Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax
Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, GCB, PC, known as Sir Charles Wood, 3rd Bt between 1846 and 1866, was a British Whig politician and Member of Parliament. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1852, Halifax was the son of Sir Francis Wood, 2nd Baronet, and his wife Anne, daughter of Samuel Buck. He was educated at Eton and Oriel College, where he studied classics and mathematics, the extreme parsimony of the British Government towards Ireland while Wood was in charge of the Treasury greatly enhanced the suffering of those affected by famine. Wood believed in the policy of Laissez-faire and preferred to leave the Irish to starve rather than undermine the market by allowing in cheap imported grain. In his 1851 budget, Sir Charles liberalized trade, reducing import duties, Disraeli, a former protectionist, would after Peels death transform the party into a complex party machine that embraced free trade. In a speech on a financial statement on 30 April 1852, Disraeli referred to Woods influence on economic policy.
Tariff reduction led to a increase in consumption, the Conservatives moved from Derby-Bentinck protectionism towards a new politics during 1852. For Wood, a dry old stick, Disraeli was petulant and sarcastic and he succeeded to his fathers baronetcy in 1846, and in 1866 he was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Halifax, of Monk Bretton in the West Riding of the County of York. After the unexpected death of Lord Clarendon necessitated a reshuffle of Gladstones first cabinet, Halifax was brought in as Lord Privy Seal, serving from 1870 to 1874, his last public office. As the President of the Board of Control, Wood took a step in spreading education in India when in 1854 he sent a despatch to Lord Dalhousie. It was recommended therein that, An education department was to be set in every province, universities on the model of the London university be established in big cities such as Bombay and Madras. At least one government school be opened in every district, affiliated private schools should be given grant in aid.
The Indian natives should be training in their mother tongue also. Lord Halifax married Lady Mary Grey, fifth daughter of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey and they had four sons and three daughters, Hon Blanche Edith Wood married 21 September 1876, Col Hon Henry William Lowry-Corry. Lord Halifax survived her by just over a year and died in August 1885 and he was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son Charles, who was the father of Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax. This Great Calamity, The Irish Famine 1845–52, a Death-Dealing Famine, The Great Hunger in Ireland. The Evidence of the Great Famine, New Gill History of Ireland Vol.5, Nineteenth Century Ireland. Hickey, D. J. Doherty, J. E, a New Dictionary of Irish History from 1800
Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon
Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon PC DL FRS FSA, known as Lord Porchester from 1833 to 1849, was a British politician and a leading member of the Conservative Party. He was twice Secretary of State for the Colonies and served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, born at Grosvenor Square, Carnarvon was the eldest son of Henry Herbert, 3rd Earl of Carnarvon, by his wife Henrietta Anna, daughter of Lord Henry Howard-Molyneux-Howard. The Hon. Auberon Herbert was his younger brother and he was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1849 he succeeded his father in the earldom and his nickname was Twitters, apparently on account of his nervous tics and twitchy behaviour. Carnarvon served under Lord Derby, as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1858 to 1859, in 1863 he worked on penal reform. Under the influence of Joshua Jebb he saw the gaols, with a population including prisoners before any trial and he was himself a magistrate, and campaigned for the conditions of confinement to be made less comfortable, with more severe regimes on labour and diet.
He wished to see a system that was more uniform. In response, he was asked to run a House of Lords committee and it drafted a report, and a Gaol Bill was brought in, during 1864, it was, lost amid opposition. The Prisons Act 1866, passed by parliament during 1865, saw Carnarvons main ideas implemented, in 1866 Carnarvon was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies by Derby. In 1867 he introduced the British North America Act, which conferred self-government on Canada, that year, he resigned in protest against Benjamin Disraelis Reform Bill to enfranchise the working classes. Vancouver Island had been promised a link as a condition for its entry into British North America confederation. In the same year, he set in motion plans to impose the system of confederation that he had applied in Canada. The situation in southern Africa was vastly different, not least in several of its states were still independent. The confederation plan was highly unpopular among ordinary southern Africans.
Other regional governments refused even to discuss the idea, Lord Carnarvon believed that the continued existence of independent African states posed an ever-present threat of a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization. He thus decided to force the pace, endeavouring to give South Africa not what it wanted and he sent administrators, such as Theophilus Shepstone and Bartle Frere, to southern Africa to implement his system of confederation. Shepstone invaded and annexed the Transvaal in 1877, while Bartle Frere, as the new High Commissioner, Carnarvon used the rising unrest to suspend the Natal constitution, while Bartle Frere overthrew the elected Cape government, and moved to invade the independent Zulu Kingdom. However the confederation scheme collapsed as predicted, leaving a trail of wars across Southern Africa, humiliating defeats followed at Isandlwana and Majuba Hill
Roundell Palmer, 1st Earl of Selborne
Roundell Palmer, 1st Earl of Selborne PC, was a British lawyer and politician. He served twice as Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, Selborne was born at Mixbury in Oxfordshire, where his father William Jocelyn Palmer was rector. His mother Dorothea was daughter of the Rev. William Roundell of Gledstone Hall, Yorkshire and he was educated at Rugby School and Winchester College. He proceeded to the University of Oxford, graduating BA in 1834, while at University he became a close friend of the hymn writer and theologian, Frederick William Faber. He was called to the bar in 1837, Selborne entered parliament as a Conservative in 1847. He joined the Peelite Conservatives who were to help create the Liberal party in 1859. He served under Lord Palmerston and Lord Russell as Solicitor General between 1861 and 1863 and as Attorney General between 1863 and 1866, under Gladstone, he became Lord Chancellor in 1872 and was created Baron Selborne, of Selborne in the County of Southampton. His first tenure in the saw the passage of the Judicature Act of 1873.
He served in the office in Gladstones Second Cabinet, and was created Viscount Wolmer, of Blackmoor in the County of Southampton. He broke with Gladstone, over Irish Home Rule, in 1885 and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1860. LUnion St. Jacques de Montreal v. Bélisle,6 L. R and they had five children, four daughters followed by a son. Their eldest, Laura Elizabeth, was an author and social reformer, who in 1876 married George Ridding, the first bishop of Southwell and their second, Mary Dorothea, married her first cousin, the 9th Earl Waldegrave in 1874. Their third, Sophia Matilda married the Comte de Franqueville in 1903 and their fourth, Sarah Wilfreda married her second cousin George Tournay Biddulph, the son of Robert Biddulph, in 1883. Their youngest, William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne, became a prominent Unionist politician, Lady Selborne died in April 1885. Lord Selborne survived her by ten years and died in May 1895, a Defence of the Church of England Against Disestablishment. 2nd ed. 3rd ed. 4th ed.
Palmer, ancient facts and fictions concerning churches and tithes. Part 1, Family and personal, 1766–1865, part 1, Family and personal, 1766–1865. Works written by or about Roundell Palmer at Wikisource Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Selborne Leigh Rayments Peerage Pages Papers at Lambeth Palace Library
British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown dependencies, and their descendants. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, although early assertions of being British date from the Late Middle Ages, the creation of the united Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 triggered a sense of British national identity. The notion of Britishness was forged during the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and the First French Empire, and developed further during the Victorian era, because of longstanding ethno-sectarian divisions, British identity in Northern Ireland is controversial, but it is held with strong conviction by unionists. Modern Britons are descended mainly from the ethnic groups that settled in the British Isles in and before the 11th century, Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Norse. The British are a diverse, multi-national and multicultural society, with regional accents, expressions.
Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them, the group included Ireland, which was referred to as Ierne inhabited by the different race of Hiberni, and Britain as insula Albionum, island of the Albions. The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands. Greek and Roman writers, in the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, name the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland as the Priteni, the origin of the Latin word Britanni. It has been suggested that name derives from a Gaulish description translated as people of the forms. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, the term Britannia persisted as the Latin name for the island, during the Middle Ages, and particularly in the Tudor period, the term British was used to refer to the Welsh people and Cornish people. At that time, it was the held belief that these were the remaining descendants of the ancient Britons.
This notion was supported by such as the Historia Regum Britanniae. Wales and Cornwall, and north, i. e. Cumbria and this legendary Celtic history of Great Britain is known as the Matter of Britain. The indigenous people of the British Isles have a combination of Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, oppenheimer continues that the majority of the people of the British Isles share genetic commonalities with the Basques, ranging from highs of 90% in Wales to lows of 66% in East Anglia. Oppenheimers opinion is that. by far the majority of male gene types in the British Isles derive from Iberia, ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham, Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales. The English had been unified under a single state in 937 by King Athelstan of Wessex after the Battle of Brunanburh. However, historian Simon Schama suggested that it was Edward I of England who was responsible for provoking the peoples of Britain into an awareness of their nationhood in the 13th century
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free-trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite splitting over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to power in 1906 with a landslide victory, by the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives main rival. The party went into decline and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections, apart from notable by-election victories, the partys fortunes did not improve significantly until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 General Election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, at the 1987 General Election, its vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989 and it was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Lib Dems diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes, the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II, and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of reducing the power of the Crown, although their motives in this were originally to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs gradually came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake. The great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple, after decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832. The Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs demise. As early as 1839 Russell had adopted the name of Liberals, the leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act.
They favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances, for a century, free trade remained the one cause which could unite all Liberals. This allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s, a leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, who was a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments. The formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and this was brought about by Palmerstons death in 1865 and Russells retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government Gladstone won a victory at the 1868 election. The establishment of the party as a membership organisation came with the foundation of the National Liberal Federation in 1877. John Stuart Mill was a Liberal MP from 1865 to 1868, for the next thirty years Gladstone and Liberalism were synonymous. William Ewart Gladstone served as prime minister four times, called the Grand Old Man in life, Gladstone was always a dynamic popular orator who appealed strongly to the working class and to the lower middle class
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. The college is associated with Christ Church Cathedral, which serves as the college chapel and it is the second wealthiest Oxford college by financial endowment with an endowment of £436m as of 2015. Christ Church has produced thirteen British prime ministers, more than any other Oxbridge college, the college was the setting for parts of Evelyn Waughs Brideshead Revisited, as well as a small part of Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland. More recently it has used in the filming of the movies of J. K. Rowlings Harry Potter series. Distinctive features of the architecture have been used as models by a number of other academic institutions, including the National University of Ireland, Galway. The University of Chicago and Cornell University both have reproductions of Christ Churchs dining hall, christChurch Cathedral in New Zealand, after which the City of Christchurch is named, is itself named after Christ Church, Oxford.
Stained glass windows in the cathedral and other buildings are by the Pre-Raphaelite William Morris group with designs by Edward Burne-Jones, Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading. The first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980 and he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIIIs College by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has associated with Westminster School. The dean remains to this day an ex member of the schools governing body. Major additions have made to the buildings through the centuries. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, in former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford.
Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, when the ringing was moved back to 9,00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20,20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral, King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the siege of Oxford. During the Commonwealth, John Owen attained considerable eminence, the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, and the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline
Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton
Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton GCB GCSI GCIE PC was an English statesman and poet. He served as Viceroy of India between 1876 and 1880, during which time Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India and his son Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton, who was born in India, returned as Governor of Bengal and was briefly acting Viceroy. He was a son of the novelists Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton and his parents split up when he was a small boy, and the separation was acrimonious. His mother, who under the laws of the time lost access to her children, caricatured his father in 1839 novel Cheveley, or the Man of Honour. Many years later, when he was a man, his father had his mother placed under restraint as insane. She chronicled this in her memoirs and he was educated at Harrow School and at the University of Bonn. In 1849 he entered the Diplomatic Service, aged 18, when he was appointed as attaché to his uncle, Sir Henry Bulwer and it was at this time he met Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.
He began his diplomatic career in 1852 as an attaché to Florence, followed by Paris in 1854. In 1858 he was transferred to St Petersburg and Vienna, in 1860 he was appointed British Consul General at Belgrade. In 1862 Lytton was promoted to Second Secretary in Vienna, during this time he twice acted as Chargé dAffaires in the Schleswig-Holstein conflict. In 1864 he was transferred to the Greek court to advise the young Danish Prince, in 1865 he advanced to Lisbon where he concluded a major commercial treaty with Portugal. After an appointment to Madrid he became Secretary to the Embassy at Vienna and, in 1872, by 1874 he was appointed British Minister Plenipotentiary at Lisbon where he remained until being appointed Governor General and Viceroy of India in 1876. Midway on his journey he met, by prearrangement, in Egypt, after this the Queen conferred upon him the honor of the Grand Cross of the civil division of the Order of the Bath. In 1879 an attempt was made to assassinate Lord Lytton, the principal event of his viceroyalty was the Afghan war.
In 1877, Lord Lytton convened a durbar in Delhi which was attended by around 84,000 people including princes, in 1878, he promulgated the Vernacular Press Act, which empowered him to confiscate the press and paper of a local language newspaper publishing seditious material. The act resulted in public outcry in Calcutta led by the Indian Association and his son-in-law, and one of Britains most outstanding architects, Edwin Lutyens, played a major role in the creation of New Delhi. Lord Lytton arrived as Viceroy of India in 1876, in the same year, a famine broke out in south India which claimed between 6.1 million and 10.3 million people. His implementation of Britains trading policy has been blamed for increasing the severity of the famine, critics have further attested that Lyttons belief in Social Darwinism regards the plight of the starving and dying Indians
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are present or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, the Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council, mostly used to regulate certain public institutions. The Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, the Privy Councils powers have now been largely replaced by the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Counsellors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland, the key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England.
During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a court or curia regis. The body originally concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation, later, different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court. The courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, the Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, powerful sovereigns often used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. During Henry VIIIs reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation, the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIIIs death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became an administrative body. The Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, by the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, and Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws, the forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons, the body was headed by Oliver Cromwell, de facto military dictator of the nation. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the Council was reduced to thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell even greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs, the Council became known as the Protectors Privy Council, its members were appointed by the Lord Protector, subject to Parliaments approval. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protectors Council was abolished, Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I even more power transferred to this committee and it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact.
Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign and it is closely related to the word private, and derives from the French word privé
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, FRS was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victorias reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. Tennyson excelled at penning short lyrics, such as Break, Break, The Charge of the Light Brigade, Idle Tears, Tennyson wrote some notable blank verse including Idylls of the King and Tithonus. During his career, Tennyson attempted drama, but his plays enjoyed little success and he is the ninth most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Tennyson was born in Somersby, England and he was born into a middle-class line of Tennysons, but had a noble and royal ancestry. His father, George Clayton Tennyson, was rector of Somersby, rector of Benniworth and Bag Enderby, and vicar of Grimsby. Rev. George Clayton Tennyson raised a family and was a man of superior abilities and varied attainments, who tried his hand with fair success in architecture, music. He was comfortably well off for a clergyman and his shrewd money management enabled the family to spend summers at Mablethorpe.
Alfred Tennysons mother, Elizabeth Fytche, was the daughter of Stephen Fytche, vicar of St. James Church and rector of Withcall, Tennysons father carefully attended to the education and training of his children. Tennyson and two of his brothers were writing poetry in their teens and a collection of poems by all three was published locally when Alfred was only 17. One of those brothers, Charles Tennyson Turner, married Louisa Sellwood, the sister of Alfreds future wife. Another of Tennysons brothers, Edward Tennyson, was institutionalised at a private asylum, Tennyson was a student of Louth Grammar School for four years and attended Scaitcliffe School, Englefield Green and King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1827, where he joined a society called the Cambridge Apostles. A portrait of Tennyson by George Frederic Watts is in Trinitys collection, at Cambridge, Tennyson met Arthur Henry Hallam and William Henry Brookfield, who became his closest friends.
His first publication was a collection of his rhymes and those of his elder brother Charles entitled Poems by Two Brothers. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellors Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, reportedly, it was thought to be no slight honour for a young man of twenty to win the chancellors gold medal. He published his first solo collection of poems, Poems Chiefly Lyrical in 1830, claribel and Mariana, which took their place among Tennysons most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day. In the spring of 1831, Tennysons father died, requiring him to leave Cambridge before taking his degree and he returned to the rectory, where he was permitted to live for another six years and shared responsibility for his widowed mother and the family
Order of the Star of India
The article is about the order of chivalry known as Star of India. For other items of the name, please see disambiguation at Star of India. The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861, with the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Alwar, the order became dormant in 2009. The motto of the order is Heavens light our guide, the Star of India, the emblem of the order, appeared on the flag of the Viceroy of India and other flags used to represent British India. The last appointments to the orders relating to the British Empire in India were made in the 1948 New Year Honours, the orders have never been formally abolished, and Elizabeth II succeeded her father George VI as Sovereign of the Orders when she ascended the throne in 1952. She remains Sovereign of the Order to this day, there are no living members of the order. The last Grand Master of the Order, Admiral of the Fleet The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, was assassinated by the Provisional IRA on 27 August 1979.
The last surviving Knight Grand Commander, HH Maharaja Sree Padmanabhadasa Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma GCSI, GCIE, Maharajah of Travancore, the last surviving Knight Commander, HH Maharaja Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur KCSI, Maharaja of Alwar, died on 15 February 2009 in New Delhi. The last surviving Companion of the Order, Vice-Admiral Sir Ronald Brockman CSI, the British Sovereign was, and still is, Sovereign of the Order. The next-most senior member was the Grand Master, the position was held, ex officio, when the order was established in 1861, there was only one class of Knights Companions, who bore the postnominals KSI. In 1866, however, it was expanded to three classes, members of the first class were known as Knights Grand Commanders, rather than Knights Grand Cross, so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. All those surviving members who had already been made Knights Companions of the Order were retroactively Known as Knights Grand Commanders.
Former viceroys and other officials, as well as those who served in the Department of the Secretary of State for India for at least thirty years were eligible for appointment. Rulers of Indian Princely States were eligible for appointment, like some rulers of princely states, some rulers of particular prestige, for example the Maharajas of the Rana dynasty or the Sultans of Oman, were usually appointed Knights Grand Commanders. Women, save the princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the order and they were, unlike the habit of many other orders, admitted as Knights, rather than as Dames or Ladies. The first woman to be admitted to the order was HH Nawab Sikandar Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal, the orders statutes were specially amended to permit the admission of Queen Mary as a Knight Grand Commander in 1911. Members of the Order wore elaborate costumes on important ceremonial occasions, The mantle, on the left side was a representation of the star. The collar, only by Knights Grand Commanders, was made of gold
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive