All Souls College, Oxford
All Souls College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Unique to All Souls, all of its members automatically become fellows, it has no undergraduate members, but each year recent graduate and postgraduate students at Oxford are eligible to apply for examination fellowships through a competitive examination and, for the several shortlisted after the examinations, an interview. All Souls is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford, with a financial endowment of £420.2 million. However, since the college's principal source of revenue is its endowment, as of 2007 it only ranked 19th among Oxford colleges in total income. All Souls is a registered charity under English law; the college is located on the north side of the High Street adjoining Radcliffe Square to the west. To the east is The Queen's College with Hertford College to the north; the current warden is a graduate of Oriel College, Oxford. The college was founded by Henry VI of England and Henry Chichele, in 1438, to commemorate the victims of the Hundred Years' War.
The Statutes provided for a forty fellows. The college's Codrington Library was completed in 1751 through the bequest in 1710 of Christopher Codrington, a wealthy slave and plantation owner from Barbados, who attended Oxford and became colonial governor of the Leeward Islands. Today the college is a graduate research institution, with no undergraduate members. All Souls did have undergraduates: Robert Hovenden introduced undergraduates to provide the fellows with servientes, but this was abandoned by the end of the Commonwealth. Four Bible Clerks remained on the foundation until 1924. For over five hundred years All Souls College admitted only men; the All Souls Library was founded through a bequest from Christopher Codrington, a fellow of the college. Christopher Codrington bequeathed books in addition to £ 10,000 in currency; this bequest allowed the library to be endowed. Christopher Codrington was born in Barbados, amassed his fortune from his sugar plantation in the West Indies; the library was completed in 1751, has been in continuous use since then.
The modern library comprises some 185,000 items, about a third of which were published before 1800. The collections are strong in law and history. Built between 1438 and 1442, the chapel remained unchanged until the Commonwealth. Oxford, having been a Royalist stronghold, suffered under the Puritans' wrath; the 42 misericords date from the Chapel's building, show a resemblance to the misericords at Higham Ferrers. Both may have been carved by Richard Tyllock. Christopher Wren was a fellow from 1653, in 1658 produced a sundial for the college; this was placed on the south wall of the Chapel, until it was moved to the quadrangle in 1877. During the 1660s a screen was installed in the Chapel, based on a design by Wren. However, this screen needed to be rebuilt by 1713. By the mid-19th century the Chapel was in great need of renovation, so the current structure is influenced by Victorian design ideals. All services at the chapel are according to the Book of Common Prayer. In the three years following the award of their bachelor's degrees, students graduating from Oxford and current Oxford postgraduate students having graduated elsewhere are eligible to apply for examination fellowships of seven years each.
While tutors may advise their students to sit for the All Souls examination fellowship, the examination is open to anybody who fulfils the eligibility criteria and the college does not issue invitations to candidates to sit. Every year in early March, the college hosts an open evening for women, offering women interested in the examination fellowship an opportunity to find out more about the exam process and to meet members of the college; each year several dozen candidates sit the examination. Two examination fellows are elected each year, although the college has awarded a single place or three places in some years, on rare occasions made no award; the competition, offered since 1878 and open to women since 1979, is held over two days in late September, with two papers of three hours each per day. It has been described in the past as "the hardest exam in the world". Two papers are on a single subject of the candidate's choice. Candidates may sit their two specialist papers in different specialist subjects, provided each paper is in one subject only.
Candidates who choose Classics have an additional translation examination on a third day. Two papers are on general subjects. For each general examination, candidates choose three questions from a list. Past questions have included: "'If a man could say nothing against a character but what he could prove, history could not be written' (S
Bishop of Lincoln
The Bishop of Lincoln is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. The present diocese covers the county of Lincolnshire and the unitary authority areas of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire; the bishop's seat is located in the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the city of Lincoln. The cathedral was a minster church founded around 653 and refounded as a cathedral in 1072; until the 1530s the bishops were in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. The historic medieval Bishop's Palace lies to the south of the cathedral in Palace Yard. A residence on the same site was converted from office accommodation to reopen in 2009 as a 16-bedroom conference centre and wedding venue, it is now known as Edward King House and provides offices for the bishops and diocesan staff. A 14-bedroom house on Eastgate was the official residence in use from 1948 until 2011, when the bishop's office staff and home were separated, allowing the incoming bishop, Christopher Lowson, to live in a modern five-bedroom house.
The Anglo-Saxon dioceses of Lindsey and Leicester were established when the large Diocese of Mercia was divided in the late 7th century into the bishoprics of Lichfield and Leicester, Worcester and Lindsey. The historic Bishop of Dorchester was a prelate who administered the Diocese of Dorchester in the Anglo-Saxon period; the bishop's seat, or cathedra, was at the cathedral in Dorchester-on-Thames in Oxfordshire. In the 660s the seat at Dorchester-on-Thames was abandoned, but in the late 670s it was once more a bishop's seat under Ætla, under Mercian control; the town of Dorchester again became the seat of a bishop in around 875, when the Mercian Bishop of Leicester transferred his seat there. The diocese merged with that of Lindsey in 971; the first bishops of Leicester were prelates who administered an Anglo-Saxon diocese between the 7th and 9th centuries. The bishopric fell victim to the invasion by the Danes and the episcopal see was transferred to Dorchester-on-Thames in Oxfordshire; the dioceses of Lindsey and Leicester continued until the Danish Viking invasions and establishment of the Danelaw in the 9th century.
The see of Leicester was transferred to Dorchester, now in Oxfordshire, sometime between 869 and 888. After an interruption, the see of Lindsey was resumed until it was united with the bishopric of Dorchester in the early 11th century; the diocese was the largest in England, extending from the River Thames to the Humber Estuary. In 1072, Remigius de Fécamp moved the see of Dorchester to Lincoln, but the bishops of Lincoln retained significant landholdings within Oxfordshire; because of this historic link, for a long time Banbury remained a "peculiar" of the Bishop of Lincoln. Until the 1530s the bishops were in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. During the English Reformation they changed their allegiance back and forth between the crown and the papacy. Under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the bishops conformed to the Church of England, but under Mary I they adhered to the Roman Catholic Church. Since the English Reformation, the bishops and diocese of Lincoln have been part of the reformed Church of England and the Anglican Communion.
The dioceses of Oxford and Peterborough were created in 1541 out of parts of the Diocese of Lincoln. The county of Leicestershire was transferred from Lincoln to Peterborough in 1837. For precursor offices, see Bishop of Lindsey, Bishop of Leicester and Bishop of Dorchester Kirby, D. P.. The Earliest English Kings. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24211-8
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children. In theological discussions, the practice is sometimes referred to as paedobaptism, or pedobaptism, from the Greek pais meaning "child"; this can be contrasted with what is called "believer's baptism", or credobaptism, from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe", the religious practice of baptising only individuals who confess faith in Jesus, therefore excluding underage children. Opposition to infant baptism is termed catabaptism. Infant baptism is called "christening" by some faith traditions. Most Christians belong to denominations that practice infant baptism. Branches of Christianity that practice infant baptism include Catholics and Oriental Orthodox, among Protestants, several denominations: Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and other Reformed denominations and some Nazarenes, the Moravian Church; the exact details of the baptismal ceremony vary among Christian denominations. Many follow a prepared ceremony, called a liturgy.
In a typical ceremony, parents or godparents bring their child to their congregation's priest or minister. The rite used would be the same as that denomination's rite for adults, i.e. by pouring holy water or by sprinkling water. Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic traditions practise total immersion and baptise babies in a font, this practice is the first method listed in the baptismal ritual of the Roman Catholic, although pouring is the standard practice within the Latin branch of Catholicism. Catholic and Orthodox churches that do this do not sprinkle. At the moment of baptism, the minister utters the words "I baptise you in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit". Although it is not required, many parents and godparents choose to dress the baby in a white gown called a christening gown for the baptism ceremony. Christening gowns become treasured keepsakes that are used by many other children in the family and handed down from generation to generation. Traditionally, this gown is white or off white and made with much lace and intricate detail.
In the past, a gown was used for both girls. Made of white fabric, the outfit consists of a romper with a vest or other accessories; these clothes are kept as a memento after the ceremony. It is a naval tradition to baptise children using the ship's bell as a baptismal font and to engrave the child's name on the bell afterwards. Tracking down and searching for an individual's name on a specific bell from a ship may be a difficult and time-consuming task. Christening information from the bells held by the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Museum has been entered into a searchable data archive, accessible to any interested web site visitors. Scholars disagree on the date; some believe that 1st-century Christians did not practice it, noting the lack of any explicit evidence of paedobaptism. Others, noting the lack of any explicit evidence of exclusion of paedobaptism, believe that they did, understanding biblical references to individuals "and household" being baptised as well as "the promise to you and your children" as including young children.
The earliest extra-biblical directions for baptism, which occur in the Didache, are taken to be about baptism of adults, since they require fasting by the person to be baptised. However, inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century which refer to young children as "children of God" may indicate that Christians customarily baptised infants too; the earliest reference to infant baptism was by Irenaeus in his work Against Heresies. Due to its reference to Eleutherus as the current bishop of Rome, the work is dated c. 180. Irenaeus speaks of children being "born again to God." This reference has been described as "obscure." Three passages by Origen mention infant baptism as customary. While Tertullian writing c. 198–203 advises the postponement of baptism of little children and the unmarried, he mentions that it was customary to baptise infants, with sponsors speaking on their behalf. The Apostolic Tradition, sometimes attributed to Hippolytus of Rome, describes how to perform the ceremony of baptism.
From at least the 3rd century onward Christians baptised infants as standard practice, although some preferred to postpone baptism until late in life, so as to ensure forgiveness for all their preceding sins. In the 21st century, a number of incidents surrounding particularly "rough", "aggressive" or "violent" infant baptisms according to the Eastern Orthodox submersion or immersion rite have sparked controversies as to whether they constituted child abuse. In January 2017, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia Ilia II performed a mass infant baptism of hundreds of children at the Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi during the Georgian Orthodox Church's celebration of Epiphany. Many foreign observers found this "shocking" and wondered whether such baptisms should be considered child abuse. A May 2018 viral video of an infant baptism – performed in Ayia Napa, Cyprus, at a Greek Orthodox church, although this remains unconfirmed – received much media attention. In a statement, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia condemned the practice as "physically abusive", but claimed the performer was'not Greek Orthodo
Jeremy Taylor was a cleric in the Church of England who achieved fame as an author during the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. He is sometimes known as the "Shakespeare of Divines" for his poetic style of expression, he is cited as one of the greatest prose writers in the English language, he is remembered in the Church of England's calendar of saints with a Lesser Festival on 13 August. Taylor was under the patronage of Archbishop of Canterbury, he went on to become chaplain in ordinary to King Charles I as a result of Laud's sponsorship. This made him politically suspect when Laud was tried for treason and executed in January 1644/5 by the Puritan parliament during the English Civil War. After the parliamentary victory over the King, he was imprisoned several times, he was allowed to live in Wales, where he became the private chaplain of the Earl of Carbery. After the Restoration, he was made Bishop of Connor in Ireland, he became vice-chancellor of the University of Dublin. Taylor was born in the son of a barber.
He was baptised on 15 August 1613. His father taught him grammar and mathematics, he was educated at the Perse School, before going to Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge University where he gained a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1630/1631 and a Master of Arts degree in 1634. The best evidence of his diligence as a student is the enormous learning of which he showed so easy a command in years. In 1633, although still below the canonical age, he took holy orders, accepted the invitation of Thomas Risden, a former fellow-student, to supply his place for a short time as lecturer at St Paul's Cathedral. Archbishop William Laud sent for Taylor to preach in his presence at Lambeth, took the young man under his wing. Taylor did not vacate his fellowship at Cambridge before 1636, but he spent much of his time in London, for Laud desired that his considerable talents should receive better opportunities of study and improvement than the obligations of constant preaching would permit. In November 1635 he had been nominated by Laud to a fellowship at All Souls College, where, says Wood and admiration still waited on him.
He seems, however. He became chaplain to his patron the archbishop, chaplain in ordinary to Charles I. At Oxford, William Chillingworth was busy with his magnum opus, The Religion of Protestants, it is possible that through his discussions with Chillingworth that Taylor may have been turned towards the liberal movement of his age. After two years in Oxford, he was presented, in March 1638, by William Juxon, Bishop of London, to the rectory of Uppingham, in Rutland. There he settled down to the work of a country priest, he was well known as a spiritual guide and director, people came to him from far and wide for advice and counsel. In the next year he married Phoebe Langsdale, by whom he had six children, the eldest of whom died at Uppingham in 1642. In the autumn of the same year he was appointed to preach in St Mary's on the anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot, used the occasion to clear himself of a suspicion, however, haunted him through life, of a secret leaning to the Roman Catholic position.
This suspicion seems to have arisen chiefly from his intimacy with Christopher Davenport, better known as Francis a Sancta Clara, a learned Franciscan friar who became chaplain to Queen Henrietta. More serious consequences followed his attachment to the Royalist cause; the author of The Sacred Order and Offices of Episcopacy or Episcopacy Asserted against the Arians and Acephali New and Old, could scarcely hope to retain his parish, not, sequestrated until 1644. Taylor accompanied the king to Oxford. In 1643 he was presented to the rectory of Overstone, Northamptonshire, by Charles I. There he would be in close connection with his friend and patron Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton. During the next fifteen years Taylor's movements are not traced, he seems to have been in London during the last weeks of Charles I in 1649, from whom he is said to have received his watch and some jewels which had ornamented the ebony case in which he kept his Bible. He had been taken prisoner with other Royalists while besieging Cardigan Castle on 4 February 1645.
In 1646 he is found in partnership with two other deprived clergymen, keeping a school at Newton Hall, in the parish of Llanfihangel Aberbythych, Carmarthenshire. Here he became private chaplain to and benefited from the hospitality of Richard Vaughan, 2nd Earl of Carbery, whose mansion, Golden Grove, is immortalised in the title of Taylor's still popular manual of devotion, whose first wife was a constant friend of Taylor. Taylor wrote some of his most distinguished works at Golden Grove. Alice, the third Lady Carbery, was the original of the Lady in John Milton's Comus. Taylor's first wife had died early in 1651, his second wife was Joanna Bridges or Brydges, said to be a natural daughter of Charles I. She owned a good estate, though impoverished by Parliamentarian exactions, at Mandinam, in Carmarthenshire. Several years following their marriage, they moved to Ireland. Two daughters were born to them. From time to time Taylor appears in London in the company of his friend John Evelyn, in whose Diary and correspondence his name occurs.
He was imprisoned three times: in 1645 for an injudicious preface to his Golden Grove.
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
Lambeth Palace is the official London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in England, in north Lambeth, on the south bank of the River Thames, 400 yards south-east of the Palace of Westminster, which houses the Houses of Parliament, on the opposite bank. Lambeth Palace has been – for nearly 800 years – the London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, whose original residence was in Canterbury, Kent. Called the Manor of Lambeth or Lambeth House, the site was acquired by the archbishopric around 1200 AD and has the largest collection of records of the Church in its library, it is bounded by Lambeth Palace Road to the west and Lambeth Road to the south, but unlike all surrounding land is excluded from the parish of North Lambeth. The garden park resembles Archbishop's Park, a neighbouring public park; the former church in front of its entrance has been converted to the Garden Museum. The south bank of the Thames along this reach, not part of historic London, developed because the land was low and sodden: it was called Lambeth Marsh, as far downriver as the present Blackfriars Road.
The name "Lambeth" embodies "hithe", a landing on the river: archbishops came and went by water, as did John Wycliff, tried here for heresy. In the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, the Palace was attacked; the oldest remaining part of the palace is the Early English chapel. Lollards' Tower, which retains evidence of its use as a prison in the 17th century, dates from 1435 to 1440; the front is an early Tudor brick gatehouse built by Cardinal John Morton and completed in 1495. Cardinal Pole lay in state in the palace for 40 days after he died there in 1558; the fig tree in the palace courtyard is grown from a slip taken from one of the White Marseille fig trees here for centuries. In 1786, there were three ancient figs, two "nailed against the wall" and still noted in 1826 as "two uncommonly fine... traditionally reported to have been planted by Cardinal Pole, fixed against that part of the palace believed to have been founded by him. They are of the white Marseilles sort, still bear delicious fruit....
On the south side of the building, in a small private garden, is another tree of the same kind and age." By 1882, their place had been taken by several massive offshoots. The notable orchard of the medieval period has somewhat given way to a mirroring public park adjoining and built-up roads of housing and offices; the great hall was ransacked, including the building material, by Cromwellian troops during the English Civil War. After the Restoration, it was rebuilt by archbishop William Juxon in 1663 with a late Gothic hammerbeam roof; the choice of a hammerbeam roof was evocative, as it reflected the High-Church Anglican continuity with the Old Faith and served as a visual statement that the Interregnum was over. As with some Gothic details on University buildings of the same date, it is debated among architectural historians whether this is "Gothic survival" or an early work of the "Gothic Revival"; the diarist Samuel Pepys recognised it as "a new old-fashioned hall." The building is listed in the highest category, Grade I for its architecture – its front gatehouse with its tall, crenellated gatehouse resembles Hampton Court Palace's gatehouse, of the Tudor period, however Morton's Gatehouse was at its start, in the 1490s, rather than in the same generation as Cardinal Wolsey's wider partially stone-dressed deep red brick façade.
While this is the most public-facing bit, it is not the oldest at north-west corner, the Water Tower or Lollards' Tower mentioned above is made of Kentish Ragstone with ashlar quoins and a brick turret is much older. Among the portraits of the archbishops in the Palace are works by Hans Holbein, Anthony van Dyck, William Hogarth and Sir Joshua Reynolds. New construction was added to the building in 1834 by Edward Blore, who rebuilt much of Buckingham Palace in neo-Gothic style and it fronts a spacious quadrangle; the buildings form the home of the Archbishop, ex officio a member of the House of Lords and is regarded as the first among equals in the Anglican Communion. Lambeth Palace is home to the Community of Saint Anselm, an Anglican religious order, under the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Within the palace is Lambeth Palace Library, the official library of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the principal repository of records of the Church of England, it was founded as a public library by Archbishop Richard Bancroft in 1610.
It contains a vast collection of material relating to ecclesiastical history, including archbishops' and bishops' archives and papers relating to various Anglican missionary and charitable societies. The collection of manuscripts contains important material, some dating as far back as the 9th century. Other collections contain material on a variety of topics from the history of art and architecture to colonial and Commonwealth history, innumerable aspects of English social and economic history; the library is a significant resource for local history and genealogy. The library contains over 120,000 books as well as the archives of the Archbishops of Canterbury and other church bodies dating back to the 12th century; these can be found via the online catalogues. Highlights include the Romanesque Lambeth Bible. Other notable manuscripts include: Lambeth Choirbook Lambeth Homilies Mac Durnan Gospels Book of Howth In front of the entrance stands the former parish church of St Mary-at-Lambeth; the tower dates from 1377.