Advice is a form of relating personal or institutional opinions, belief systems, recommendations or guidance about certain situations relayed in some context to another person, group or party offered as a guide to action and/or conduct. Put a little more an advice message is a recommendation about what might be thought, said, or otherwise done to address a problem, make a decision, or manage a situation. Advice is believed to be theoretical, is considered taboo as well as helpful; the kinds of advice can range from systems of instructional and practical toward more esoteric and spiritual, is attributable toward problem solving, strategy seeking, solution finding, either from a social standpoint or a personal one. Advice may pertain to relationships, lifestyle changes, legal choices, business goals, personal goals, career goals, education goals, religious beliefs, personal growth, inspiration and so on. Advice is not pertinent to any solid criteria, may be given or only given when asked upon.
In some cultures advice is unacceptable to be released unless requested. In other cultures advice is given more openly, it may if it is expert advice such as legal advice or methodological advice be given only in exchange for payment. Many expressions and quotations have been used to describe the status of advice, whether given, or received. One such expression is "Advice is what we ask for when we know the answer but wish we didn't.". Advice is like water, you drink it to replenish your soul; this particular quotation pertains the belief system that states that the answers to one's questions are within themselves, do not come from any external stimuli. The accuracy of this particular belief is disputed among theologians, etc. However, a person who would hold such a belief, would "advise" another person to seek the answers out from within one's own esoteric and inner spiritual natures. Advice when adhered to and followed may be beneficial, non-beneficial, non-damaging beneficial and damaging, in reference to personal or social paradigms.
In other words, not all advice is either "all good" or "all bad". Many people are thus offended. Therefore, some people may come to the conclusion that advice is morally better to be left out of the equation altogether, this theory is included within the following quote: "The best advice is this: Don't take advice and don't give advice." Yet in society advice has been helpful. A more day to day example would be "eat your vegetables" or "don't drink and drive." If this advice is adhered to we can see that the benefits would outweigh the consequences. Grammatically speaking, advice is an uncountable noun, like milk. Clicheing or using a cliche, refers to mainstream advice, overused. Advice-taking and advice-giving are of interest to researchers in the disciplines of psychology, economics and decision-making, organizational behavior and human resources, human communication, among others. In psychology, seminal articles include Brehmer and Hagafors, Hollenbeck et al. and Sniezek and Buckley. The Sniezek and Buckley and Hollenbeck et al. articles, in particular, introduced researchers to standardized ways of studying advice in the laboratory.
The psychological literature on advice-giving and advice-taking was reviewed by Bonaccio and Dalal, a portion of this literature was reviewed by Humphrey et al.. Communication researchers have tended to study advice as part of their research on supportive communication. Much research has focused on gender differences in the provision and receipt of supportive communication. In economics, the willingness of entrepreneurs to take advice from early investors and other partners has long been considered a critical factor in entrepreneurial success. At the same time, some economists have argued that entrepreneurs should not act on all advice given to them when that advice comes from well-informed sources, because the entrepreneurs themselves possess far deeper and richer local knowledge about their own firm than any outsider. Indeed, measures of advice-taking are not predictive of subsequent entrepreneurial success. In the social sciences in general, in psychological research in particular, advice has been defined as a recommendation to do something.
For example, in response to a client's question regarding whether to invest in stocks, bonds, or T-notes, a financial planner might say: "I recommend going with bonds at this time." However and Bonaccio have argued, based on a review of the research literature, that such a definition is incomplete and leaves out several important types of advice These authors have provided the following taxonomy of advice: Recommending a particular course of action Recommending against a particular course of action Providing additional information about a particular course of action without explicitly prescribing or proscribing that course of action Recommending how to go about making the decision Of these four types of advice and Bonaccio found that decision-makers reacted most favorably to the provision of information, because this form of advi
Joseph E. Haynes
Joseph Emmett Haynes was the 20th mayor of Newark, New Jersey 1884 to 1894. A Democrat who explicitly appealed to the working class, Haynes is chiefly remembered for securing Newark a safe and abundant water supply, his mayoralty is seen as a turning point in the prosperity of Newark. Haynes instigated a £6 million project to obtain water from the Pequannock River rather than the polluted Passaic River, which resulted in a 70% decline in typhoid deaths. Haynes held a Semi-Centennial Celebration for Newark on 5 January 1886, its success led to him being called the "Semi-Centennial Mayor". However, local newspapers criticised Haynes' use of patronage, calling the Board of Health the "Board of Junket" and dubbing him "Picnic Joe" for his use of hospitalities, he faced accusations of accepting gifts in exchange for contracts and ballot rigging. Before he was elected mayor Haynes was principal of Morton Street School, he left office in 1894 to become postmaster of Newark. The Pequannock Gate known as the North Newark Castle, is a memorial to him.
He is interred in Clinton Cemetery in Irvington. Joseph E. Haynes at Find a Grave
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
The Political Graveyard
The Political Graveyard is a website and database that catalogues information on more than 277,000 American political figures and political families, along with other information. The database attempts to capture basic biographical and office-holding data for its political figures. Besides where they are buried, it records dates and locations of birth and death, offices held and the applicable dates, organizational affiliations, cause of death, it reports their relation with other politicians listed, their political party, limited military history. The names are sorted and indexed by surname, positions held, religion, cause of death, final resting place, with each entry having fewer than five lines of text; the name comes from the website's inclusion of the burial locations of the deceased. The site was created in 1996 by Lawrence Kestenbaum an academic specialist at Michigan State University, on staff at the University of Michigan. Kestenbaum was a county commissioner, in 2004 was elected to be County Clerk/Register of Deeds of Washtenaw County, Michigan.
The site and its underlying database were developed from a personal interest triggered by the Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress, its original data source. Since his personal research, the information contributions of hundreds of volunteers have expanded the information available, it is licensed under the "Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 1.0" Creative Commons License. Over the years the definition of "eligible political figure" has been expanded, it now includes most high federal officials, all elected and some appointed statewide officeholders, many mayors. It lists unsuccessful candidates, presidential electors, delegates to U. S. presidential nominating conventions of the major political parties. Politicians are listed alphabetically, by office held or sought, by location of birth and death; some are listed in categories, including occupations, ethnicity and organizational affiliation and awards. Politicians accused of crimes or touched by scandal are listed by the nature of the accusation, as well as by decade and by state.
Cause of death is broken down into dozens of categories. The site lists political families. Individuals listed on the site are linked together if their relationship meets the Rule of 1/1000 common ancestry; each cluster of three or more linked politicians is treated as a family, with family name and location assigned by an algorithm. The site's largest cluster, with 2,134 members, is called "Two Thousand Related Politicians"; the largest subset family is the Huntington-Chapin-Waterman family of Connecticut, with 229 members
Tack refers to equipment or accessories equipped on horses and other equines in the course of their use as domesticated animals. Saddles, bridles, reins, harnesses and breastplates are all forms of horse tack. Equipping a horse is referred to as tacking up. A room to store such equipment near or in a stable, is a tack room. Saddles are seats for the rider, fastened to the horse's back by means of a girth, known as a cinch in the Western US, a wide strap that goes around the horse at a point about four inches behind the forelegs; some western saddles will have a second strap known as a flank or back cinch that fastens at the rear of the saddle and goes around the widest part of the horse's belly. It is important that the saddle be comfortable for both the rider and the horse as an improperly fitting saddle may create pressure points on the horse's back muscle and cause the horse pain and can lead to the horse, rider, or both getting injured. There are many types of saddle, each specially designed for its given task.
Saddles are divided into two major categories: "English saddles" and "Western saddles" according to the riding discipline they are used in. Other types of saddles, such as racing saddles, Australian saddles and endurance saddles do not fit neatly in either category. Breastplate or breastcollar: Prevents saddles of all styles from sliding sideways or backward on a horse's back Surcingle Crupper Breeching called "britching" Saddle blanket or numnah Stirrups are supports for the rider's feet that hang down on either side of the saddle, they provide greater stability for the rider but can have safety concerns due to the potential for a rider's feet to get stuck in them. If a rider is thrown from a horse but has a foot caught in the stirrup, they could be dragged if the horse runs away. To minimize this risk, a number of safety precautions are taken. First, most riders wear riding boots with a smooth sole. Next, some saddles English saddles, have safety bars that allow a stirrup leather to fall off the saddle if pulled backwards by a falling rider.
Other precautions are done with stirrup design itself. Western saddles have wide stirrup treads. A number of saddle styles incorporate a tapedero, covering over the front of the stirrup that keeps the foot from sliding all the way through the stirrup; the English stirrup has several design variations which are either shaped to allow the rider's foot to slip out or are closed with a heavy rubber band. The invention of stirrups was of great historic significance in mounted combat, giving the rider secure foot support while on horseback. Bridles, halters or headcollars, similar equipment consist of various arrangements of straps around the horse's head, are used for control and communication with the animal. A halter or headcollar consists of a noseband and headstall that buckles around the horse's head and allows the horse to be led or tied; the lead rope is separate, it may be short for everyday leading and tying, or much longer for tasks such as for leading packhorses or for picketing a horse out to graze.
Some horses stallions, may have a chain attached to the lead rope and placed over the nose or under the jaw to increase the control provided by a halter while being led. Most of the time, horses are not ridden with a halter, as it offers insufficient precision and control. Halters have no bit. In Australian and British English, a halter is a rope with a spliced running loop around the nose and another over the poll, used for unbroken horses or for cattle; the lead rope cannot be removed from the halter. A show halter is made from rolled leather and the lead attaches to form the chinpiece of the noseband; these halters are not suitable in loose stalls. An underhalter is a lightweight halter or headcollar, made with only one small buckle, can be worn under a bridle for tethering a horse without untacking. Bridles have a bit attached to reins and are used for riding and driving horses. English Bridles are seen in English riding, their reins are buckled to one another, they have little adornment or flashy hardware.
Western Bridles used in Western riding have no noseband, are made of thin bridle leather. They may have long, separated "Split" reins or shorter closed reins, which sometimes include an attached Romal. Western bridles are adorned with silver or other decorative features. Double bridles are a type of English bridle that use two bits in the mouth at once, a snaffle and a curb; the two bits allow the rider to have precise control of the horse. As a rule, only advanced horses and riders use double bridles. Double bridles are seen in the top levels of dressage, but are seen in certain types of show hack and Saddle seat competition. A hackamore is a headgear that utilizes a heavy noseband of some sort, rather than a bit, most used to train young horses or to go easy on an older horse's mouth. Hackamores are more seen in western riding; some related styles of headgear that control a horse with a noseband rather than a bit are known as bitless bridles. The word "hackamore" is derived from the Spanish word jáquima.
Hackamores are seen in western riding disciplines, as well as in endurance riding and English riding disciplines such as show jumping and the stadium phase of eventing. While the classic bosal-style hackamore is used to start young horses, other designs, such a
A city block, urban block or block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area, surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of smaller land lots in private ownership, though in some cases, it may be other forms of tenure. City blocks are built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or'streetwalls' of public space. Most cities are composed of a lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. For example, many pre-industrial cores of cities in Europe and the Middle-east tend to have irregularly shaped street patterns and urban blocks, while cities based on grids have much more regular arrangements. In most cities of the world that were planned, rather than developing over a long period of time, streets are laid out on a grid plan, so that city blocks are square or rectangular. Using the perimeter block development principle, city blocks are developed so that buildings are located along the perimeter of the block, with entrances facing the street, semi-private courtyards in the rear of the buildings.
This arrangement is intended to provide good social interaction among people. Since the spacing of streets in grid plans varies so among cities, or within cities, it is difficult to generalize about the size of a city block. However, as reference points for US cities, the standard square blocks of Portland and Sacramento are 264 by 264 feet, 330 by 330 feet, 410 by 410 feet respectively. Oblong blocks range in width and length; the standard block in Manhattan is about 264 by 900 feet. S. cities standard blocks are as wide as 660 feet. The blocks in Calgary, are 330 by 560 feet, while those in Edmonton, Canada are 197 by 560 feet; the blocks in central Melbourne, are 330 by 660 feet, formed by splitting the square blocks in an original grid with a narrow street down the middle. In Chicago and Minneapolis, Minnesota, a typical city block is 660 by 330 feet, meaning that 16 east-west blocks or 8 north-south blocks measure one mile. Many world cities have grown by accretion over time rather than being planned from the outset.
For this reason, a regular pattern of square or rectangular city blocks is not so common among European cities, for example. An exception is represented by those cities that were founded as Roman military settlements, that preserve the original grid layout around two main orthogonal axes. One notable example is Italy. Following the example of Philadelphia, New York City adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 for a more extensive grid plan. By the middle of the 20th century, the adoption of the uniform, rectilinear block subsided completely, different layouts prevailed, with random sized and either curvilinear or non-orthogonal blocks and corresponding street patterns. In much of the United States and Canada, the addresses follow a block and lot number system, in which each block of a street is allotted 100 building numbers; the concept of city block can be generalized as a sub-block. A superblock or super-block is an area of urban land bounded by arterial roads, the size of multiple typically-sized city blocks.
Within the superblock, the local road network, if any, is designed to serve local needs only. Within the broad concept of a superblock, various typologies emerge based on the internal road networks within the superblock, their historical context, whether they are auto-centric or pedestrian-centric; the context in which superblocks are being studied or conceived gives rise to varying definitions. An internal road network characterised by cul-de-sacs is typical of auto-centric suburban development in Western countries throughout the 20th century; the Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's definition is rooted within this suburban conception:“Area containing residential accommodation, schools, etc. with public open space, surrounded by roads and penetrated by cul-de-sac service-roads. It is linked to other super-blocks and a town centre by means of paths over or under the roads.”Though the aim of such superblocks is to minimise traffic within the superblock by directing it to arterial roads, the effect in many cases has been to entrench automobile dependence by limiting pedestrian permeability.
Superblocks can contain an orthogonal internal road network, including ones based on a grid plan or quasi-grid plan. This typology is prevalent in China, for example. Chen defines the supergrid and superblock urban morphology in this context as follows:“The Supergrid is a large-scale net of wide roads that defines a series of cells or Superblocks, each containing a network of narrower streets.”Superblocks can be retroactively superimposed on pre-existing grid plan by changing the traffic rules and streetscape of internal streets within the superblock, as in the case of Barcelona’s superilles. Each superilla comprises nine city blocks, with speed limits on the internal roads slowed to 10–20 km/h and through traffic disallowed, with through travel only possible on the perimeter roads. Superblocks were popular during the early and mid-20th century auto-centric suburban development, arising from modernist ideas in architecture and urban planning. Planning in this era was based upon the distance and speed scales for the automobi