Port of Charleston
The Port of Charleston is a seaport located in South Carolina in the Southeastern United States. The port's facilities span three municipalities — Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant — with five public terminals owned and operated by the South Carolina Ports Authority; these facilities handle containers. Additional facilities in the port are owned and operated, handling bulk commodities like petroleum and steel. Charleston's earliest history is tied to its prominence as a center of trade. After establishing Charles Towne along the banks of the Ashley River in 1670, the original settlers moved to the Charleston peninsula, favoring that location's natural harbor. By 1682 Charles Towne was declared the port of entry for the colony. From the founding of the colony until the start of the American Civil War, the colony's principal exports were lumber and naval stores and animal skins, indigo and tobacco; as a result of this trade, the colony flourished. The Port of Charleston suffered in the wake of the Civil War.
The harbor itself was in shambles and filled with mines and the wrecks of sunken Confederate and Union ships. The Southern economy had little to export and Charleston's network of private wharves were neglected and left to ruin; the establishment of several major federal military bases during the early 20th century benefited Charleston Harbor tremendously. Because of this federal presence, the harbor itself was well-maintained and improved over the years. Mayor John P. Grace brought renewed interest in reviving the Port of Charleston's shipping presence by establishing the Port Utilities Commission in the early 1920s. In 1922 the city purchased the Charleston Terminal Company, which owned the majority of the peninsula's commercial waterfront assets, for $1.5 million. In 1942, the South Carolina Legislature established the South Carolina Ports Authority with the responsibility to foster waterborne commerce for the benefit of the State of South Carolina. In 2017, the Port of Charleston ranked as the 8th port in the United States by cargo value, with $70 billion in imports and exports traded across the docks.
The Port of Charleston hosts shipping services by more than 13 of the world's top container carriers. In fiscal year 2018, the Port of Charleston handled 2.2 million twenty-foot equivalent container units and achieving record container volume. The South Carolina Ports Authority plans to invest $1.3 billion in new and existing facilities over a 10-year period. This plan includes a new container terminal in North Charleston on the former Navy Base, as well as major improvements to existing facilities, technology upgrades, two inland ports. Today the Port of Charleston boasts the deepest water in the southeast region and handles post-Panamax vessels passing through the newly expanded Panama Canal. A next-generation harbor deepening project is underway to take the Port of Charleston's entrance channel to 54 feet and harbor channel to 52 feet at mean low tide. With an average high tide of 6 feet, the depth clearances will become 60 feet and 58 feet respectively. In response to the growth in traffic at both Charleston and the Port of Savannah, the Jasper Ocean Terminal is planned to be built on the Savannah River by 2035.
Wando Welch Terminal, used for container cargo, located in the town of Mount Pleasant. Columbus Street Terminal, used for project cargo and roll-on/roll-off cargo. Located in the city of Charleston. Union Pier Terminal, used for cruise ship operations, located in the city of Charleston. North Charleston Terminal, used for container cargo, located in the city of North Charleston. Veterans Terminal, used for project cargo, break-bulk and roll-on/roll-off cargo. Located in the City of North Charleston. Hugh K. Leatherman Terminal, 80 acre facility opening in 2021, to be used for container cargo; the facility, located in North Charleston, will increase port capacity by 50%. The South Carolina Ports Authority is investing hundreds of millions of dollars into the Port of Charleston and constructing a new port terminal. On March 2, 2018, construction began to deepen Charleston's harbor from 45 to 52 feet deep, with completion expected within the decade. In the beginning of September 2017 the largest cargo ship, named after President Theodore Roosevelt, traversed the Panama Canal for the first time.
The ship, of record-breaking size, arrived at the Port of Charleston on September 2. The Roosevelt ship is 1,202 feet long, can haul as many as 14,855 containers and is part of the Ocean's Alliance South Atlantic Express service; the Roosevelt shipped out of Shanghai, made stops in Virginia, South Carolina, New York, New Jersey before returning to Asia. U. S. Ports have made plans to expand following the $5.4 billion Panama Canal shipping lane that opened in 2016. Cruise operations in the Port of Charleston are part of the South Carolina Ports Authority’s legislated mandate to increase maritime commerce. A study commissioned by the South Carolina Ports Authority projected that cruise operations could support 407 jobs and $37 million in economic benefits in 2010 in the Tri-County. In May 2010, the Carnival Fantasy began home-porting the Carnival Fantasy in the Port of Charleston, until February 2016, when the Carnival Fantasy was replaced by the Carnival Ecstasy. In May 2019, the Carnival Sunshine will begin home-porting in the Port of Charleston, replacing the Carnival Ecstasy.
To better handle ships, passengers and security requirements, the Ports Authority identified a need to improve and enhance the cruise terminal, which open
Moncks Corner, South Carolina
Moncks Corner is a town in and the county seat of Berkeley County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 7,885 at the 2010 census; as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, Moncks Corner is included within the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. Settled by indigenous peoples for thousands of years, the area of Monck's Corner was occupied by the historic Edistow people, a sub-tribe of the Cusabo, its various bands shared a language distinct from that of the major language families in the present-day state: Algonquian and Iroquoian, including Cherokee. Although now extinct as a tribe and Catawba descendants make up the eight families of the Wassamasaw Tribe of Varnertown Indians, a community located between Moncks Corner and Summerville; the 1,500-member tribe were recognized by the state as an Indian group in 2005. During the colonial era, Moncks Corner became a major settlement area of French Protestant Huguenots, who came to South Carolina between 1684 and 1688 as refugees due to religious persecution in France.
Many family surnames in Berkeley and adjacent counties are of French origin. The Huguenots soon began to intermarry with the English colonists; the town of Moncks Corner, named for landowner Thomas Monck, dates back to 1728. It began as a trading post with a few stores; the Battle of Monck's Corner was fought here in 1780, associated with the Siege of Charleston. The Northeastern Railroad, which ran between Charleston, South Carolina, Siler City, North Carolina, laid its tracks in 1856, the train depot became the center of the new town of Moncks Corner; the town of Moncks Corner was chartered on December 26, 1885, incorporated December 15, 1909. Moncks Corner was granted the trademark "Capital of Santee Cooper Country" by the South Carolina Secretary of State September 9, 1999, again October 21, 2004; the trademark is a symbol of its abundant outdoor activities, such as horseback riding, water sports and freshwater fishing. Moncks Corner is the home of Santee Cooper's corporate office complex; the Biggin Church Ruins, Cooper River Historic District, Lewisfield Plantation, Mulberry Plantation, Santee Canal, Strawberry Chapel and Childsbury Town Site are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Moncks Corner is located near the center of Berkeley County at 33°12′N 80°0′W. Its boundary extends east to the West Branch of the Cooper River, 3 miles south of the outlet of Lake Moultrie. U. S. Route 52 is the main highway through the town, leading south 32 miles to Charleston and north 80 miles to Florence. U. S. Route 17 Alternate passes through the town, leading east 49 miles to Georgetown and southwest 16 miles to Summerville. South Carolina Highway 6 leads northwest from Moncks Corner along the south and west sides of Lakes Moultrie and Marion 39 miles to Interstate 95 at Santee. According to the United States Census Bureau, Moncks Corner has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which 7.3 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 1.81%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,952 people, 2,103 households, 1,491 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,333.1 people per square mile. There were 2,334 housing units at an average density of 522.8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 57.33% White, 36.59% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.97% from other races, 1.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.20% of the population. There were 2,103 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 23.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,711, the median income for a family was $37,335.
Males had a median income of $30,634 versus $21,796 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,202. About 16.5% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.6% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over.. Charlamagne Tha God, radio and TV personality Omar Brown, National Football League player Andre Ellington, National Football League player Bruce Ellington, National Football League player Steven Furtick, pastor of Elevation Church Ryan Stewart, football player, 2 Live Stews radio personality with brother Doug Chad Wolf, of Carolina Liar Kathryn C. Dennis of Southern Charm on Bravo Cypress Gardens Mepkin Abbey Mepkin Abbey Botanical Garden Town of Moncks Corner official website Old Santee Canal Park Berkeley County School District
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Cooper River (South Carolina)
The Cooper River is a tidal river in the U. S. state of South Carolina. The South Carolina cities of Mt. Pleasant, North Charleston, Goose Creek, Moncks Corner, Hanahan are located along the river. Short and wide, it is joined first by the blackwater East Branch farther downstream, the tidal Wando River. Thereafter, the river widens into its estuary, uniting with the Ashley River to form the Charleston Harbor. Long used as an important commercial waterway, the West Branch of the Cooper River was connected to the Santee River near its navigation head by a canal built in the late 18th century. Though the West Branch still rises as a blackwater swamp in central Berkeley County, its main headwaters have been seamlessly shifted to Lake Moultrie by the 1940s vintage Tail Race Canal. Lake Moultrie is, in turn, fed from Lake Marion by a diversion canal built around the same time period; this artificial rerouting of the Cooper River basin has unified the Santee and Cooper River systems into a single hydrological drainage entity.
The river was named for Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury and chief Lord Proprietor of the Carolina Colony. Charleston was founded on the western bank of the Ashley River in 1670, before moving across to its current peninsular location ten years later. Motorists have been able to cross the Cooper River under their own power for eight decades, when it was first spanned by the John P. Grace Memorial Bridge; as the Grace Bridge became both functionally and structurally deficient, the State of South Carolina built a parallel span, the Silas N. Pearman Bridge, a few meters to the south in 1966; these overstressed spans were, for over a quarter of a century, the only connection between Charleston and the growing suburb of Mt. Pleasant until the Don Holt Bridge, built a few miles upriver as part of the I-526 corridor, became the third bridge to span the river in 1992. In service since August 8, 1929, the Grace Memorial Bridge was the oldest of the three. Named for the commissioner who inspired the state's highway system, the Pearman Bridge opened on April 29, 1966.
Their replacement span, the cable-stayed Arthur Ravenel, Jr. Bridge opened to traffic on July 16, 2005. Demolition of the Grace and Pearman bridges began shortly afterwards and was completed in late 2007. Though both are modern in every respect, there are only two bridges left to carry vehicular traffic across the river: the Holt and Ravenel bridges. A popular 10k run over the river occurs each spring, the Cooper River Bridge Run and Walk. Daniel Island and Drum Island are adjacent to the river. Cargo terminals, a paper mill, the former Charleston Navy Base line its shore. Rice and indigo were cultivated on plantations surrounding the brackish marshland of the lower Cooper River from the early Colonial through the end of the Civil War periods; the Patriot's Point naval & maritime museum sits at the mouth of the river. Berthed at Patriot's Point are four museum ships, most notably the USS Yorktown, a World War II aircraft carrier. “Goose Creek” A tributary of the Cooper River was the site of a U.
S. Navy submarine base through the late 90’s and functioned as a nuclear weapons handling facility servicing FBM until the advent of the larger Trident Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile which drove the Ohio-class submarine to require a deeper draft. Cooper River Bridge Cooper River Bridge Run and Walk U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Cooper River
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina was an English and a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in. Carolina expanded south and, at its greatest extent, nominally included the present-day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama and Mississippi, parts of modern Florida and Louisiana. Sir Robert Heath, attorney-general of King Charles I of England, was granted the Cape Fear region of America, incorporated as the Province of Carolana, in 1629; the charter was unrealized and ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, on March 24, 1663. It was not until 1663 that the province became known as "Carolina." Charles II granted the land to the eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion. Led informally by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs.
In 1669, the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina divided the colony of Carolina into two provinces, Albemarle province in the north and Clarendon province in the south. Due to dissent over the governance of the colony, the distance between settlements in the northern half and settlements in the southern half, in 1691 a deputy governor was appointed to administer the northern half of Carolina. In 1712, the two provinces became separate colonies, the colony of North Carolina and the colony of South Carolina. Although the division between the northern and southern governments became complete in 1712, both colonies remained in the hands of the same group of proprietors. A rebellion against the proprietors broke out in 1719 which led to the appointment of a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729. On October 30, 1629, King Charles I of England granted a patent to Sir Robert Heath for the lands south of 36 degrees and north of 31 degrees, "under the name, in honor of that king, of Carolana."
Carolus is Latin for'Charles'. Heath wanted the land for French Huguenots, but when Charles restricted use of the land to members of the Church of England, Heath assigned his grant to George, Lord Berkeley. King Charles I was executed in 1649 and Heath fled to France. Following the 1660 restoration of the monarchy, Heath's heirs attempted to reassert their claim to the land, but Charles II ruled the claim invalid. On March 24, 1663, Charles II issued a new charter to a group of eight English noblemen, granting them the land of Carolina, as a reward for their faithful support of his efforts to regain the throne of England; the eight were called Lords Proprietors or Proprietors. The 1663 charter granted the Lords Proprietor title to all of the land from the southern border of the Virginia Colony at 36 degrees north to 31 degrees north. In 1665, the charter was revised with the northerly boundary extended to 36 degrees 30 minutes north to include the lands of settlers along the Albemarle Sound who had left the Virginia Colony.
The southern boundary was moved south to 29 degrees north, just south of present-day Daytona Beach, which had the effect of including the existing Spanish settlement at St. Augustine; the charter granted all the land, between these northerly and southerly bounds, from the Atlantic, westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The Lords Proprietors named in the charter were Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. Of the eight, the one who demonstrated the most active interest in Carolina was Lord Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury, with the assistance of his secretary, the philosopher John Locke, drafted the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina, a plan for government of the colony influenced by the ideas of the English political scientist, James Harrington; some of the other Lords Proprietors had interests in other colonies: for instance, John Berkeley and George Carteret held stakes in the Province of New Jersey, William Berkeley had an interest in Virginia. The Lords Proprietors, operating under their royal charter, were able to exercise their authority with nearly the independence of the king himself.
The actual government consisted of a governor, a powerful council, on which half of the councillors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors themselves, a weak, popularly elected assembly. Within three generations of Columbus, the Spanish from their Florida base had started to emigrate up the coast of modern North Carolina. A hostile Virginia tribe drove them back to Georgia. A Scottish contingent had meanwhile settled in South Carolina only to be extirpated by the Spanish, who inhabited Parris Island, SC, as late as 1655; the Spanish were again beaten back to Georgia. Although the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island was the first English attempt at settlement in the Carolina territory, the first permanent English settlement was not established until 1653, when emigrants from the Virginia Colony, with others from New England and Bermuda, settled at the mouths of the Chowan and Roanok
William III of England
William III widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Utrecht and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II, he is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy". William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died a week before William's birth, his mother, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, William married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, the daughter of his maternal uncle James, Duke of York. A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic King of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, William's Catholic uncle and father-in-law, became king of England and Ireland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain.
William, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham. James was deposed and William and his wife became joint sovereigns in his place. William and Mary reigned together until Mary's death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch. William's reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take power in Britain when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by loyalists in Northern Ireland and Scotland, his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650. Baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, Mary, Princess Royal.
Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland and sister of King Charles II and King James II and VII. Eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox. A conflict ensued between his mother and paternal grandmother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant. Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his son's guardian in his will. On 13 August 1651, the Hoge Raad van Holland en Zeeland ruled that guardianship would be shared between his mother, his paternal grandmother and Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, whose wife, Louise Henriette, was William II's eldest sister. William's mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. William's education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard and the Scottish noblewoman, Lady Anna Mackenzie.
From April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince d'Orange, a short treatise by one of William's tutors, Constantijn Huygens. In these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange-Nassau. From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a small personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein, his paternal uncle. Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his uncle Cornelis de Graeff pushed the States of Holland to take charge of William's education and ensure that he would acquire the skills to serve in a future—though undetermined—state function.
This first involvement of the authorities did not last long. On 23 December 1660, when William was ten years old, his mother died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace, while visiting her brother, the restored King Charles II. In her will, Mary requested that Charles look after William's interests, Charles now demanded that the States of Holland end their interference. To appease Charles, they complied on 30 September 1661; that year, Zuylenstein began to work for Charles and induced William to write letters to his uncle asking him to help William become stadtholder someday. After his mother's death, William's education and guardianship became a point of contention between his dynasty's supporters and the advocates of a more republican Netherlands; the Dutch authorities did their best at first to ignore these intrigues, but in the Second Anglo-Dutch War one of Charles's peace conditions was the improvement of the position of his nephew. As a countermeasure in 1666, when William was sixteen, the States made him a ward of the government, or a "Child of State".
All pro-English courtiers, including Zuylen