Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t
Rhymney is a town and a community located in the county borough of Caerphilly in South Wales, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire. Along with the villages of Pontlottyn, Abertysswg and New Tredegar, Rhymney is designated as the'Upper Rhymney Valley' by the local Unitary Authority, Caerphilly County Borough Council; as a community, Rhymney includes the town of Rhymney, Abertysswg and Twyncarno. Rhymney is known to many outside Wales as a result of the song "The Bells of Rhymney", a musical adaptation of a poem by Idris Davies; the countryside around present day Rhymney would have been different in the early 17th century. A new parish of Bedwellty had been formed in 1624, covering the lower division of the Wentloog Hundred, in the county of Monmouth, a hilly district between the river Rumney, on the West, the Sirhowey on the East; the upper Sirhowy Valley at this time would have been a natural well wooded valley, consisting of a few farms and the occasional small iron works where iron ore and coal had occurred together.
It would have contained the chapelries of Rhymney and Tredegar, the latter being known as a market town. It wasn’t until the 1750s that industrialisation began with the establishment of the Sirhowy Iron Works, it was from this pastoral pre-industrial period that the Buccaneer Henry Morgan was born around 1635 -the eldest son of Robert Morgan, a farmer living in Llanrhymny, today known as Rhymney three miles from Tredegar. In Welsh the original meaning of Llan is ‘an enclosed piece of land’; the town was founded with the establishment of the Union ironworks in 1801, with the Rhymney Iron Company being founded from a merger between the Bute and Union Ironworks in 1837. The ironworks used iron ore and limestone. From the mid-19th century, steam coal pits were sunk to the south of the town; the ironworks closed in 1891 and by the early 20th century the town's collieries employed nearly the entire local population. The parish church of Rhymney is a Grade II listed building, constructed in the neo-classical style.
It was built by architect Philip Hardwick from London on commission for Andrew Buchan, the manager of the local Rhymney brewery between 1838–1858. The building was listed in 1990 and was noted for being one of the most'interesting' examples of neoclassical architecture in South Wales. Buchan himself is buried in the church vaults and is commemorated with a plaque in the nave of the parish; the parish is visited by enthusiasts of Hardwick's work who are interested in neo-classical buildings of this type. The history of Rhymney is described in a book by Dr Thomas Jones. Jones was born in the town and his daughter, the Labour Party politician Eirene White, was granted the title Baroness White of Rhymney; the town's secondary school, Rhymney Comprehensive, serves a catchment area that includes Fochriw and New Tredegar. There is a Welsh language primary school in Rhymney. In 1999 Ystrad Mynach College launched its sister campus in Rhymney to serve the top end of the Rhymney Valley under the name The College Rhymney.
The College Rhymey has undergone rapid growth since its opening with over 700 students enrolled on various courses in the academic year 2007–2008. Rhymney railway station is on the Rhymney Line. Featured on the Rhymney Line is a viaduct, built by the Rhymney Railway company to facilitate the line in 1857 after the incorporation of the company to build the line to the steel works in 1854; the viaduct which opened in 1858 was designed by English engineer Joseph Cubitt.. See Category:People from RhymneyThe celebrated Welsh poet Idris Davies was born in Rhymney. After leaving school at the age of 14 he worked as a miner in the nearby Abertysswg and Rhymney Mardy Pits. After participating in the failed General Strike of 1926, Davies moved to London where he worked as a teacher at various schools. Four volumes of his poetry were published during his lifetime: Gwalia Deserta, The Angry Summer: A Poem of 1926, Tonypandy and other poems, Selected Poems, he returned to Rhymney in 1947 and died of cancer on 6 April 1953.
General manager and engineer of the Rhymney Railway Cornelius Lundie. For over 40 years, he was, a few years prior to his death, appointed consulting director to the Company, discharged the duties of that office until the end; as an engineer he designed and constructed many extensions of the system and widenings of the main line, including a double-way tunnel under the Cefn On or Caerphilly mountain, a masonry viaduct of seven spans over the River Taff, besides new locomotive shops at Caerphilly, other works. He was 93 when he is thought to be the oldest railway director of his time; the professor, civil servant and author Dr Thomas Jones CH was born in Rhymney. After leaving school at 14 he became a clerk at the Rhymney Steel Works, he was admitted to the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth in 1890 and migrated to Glasgow University in 1890. Between 1904 and 1905 he lectured in Ireland and upon returning to Wales in 1910 became Secretary of the Welsh National Campaign against Tuberculosis.
He was appointed Secretary of the National Health Insurance Commission in 1912 and transferred to London in 1916 as Assistant Secretary to the Cabinet becoming Deputy Secretary. He suffered a serious fall indoors at his home in Kent in June 1955 and died in a private nursing home on 15 October 1955; the town is home to the Rhymney Silurian Male Choir, formed in 1951 to renew the tradition of male voice singing in Rhymney. During its history, the choir has
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family; the town is situated 21.7 miles west of Charing Cross, central London, 5.8 miles southeast of Maidenhead, 15.8 miles east of the county town of Reading. It is south of the River Thames, which forms its boundary with its smaller, ancient twin town of Eton; the village of Old Windsor, just over 2 miles to the south, predates what is now called Windsor by around 300 years. Windlesora is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the name originates from winch by the riverside. By 1110, meetings of the Great Council, which had taken place at Windlesora, were noted as taking place at the Castle – referred to as New Windsor to indicate that it was a two-ward castle/borough complex, similar to other early castle designs, such as Denbigh. By the late 12th century the settlement at Windelsora had been renamed Old Windsor.
The early history of the site is unknown, although it was certainly settled some years before 1070 when William the Conqueror had a timber motte and bailey castle constructed. The focus of royal interest at that time was not the castle, but a small riverside settlement about 3 miles downstream established from the 7th century. From about the 8th century, high status people started to visit the site and this included royalty. From the 11th century the site's link with king Edward the Confessor is documented, but again, information about his use of the place is scant. After the Norman conquest of England, royal use of the site increased because it offered good access to woodlands and opportunities for hunting – a sport which practised military skills. Windsor Castle is noted in the Domesday Book under the entry for Clewer, the neighbouring manor to Windsor. Although this might seem strange, it occurred because plans for the castle had changed since 1070, more land had been acquired in Clewer on which to site a castle town.
This plan was not actioned until the early 12th century. Henry I – according to one chronicle – had rebuilt it, this followed the Norman kings' actions at other royal sites, such as Westminster, where larger and more magnificent accommodation was thought necessary for the new dynasty. King Henry married his second wife after the White Ship disaster; the settlement at Old Windsor transferred to New Windsor during the 12th century, although substantial planning and setting out of the new town did not take place until c. 1170, under Henry II, following the civil war of Stephen's reign. At about the same time, the present upper ward of the castle was rebuilt in stone. Windsor Bridge is the earliest bridge on the Thames between Staines and Reading, built at a time when bridge building was rare, it played an important part in the national road system, linking London with Reading and Winchester, but by diverting traffic into the new town, it underpinned the success of its fledgling economy. The town of New Windsor, as an ancient demesne of the Crown, was a privileged settlement from the start having the rights of a'free borough', for which other towns had to pay substantial fees to the king.
It had a merchant guild from the early 13th century and, under royal patronage, was made the chief town of the county in 1277, as part of its grant of royal borough status by Edward I's charter. Somewhat unusually, this charter gave no new rights or privileges to Windsor but codified the rights which it had enjoyed for many years. Windsor's position as chief town of Berkshire was short-lived, however, as people found it difficult to reach. Wallingford took over this position in the early 14th century; as a self-governing town Windsor enjoyed a number of freedoms unavailable to other towns, including the right to hold its own borough court, the right of membership and some financial independence. The town accounts of the 16th century survive in part, although most of the once substantial borough archive dating back to the 12th century was destroyed in the late 17th century. New Windsor was a nationally significant town in the Middle Ages one of the fifty wealthiest towns in the country by 1332.
Its prosperity came from its close association with the royal household. The repeated investment in the castle brought London merchants to the town in the late 13th century and provided much employment for townsmen; the development of the castle under Edward III, between 1350–68, was the largest secular building project in England of the Middle Ages, many Windsor people worked on this project, again bringing great wealth to the town. Although the Black Death in 1348 had reduced some towns' populations by up to 50%, in Windsor the building projects of Edward III brought money to the town, its population doubled: this was a'boom' time for the local economy. People came to the town from every part of the country, from continental Europe; the poet Geoffrey Chaucer held the honorific post of'Clerk of the Works' at Windsor Castle in 1391. The development of the castle continued in the late 15th century with the rebuilding of St G
North East Derbyshire (UK Parliament constituency)
North East Derbyshire is a constituency created in 1885 represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Lee Rowley of the Conservative Party. This was the first time a Conservative candidate had been elected since 1935; the seat has been relative to others a marginal seat since 2005 as its winner's majority has not exceeded 5.7% of the vote since the 23.2% majority won in that year. The seat has changed hands once since that year. Summary of resultsThe seat was created in the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885; until 1910, the area was represented by a Liberal MP. From the 1935 to the 2015 elections inclusive N. E. Derbyshire returned Labour candidates in succession. In 2010 and 2015 the results featured marginal majorities; the runner-up candidate from 1945 to 2015 inclusive was Conservative. The 2015 result for example gave the seat the 17th-smallest majority of Labour's 232 seats by percentage of majority; the seat was at the following election one of six gains between the two parties counterbalancing Conservative losses.
Rowley's local majority was 5.7% of votes cast. Other partiesIn line with nationwide swing in 2015, UKIP fielded a candidate who won more than 5% of the vote therefore kept their deposit; the Green Party fielded a candidate for the first time in 2015. These three parties forfeited their deposits in 2017. TurnoutTurnout has ranged from 58.9% in 2001 to 86.4% in 1950. In the 20th century and associated industries were an important source of employment and primary industries for the wider economy, though the former ceased around 1970. At about the same time, some ex-mining towns like Dronfield saw much middle class commuter house building in areas like Dronfield Woodhouse. 1885-1918: The Sessional Division of Eckington, in the Sessional Division of Chesterfield the parishes of Bolsover and Whittington. 1918-1950: The Urban Districts of Bolsover and Dronfield, the Rural Districts of Clowne and Norton, part of the Rural District of Chesterfield. 1950-1983: The Urban Districts of Clay Cross and Dronfield, part of the Rural District of Chesterfield.
1983-2010: The District of North East Derbyshire wards of Ashover and Holmesfield, Brampton and Walton, Clay Cross North, Clay Cross South, Coal Aston, Dronfield North, Dronfield South, Dronfield Woodhouse, Eckington North, Eckington South, Gosforth Valley, Hasland and Heath, Killamarsh East, Killamarsh West, North Wingfield Central, Renishaw and Marsh Lane, Tupton and Wingerworth, the Borough of Chesterfield wards of Barrow Hill and Hollingwood, Lowgates and Woodthorpe. 2010–present: The District of North East Derbyshire wards of Ashover and Holmesfield, Brampton and Walton, Clay Cross North, Clay Cross South, Coal Aston, Dronfield North, Dronfield South, Dronfield Woodhouse, Eckington North, Eckington South, Gosforth Valley, Killamarsh East, Killamarsh West, North Wingfield Central, Renishaw and Marsh Lane, Tupton and Wingerworth, the Borough of Chesterfield wards of Barrow Hill and New Whittington, Lowgates and Woodthorpe. The North East Derbyshire constituency covers the north eastern part of Derbyshire, surrounding Chesterfield on three sides.
It covers most of the area of North East Derbyshire District Council. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
Derbyshire Miners' Association
The Derbyshire Miners' Association was a trade union in the United Kingdom. The union was founded in 1880 to represent coal miners in northern Derbyshire, as a split from the South Yorkshire Miners' Association. Although it aimed to recruit members from across the county, it only developed strength in the north Derbyshire coalfield, the separate South Derbyshire Amalgamated Miners' Association was founded in 1883. In 1945, the union became the Derbyshire Area of the National Union of Mineworkers; this was dissolved in 2015. 1880: James Haslam 1913: W. E. Harvey 1914: Frank Hall 1928: Harry Hicken 1942: Joseph Lynch 1947: Bert Wynn 1966: Herbert Parkin 1973: Peter Heathfield 1984: Gordon Butler 1996: Austin Fairest 1880: Richard Bunting 1884: Henry Jarvis 1887: R. P. Carter 1890: William Hallam 1898: Barnet Kenyon 1906: James Martin 1918: William Sewell 1924: Enoch Overton 1939: Samuel Sales 1943: Hugo Street 1946: Samuel Greenough 1952: Herbert Parkin 1966: Dennis Skinner 1970: 1972: Raymond Ellis 1979: C. Hawley 1980s: Alan Gascoyne 1903: Frederick Bonsall 1904: James Martin 1906: Frederick Bonsall 1906: Frank Hall 1907: William Sewell 1918: John Samuel Spencer 1918: Enoch Overton 1924: Samuel Sales 1939: Henry White 1942: Harold Neal 1944: Samuel Greenough 1946: Michael Kane 1947: J. Boam 1951: H. E. Parkin 1952: J. Patilla 1954: F.
Peacock 1950s: Tom Swain 1959: Stanley Mellors 1980s: Peter Elliott 1880: William Edwin Harvey 1882: Joseph Windle 1887: Henry Jarvis 1907: Frank Hall 1914: Frank Lee 1918: John Samuel Spencer 1920: Harry Hicken 1928: Oliver Walter Wright 1938: Joseph Lynch 1942: Joseph Kitts 1943: Bert Wynn 1947: Hugo Street 1966: Herbert Dilks The Derbyshire Miners' Holiday Camp
Chesterfield is a large market town and borough in Derbyshire, England. It lies 24 miles north of Derby and 11 miles south of Sheffield at the confluence of the rivers Rother and Hipper. Including Whittington and Staveley it had a population of about 103,800 in 2011, making it the second largest town in the ceremonial county after Derby. Archaeologists trace it soon abandoned. An Anglo-Saxon village developed; the name feld. It has a street market of some 250 stalls three days a week; the town sits on a coalfield, economically important until the 1980s. Little visual evidence of mining remains; the best-known landmark is the Church of St Mary and All Saints with its crooked spire built in the 14th century. Chesterfield was in the Hundred of Scarsdale; the town received its market charter in 1204 from King John. The charter constituted the town as a free borough, granting the burgesses of Chesterfield the same privileges as those of Nottingham and Derby. In 1266, it was the site of the Battle of Chesterfield, in which a band of rebel barons were defeated by a royalist army.
Elizabeth I granted a charter of incorporation in 1594, creating a corporation consisting of a mayor, six aldermen, six brethren, twelve capital burgesses. This remained the governing charter until the borough was reformed under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835; the borough consisted only of the township of Chesterfield, but it was extended in 1892 to parts of some surrounding townships. There was a major extension when the borough absorbed New Whittington and Newbold urban district in 1920. Chesterfield's current boundaries date from 1 April 1974, when under the Local Government Act 1972, the Borough of Chesterfield was formed by an amalgamation of the municipal borough with the urban district of Staveley and with the parish of Brimington from Chesterfield Rural District. Chesterfield benefited from the building of the Chesterfield Line – part of the Derby to Leeds railway, begun in 1837 by George Stephenson. During the work, a sizeable seam of coal was discovered during the construction of the Clay Cross Tunnel.
This and the local ironstone were promptly exploited by Stephenson, who set up a company in Clay Cross to trade in the minerals. During his time in Chesterfield, Stephenson lived at Tapton House, remained there until his death in 1848, he is interred in Trinity Church. A statue of him was erected outside Chesterfield railway station in 2006. Chesterfield is located on the confluence and valleys of the River Rother and River Hipper at the Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire Coalfield; the town lies in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, is known as a gateway to the Peak District National Park or "The Gateway to the Peak" lying to the west of the town. The area has surrounding portions of the South and West Yorkshire Green Belt in place to stop urban sprawl into the countryside. Other local greenfield frameworks in place include "strategic gaps" maintaining the openness and landscape qualities of large open areas, "green wedges" penetrating urban areas to provide recreational facilities. Local government in Chesterfield is organised in a two-tier structure.
At the upper tier, services such as consumer protection, main roads and social services are provided by Derbyshire County Council. At the lower tier, services such as housing, refuse collection and burial grounds are provided by Chesterfield Borough Council; the borough is unparished with the exception of Brimington and Staveley: Brimington Parish Council and Staveley Town Council exercise limited functions in those areas. Derbyshire County Council has 64 elected county councillors, each representing a single-member electoral division; the entire council is elected every four years. At the elections in June 2009, the Conservative Party took control from the Labour Party after 28 years. Derbyshire County Council returned to Labour control at the 2013 local elections, but reverted to Conservative control after the 2017 county council elections, when the number of Conservative seats rose from 18 to 37, giving them a ten-seat majority. Chesterfield Borough Council consists of 48 councillors. Elections of the whole council take place every four years, the last elections having occurred in 2015.
The borough is divided with either two or three councillors elected for each ward. The wards are named New Whittington; as of 2018, the Labour Party controlled the borough council with 37 councillors, while the Liberal Democrats had 9 and UKIP with 1. The council chooses one of its members annually to be mayor of Chesterfield, with the 378th mayor elected in May 2018; the borough council uses armorial bearings granted by letters patent dated 10 November 1955. The blazon of the arms is as follows: Gules a Device representing a Pomegranate Tree as depicted on the ancient Common Seal of the Borough the tree leaved and eradicated proper flowered and fructed Or and for the Crest on a Wreath of the Colours Issuant from a Mural Crown Gules Masoned Or a Mount Vert thereon a Derby Ram passant guardant proper. Supporters: On the dexter side a Cock and on the sinister side a Pynot or Magpie proper each Ducally gorged Or The shield is based on the borough's ancient common seal, believed to date from the first half of the 16th century.
W. E. Harvey
William Edwin Harvey, known as W. E. Harvey, was a British Lib-Lab Member of Parliament. Born in Hasland, Harvey worked in a coal mine from the age of ten, he joined the South Yorkshire Miners' Association in 1869, was the union's local delegate by 1872. For his trade union activity, he was dismissed from the local pit, but managed to find work at Sheepbridge later at Morton, he converted to Primitive Methodism and in his spare time was a lay preacher. In 1880, the Derbyshire-based members of the SYMA split away to form the Derbyshire Miners' Association, Harvey became the new union's first treasurer, he resigned in 1882. However, the following year, he was elected as the union's assistant secretary. In 1891, he was elected to the national executive of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, serving on it in most subsequent years, in 1894 he was the President of Chesterfield Trades Council. Politically a liberal opposed to socialism and syndicalism, Harvey became the vice-president of the Labour Electoral Association in 1894.
This organisation aimed to secure the election of workers under the auspices of the Liberal Party, Harvey was elected to Chesterfield Borough Council in 1897, serving until his death. In 1906, Harvey became financial and corresponding secretary of the DMA, his high-profile secured him the Liberal Party candidacy in the North East Derbyshire by-election, 1907, he was successful, reluctantly joined the Labour Party in 1910, on the instructions of his union. Despite his seat in Parliament, he remained an active trade unionist, serving as Vice-President of the MFGB from 1912, as General and Financial Secretary of the DMA from 1913. Harvey became unhappy with how the Labour party was behaving towards the issue of Miners' representation. In particular he was unhappy with the way Barnet Kenyon was treated during and after the Chesterfield by-election, 1913, he therefore decided to resign the Labour whip and re-took the Liberal whip on 30 March 1914. He died, aged 61 a month later