-Onís Treaty confirmed the purchase of Spanish Florida by the United States, Spain ceded this territory to the US. In 1825, the US designated this area for the Pensacola Navy Yard was designated and Congress appropriated $6,000 for a lighthouse. Operational that year, it "is said to be haunted by a light keeper murdered by his wife." Fort Barrancas was rebuilt, 1839–1844, the U. S. Army deactivating it on 15 April 1947. Designated a National Historic Site in 1960, control of the site was transferred to the National Park Service in 1971. After extensive re
USS Intrepid (CV-11)
USS Intrepid known as The Fighting "I", is one of 24 Essex-class aircraft carriers built during World War II for the United States Navy. She is the fourth US Navy ship to bear the name. Commissioned in August 1943, Intrepid participated in several campaigns in the Pacific Theater of Operations, most notably the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Decommissioned shortly after the end of the war, she was modernized and recommissioned in the early 1950s as an attack carrier, eventually became an antisubmarine carrier. In her second career, she served in the Atlantic, but participated in the Vietnam War, her notable achievements include being the recovery ship for a Gemini space mission. Because of her prominent role in battle, she was nicknamed "the Fighting I", while her frequent bad luck and time spent in dry dock for repairs—she was torpedoed once and hit by four separate Japanese kamikaze aircraft—earned her the nicknames "Decrepit" and "the Dry I". Decommissioned in 1974, in 1982 Intrepid became the foundation of the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York City.
The keel for Intrepid was laid down on 1 December 1941 in Shipway 10 at the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. Newport News, days before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States' entrance into World War II, she was launched on the fifth Essex-class aircraft carrier to be launched. She was sponsored by the wife of Vice Admiral John H. Hoover. On 16 August 1943, she was commissioned with Captain Thomas L. Sprague in command before heading to the Caribbean for shakedown and training, she thereafter returned before departing on 3 December, bound for San Francisco. She proceeded on to Pearl Harbor, arriving there on 10 January, where she began preparations to join the rest of the Pacific Fleet for offensive operations against the Imperial Japanese Navy. Intrepid joined the Fast Carrier Task Force Task Force 58, for the next operation in the island-hopping campaign across the Central Pacific: the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign. On 16 January 1944, her sister ship Essex, the light carrier Cabot left Pearl Harbor to conduct a raid on islands in the Kwajalein Atoll from 29 January to 2 February.
The three carriers' air group destroyed all 83 Japanese aircraft stationed on Roi-Namur in the first two days of the strikes, before Marines went ashore on neighboring islands on 31 January in the Battle of Kwajalein. That morning, aircraft from Intrepid attacked Japanese beach defenses on Ennuebing Island, up until ten minutes before the first Marines landed; the Marines took the island and used it as a fire base to support the follow-on attack on Roi. With the fighting in the Kwajalein Atoll finished by 3 February and the rest of TF 58 proceeded to launch Operation Hailstone, a major raid on the main Japanese naval base in the Central Pacific, Truk Lagoon. From 17 to 19 February, the carriers pounded Japanese forces in the lagoon, sinking two destroyers and some 200,000 GRT of merchant ships. Additionally, the strikes demonstrated the vulnerability of Truk, which convinced the Japanese to avoid using it in the future. Intrepid did not emerge from the operation unscathed, however. On the night of 17–18 February, a Japanese torpedo bomber scored a hit on the carrier near her stern.
The torpedo struck 15 ft below the waterline, jamming the ship's rudder to port and flooding several compartments. Sprague was able to counteract the jammed rudder by running the port side screw at high speed while idling the starboard screw for two days until high winds overpowered the improvised steering; the crew fashioned a jury rigged sail out of scrap canvas and hatch covers, which allowed the ship to return to Pearl Harbor, where she arrived on 24 February. Temporary repairs were effected there, after which Intrepid steamed to Hunters Point Naval Shipyard in San Francisco for permanent repairs on 16 March, arriving there six days later; the work was completed by 9 June, Intrepid began two months of training around Pearl Harbor. Starting in early September, Intrepid joined operations in the western Caroline Islands. On 6 and 7 September, she conducted air strikes on Japanese artillery batteries and airfields on the island of Peleliu, in preparation for the invasion of Peleliu. On 9 and 10 September and the rest of the fleet moved on to attack airfields on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, followed by further strikes on bases in the Visayan Sea between 12 and 14 September.
On 17 September, Intrepid returned to Pelelieu to provide air support to the Marines that had landed on the island two days before. Intrepid and the other carriers returned to the Philippines to prepare for the Philippines campaign. At this time, Intrepid was assigned to Task Group 38.2. In addition to targets in the Philippines themselves, the carriers struck Japanese airfields on the islands of Formosa and Okinawa to degrade Japanese air power in the region. On 20 October, at the start of the Battle of Leyte, Intrepid launched strikes to support Allied forces as they went ashore on the island of Leyte. By this time, Halsey reduced the carriers of TG 38.2 to just Intrepid and the light carrier Independence commanded by Rear Admiral Gerald F. Bogan aboard Intrepid. Between 23 and 26 October, the Japanese Navy launched a major operation to disrupt the Allied landings in the Philippines, resulting in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. On the morning of 24 October, a reconnaissance aircraft from Intrepid spotted Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita's flagship, Yamato.
Two hours Intrepid and Cabot launched a strike on Kurita's Center Force, initiating the Batt
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming and recovering aircraft. It is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third party countries, reduce the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore increase the time of availability on the combat zone.
There is no single definition of an "aircraft carrier", modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, sometimes as distinct types of naval aviation-capable ships. Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, RN, former First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy, has said, "To put it countries that aspire to strategic international influence have aircraft carriers." Henry Kissinger, while United States Secretary of State said: "An aircraft carrier is 100,000 tons of diplomacy". As of April 2019, there are 41 active aircraft carriers in the world operated by thirteen navies; the United States Navy has 11 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers—carrying around 80 fighter jets each—the largest carriers in the world. As well as the aircraft carrier fleet, the U. S. Navy has nine amphibious assault ships used for helicopters, although these carry up to 20 vertical or short take-off and landing fighter jets and are similar in size to medium-sized fleet carriers.
China, India and the UK each operate a single large/medium-size carrier, with capacity from 30 to 60 fighter jets. Italy operates two light fleet carriers and Spain operates one. Helicopter carriers are operated by Japan, Australia, Brazil, South Korea, Thailand. Future aircraft carriers are under construction or in planning by Brazil, India, the United Kingdom, the United States. Amphibious assault ship Anti-submarine warfare carrier Balloon carrier and balloon tenders Escort carrier Fleet carrier Flight deck cruiser Helicopter carrier Light aircraft carrier Sea Control Ship Seaplane tender and seaplane carriers Aircraft cruiser A fleet carrier is intended to operate with the main fleet and provides an offensive capability; these are the largest carriers capable of fast speeds. By comparison, escort carriers were developed to provide defense for convoys of ships, they were slower with lower numbers of aircraft carried. Most were built from mercantile hulls or, in the case of merchant aircraft carriers, were bulk cargo ships with a flight deck added on top.
Light aircraft carriers were fast enough to operate with the main fleet but of smaller size with reduced aircraft capacity. The Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Kusnetsov was termed a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser; this was a legal construct to avoid the limitations of the Montreux Convention preventing'aircraft carriers' transiting the Turkish Straits between the Soviet Black Sea bases and the Mediterranean. These ships, while sized in the range of large fleet carriers, were designed to deploy alone or with escorts. In addition to supporting fighter aircraft and helicopters, they provide both strong defensive weaponry and heavy offensive missiles equivalent to a guided missile cruiser. Aircraft carriers today are divided into the following four categories based on the way that aircraft take off and land: Catapult-assisted take-off barrier arrested-recovery: these carriers carry the largest and most armed aircraft, although smaller CATOBAR carriers may have other limitations. All CATOBAR carriers in service today are nuclear powered.
Two nations operate carriers of this type: ten Nimitz class and one Gerald R. Ford class fleet carriers by the United States, one medium-sized carrier by France, for a world total of twelve in service. Short take-off but arrested-recovery: these carriers are limited to carrying lighter fixed-wing aircraft with more limited payloads. STOBAR carrier air wings, such as the Sukhoi Su-33 and future Mikoyan MiG-29K wings of Admiral Kuznetsov are geared towards air superiority and fleet defense roles rather than strike/power projection tasks, which require heavier payloads. Today China and Russia each operate one carrier of this type – a total of three in service currently. Short take-off vertical-landing: limited to carrying STOVL aircraft. STOVL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet family and Yakovlev Yak-38 have limited payloads, lower perfor
USS Graffias (AF-29)
USS Graffias, a Hyades-class stores ship, is the only ship of the United States Navy to have this name. The name Graffias is another name for the star Beta Scorpii in the constellation Scorpius; the Graffias was laid down in 1943 as Topa Topa, a Maritime Commission type hull under Maritime Commission contract at the Gulf Shipbuilding Company, Alabama. The ship was acquired by the United States Navy on 19 February 1944 and subsequently converted by the Bethlehem Steel Company, Maryland; the Graffias was commissioned at Baltimore on 28 October 1944, with Lieutenant Commander B. P. Caraher in command. After a brief shakedown along the East Coast, Graffias sailed for the Pacific on 25 November as a unit of ServRon Ten. Reaching Ulithi on 31 December, she discharged her valuable cargo of provisions and returned to San Francisco, California, a month later. Laden with foodstuffs and provisions for the staging areas and the front, Graffias made two more San Francisco-Ulithi voyages through May 1945; the refrigerator-cargo ship returned to Pearl Harbor on 31 May and from there sailed again to Ulithi with provisions, returning to Hawaii on 14 July.
After repairs at Pearl Harbor, Graffias sailed to Adak, reaching port on 18 August. With the Japanese capitulation, she began a new task: bringing needed provisions to the starving island and to American occupation forces. Graffias reached Ominato, Honshū, on 9 September, after replenishing American bases at Wakayama and Sasebo, sailed for the United States with home and discharge-bound passengers. Putting in at Seattle on 26 October, she disembarked her passengers and checked into Bremerton Navy Yard for overhaul. By January 1946, Graffias was well embarked on the routine which she was to follow until the Korean War, replenishing scattered American bases across the Pacific. Taking on cargo at Seattle or San Francisco, she would discharge provisions at such far-flung points as Wake Island, Kwajalein, Okinawa, the Philippines, Saipan, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Yokosuka; these Pacific replenishment cruises, whose duration was 2½ months on the average, were supplemented by periodic overhauls and participation in various fleet exercises.
When war broke out in Korea in June 1950, Graffias sailed to Sasebo, her new home port, to begin the vital task of provisioning United States and United Nations ships and troops. For three years she shuttled between Sasebo and various at sea replenishment areas to effect cargo transfer, as well as making frequent stops along the Korean coast; as the conflict ended with an armistice in August 1953, Graffias remained on duty with the 7th Fleet to continue her task of replenishing ships and troops. Replenishment cruises took her across the ocean to Hong Kong and Formosa as well as Okinawa and the Philippines. During the intensification of the Quemoy-Matsu situation in the summer of 1955, thereafter, Graffias made frequent stops at Formosa to provision American and Chinese Nationalist forces as well as an enlarged 7th Fleet. In the decade that followed, Graffias operated continuously out of Sasebo supplying American naval ships in Far Eastern ports in the Philippines, Hong Kong and Vietnam, she departed Sasebo on 26 February 1964 for her new home port of San Francisco.
Following a thorough overhaul, she reached Yokosuka on 13 July. On the last day of July, she sailed for Subic Bay after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Following the Gulf of Tonkin on 4 August, Graffias was ordered to the area to provide logistic support. A week she replenished the two destroyers and subsequently supplied many other ships of the 7th Fleet. After setting a replenishment record during the deployment by transferring supplies at an average rate of 168.9 short tons per hour, Graffias steamed home via Hong Kong and Pearl Harbor, arriving in San Francisco on 12 October. Following two deployments to the Far East in 1965, supporting the Allied forces in Vietnam, Graffias operated along the Pacific Coast in 1966 until sailing for the western Pacific on 10 December. On the last day of 1966 she departed Yokosuka to resume underway replenishment operations supplying ships of the 7th Fleet fighting off Vietnam in 1967. Graffias returned to her homeport in April 1967 after a port call in Hawaii where one of her boilers was repaired.
She sailed again in August 1967 to the western Pacific and the waters off the coast of Vietnam, under the command of Captain Thomas B. Hayward. Captain Hayward departed Graffias in June 1968 for duty in Washington, D. C.. The ship returned to its home port for Christmas on 23 December 1967, the ship's first Christmas in the United States since 1949. Graffias again set sail in late July 1968 to support the war effort off the coast of Vietnam, returning to San Francisco in November 1968. Graffias was decommissioned in 1969. Graffias earned eight battle stars for Korean War service and seven campaign stars for Vietnam War service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Navsource.org: USS Graffias AF-29
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Chief of Naval Operations
The Chief of Naval Operations is the highest-ranking officer and professional head of the United States Navy. The position is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral, a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, the President; the current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral John M. Richardson. Despite the title, the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces; the CNO is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, exercises supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy. Operational command of naval forces falls within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense; the Chief of Naval Operations is the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the U. S. Navy unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers.
As per 10 U. S. C. § 5035, whenever there is a vacancy for the Chief of Naval Operations or during the absence or disability of the Chief of Naval Operations, unless the President directs otherwise, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations performs the duties of the Chief of Naval Operations until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases. The CNO performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U. S. C. § 5033, such as presiding over the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, exercising supervision of Navy organizations, other duties assigned by the Secretary or higher lawful authority, or the CNO delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in OPNAV or in organizations below. Acting for the Secretary of the Navy, the CNO designates naval personnel and naval forces available to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense; the CNO is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U. S. C. § 151 and 10 U.
S. C. § 5033. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CNO is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Navy forces. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, individually or collectively, in their capacity as military advisers, shall provide advice to the President, the National Security Council, or the Secretary of Defense on a particular matter when the President, the NSC, or SECDEF requests such advice. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may submit to the Chairman advice or an opinion in disagreement with, or advice or an opinion in addition to, the advice presented by the Chairman to the President, NSC, or SECDEF; when performing his JCS duties, the CNO is responsible directly to the SECDEF, but keeps SECNAV informed of significant military operations affecting the duties and responsibilities of the SECNAV, unless SECDEF orders otherwise. The Chief of Naval Operations is nominated by the President for appointment and must be confirmed by the Senate.
A requirement for being Chief of Naval Operations is having significant experience in joint duty assignments, which includes at least one full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment as a flag officer. However, the president may waive those requirements if he determines that appointing the officer is necessary for the national interest. By statute, the CNO is appointed as a four-star admiral. Number One Observatory Circle, located on the northeast grounds of the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, was built in 1893 for its superintendent; the Chief of Naval Operations liked the house so much that in 1923 he took over the house as his own official residence. It remained the residence of the CNO until 1974, when Congress authorized its transformation to an official residence for the Vice President; the Chief of Naval Operations resides in Quarters A in the Washington Naval Yard. The Chief of Naval Operations presides over the Navy Staff, formally known as the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory organization within the executive part of the Department of the Navy, its purpose is to furnish professional assistance to the Secretary of the Navy and the CNO in carrying out their responsibilities. The OPNAV organization consists of: The Chief of Naval Operations The Vice Chief of Naval Operations, the principal deputy of the Chief of Naval Operations, delegated complete authority to act for the CNO in all matters not reserved by law to the CNO; the Director of the Navy Staff. Several Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations of either three or two-star rank, heading functional directorates. DCNO Manpower, Training, & Education/Chief of Naval Personnel DCNO Warfare Dominance/Director of the Office of Naval Intelligence DCNO Operations, Plans, & Strategy DCNO Fleet Readiness & Logistics DCNO Integration of Capabilities & Resources DCNO Warfare Systems The Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, appointed by the Chief of Naval Operations to serve as a spokesperson to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Navy.
The Director of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, a unique eight-year posting held by a 4 star admiral, created and served in by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover; the appointment as Director is both a military and civilian position as it is the head of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program in the Department of the Navy and deputy administrator for the Office of Naval Reactors of the National Nuclear Security Administration