Erasmus Darwin was an English physician. One of the key thinkers of the Midlands Enlightenment, he was a natural philosopher, slave-trade abolitionist and poet, his poems included much natural history, including a statement of evolution and the relatedness of all forms of life. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family, which includes his grandsons Charles Darwin and Francis Galton. Darwin was a founding member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, a discussion group of pioneering industrialists and natural philosophers, he turned down an invitation of George III's to become a physician to the King. Darwin was born in 1731 at Elston Hall, Nottinghamshire near Newark-on-Trent, the youngest of seven children of Robert Darwin of Elston, a lawyer and physician, his wife Elizabeth Hill; the name Erasmus had been used by a number of his family and derives from his ancestor Erasmus Earle, Common Sergent of England under Oliver Cromwell. His siblings were: Robert Darwin Elizabeth Darwin William Alvey Darwin Anne Darwin Susannah Darwin Charles Darwin, rector of Elston He was educated at Chesterfield Grammar School later at St John's College, Cambridge.
He obtained his medical education at the University of Edinburgh Medical School. Whether Darwin obtained the formal degree of MD is not known. Darwin settled in 1756 as a physician at Nottingham, but met with little success and so moved the following year to Lichfield to try to establish a practice there. A few weeks after his arrival, using a novel course of treatment, he restored the health of a young man whose death seemed inevitable; this ensured his success in the new locale. Darwin was a successful physician for more than fifty years in the Midlands. George III invited him to be Royal Physician. In Lichfield, Darwin wrote "didactic poetry, developed his system of evolution, invented amongst other things, a carriage steering mechanism, a manuscript copier and a speaking machine. Darwin married twice and had 14 children, including two illegitimate daughters by an employee, at least one further illegitimate daughter. In 1757 he married Mary Howard, they had four sons and one daughter, two of whom died in infancy: Charles Darwin Erasmus Darwin II Elizabeth Darwin Robert Waring Darwin, father of the naturalist Charles Darwin William Alvey Darwin The first Mrs. Darwin died in 1770.
A governess, Mary Parker, was hired to look after Robert. By late 1771, employer and employee had become intimately involved and together they had two illegitimate daughters: Susanna Parker Mary Parker Jr Susanna and Mary Jr established a boarding school for girls. In 1782, Mary Sr married Joseph Day, a Birmingham merchant, moved away. Darwin may have fathered this time with a married woman. A Lucy Swift gave birth in 1771 to a baby named Lucy, christened a daughter of her mother and William Swift, but there is reason to believe the father was Darwin. Lucy Jr. married John Hardcastle in Derby in 1792 and their daughter, married Francis Boott, the physician. In 1775 Darwin met Elizabeth Pole, daughter of Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore, wife of Colonel Edward Pole; when Edward Pole died, Darwin married Elizabeth and moved to her home, Radbourne Hall, four miles west of Derby. The hall and village are these days known as Radbourne. In 1782, they moved to Derby, they had four sons, one of whom died in infancy, three daughters: Edward Darwin Frances Ann Violetta Darwin, married Samuel Tertius Galton, was the mother of Francis Galton Emma Georgina Elizabeth Darwin Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin John Darwin Henry Darwin, died in infancy.
Harriet Darwin, married Admiral Thomas James MalingDarwin's personal appearance is described in unflattering detail in his Biographical Memoirs, printed by the Monthly Magazine in 1802. Darwin, the description reads, "was in person gross and corpulent; the print of him, from a painting of Mr. Wright, is a good likeness. In his gait and dress he was rather clumsy and slovenly, walked with his tongue hanging out of his mouth." Darwin died on 18 April 1802, weeks after having moved to Breadsall Priory, just north of Derby. The Monthly Magazine of 1802, in its Biographical Memoirs of the Late Dr. Darwin, reports that "during the last few years, Dr. Darwin was much subject to inflammation in his breast and lungs. Darwin's death, the Biographical Memoirs continues, "is variously accounted for: it is supposed to have been caused by the cold fit of an inflammatory fever. Dr. Fox, of Derby, considers the disease. Whatever was the disease, it is not improbable that the fatal event was hastened by the violent fit of passion with which he wa
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Dugald Stewart was a Scottish philosopher and mathematician. He is best known for popularizing the Scottish Enlightenment and his lectures at the University of Edinburgh were disseminated by his many influential students. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In most contemporary documents he is referred to as Prof Dougal Stewart, he was the son of Matthew Stewart, professor of mathematics at the University of Edinburgh, was born in his father's quarters at Old College. His mother was his father's cousin, he was educated at the High School and the University of Edinburgh, where he studied mathematics and moral philosophy under Adam Ferguson. In 1771, in the hope of gaining a Snell Exhibition Scholarship and proceeding to Oxford to study for the English Church, he went to the University of Glasgow to attend the classes of Thomas Reid. To Reid he owed his theory of morality. In Glasgow, Stewart boarded in the same house as Archibald Alison, author of the Essay on Taste, a lasting friendship sprang up between them.
After a single session in Glasgow University, at the age of nineteen, Dugald was asked by his father, whose health was beginning to fail, to give his mathematical classes in the University of Edinburgh. After three years there, in 1775, Dugald was elected joint professor of mathematics in conjunction with his father. Three years Ferguson was appointed secretary to the commissioners sent out to the American colonies, at his request Stewart lectured as his substitute during the session 1778–1779, delivering an original course of lectures on morals. In his early years he was influenced by Lord Monboddo. In 1785 Stewart succeeded Ferguson in the chair of moral philosophy, which he filled for twenty-five years, making it a centre of intellectual and moral influence. Young men were attracted by his reputation from England and America. Stewart's course on moral philosophy embraced, besides ethics proper, lectures on political philosophy or the theory of government. Stewart spent the summers of 1788 and 1789 in France, where he met Suard, Degérando, Raynal, came to sympathise with the revolutionary movement.
His political teaching, after the French Revolution, drew suspicion on him. From 1800 to 1801, Stewart gave lectures to undergraduate students on the subject of political economy, the first person to do so. In 1800 he appears as "Dougald Stewart, professor of moral philosophy" living at Lothian House near the bottom of the Canongate. In 1806 Stewart received in lieu of a pension the nominal office of the writership of the Edinburgh Gazette, with a salary of £300; when he ceased lecturing during the session of 1809–1810, his place was taken, at his own request, by Thomas Brown, who in 1810 was appointed conjoint professor. On the death of Brown in 1820 Stewart retired altogether from the professorship, his successor was John Wilson, known as "Christopher North". From 1809 onwards Stewart lived at Kinneil House, Bo'ness, placed at his disposal by the Duke of Hamilton. In June 1814 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1817.
In 1822 he was struck with paralysis, but recovered a fair degree of health, sufficient to enable him to resume his studies. He died in Edinburgh on 11 June 1828, where he was buried in Canongate Churchyard, close to his Edinburgh residence, he is buried on its west side. In 1831, of great public note, a monument was erected by the city on Calton Hill; this is to a design by William Henry Playfair and holds a commanding position in the city skyline, forming one of the city's iconic landmarks. His memory is honoured by the "Dugald Stewart Building" for the University of Edinburgh to house its Philosophy Department, on Charles Street, off George Square. Stewart as a student in Glasgow wrote an essay on Dreaming. In 1792 he published the first volume of the Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. In 1793 he printed Outlines of Moral Philosophy, which went through many editions. Similar memoirs of Robertson the historian and of Reid were afterwards read before the same body and appear in his published works.
In 1805 Stewart published pamphlets defending John Leslie against the charges of unorthodoxy made by the presbytery of Edinburgh. In 1810 appeared the Philosophical Essays, in 1814 the second volume of the Elements, in 1811 the first part and in 1821 the second part of the "Dissertation" written for the Encyclopædia Britannica Supplement, entitled "A General View of the Progress of Metaphysical and Political Philosophy since the Revival of Letters." In 1827 he published the third volume of the Elements, in 1828, a few weeks before his death, The Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers. Stewart's works were edited in 11 vols. by Sir William Hamilton and completed with a memoir by John Veitch. Among Stewart's pupils were Lord Palmerston, Sir Walter Scott, Francis Jeffrey, Henry Thomas Cockburn, Francis Horner, Sydney Smith, John William Ward, Lord Brougham, Dr. Thomas Brown, James Mill, Sir James Mackintosh and Sir Archibald Alison, his reputation rested as much on his eloquence and style as on original work.
He was principally responsible for making the "Scottish philosophy" predominant in early 19th-century Europe. In the second half of the century, Stewart's reputation fell to that of a follower of the work of Thomas Reid. Stewart upheld Reid's psychological method and expounded the Scot
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow was a German physician, pathologist, biologist, writer and politician. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" and as the founder of social medicine, to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine", he received the Copley Medal in 1892. He was a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences, but he declined to be ennobled as "von Virchow". Virchow studied medicine at the Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute under Johannes Peter Müller, he worked at the Charité hospital under Robert Froriep. His investigation of the 1847–1848 typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia laid the foundation for public health in Germany, paved his political and social careers. From it, he coined a well known aphorism: "Medicine is a social science, politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale", he participated in the Revolution of 1848. He published a newspaper Die medicinische Reform, he took the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy at the University of Würzburg in 1849.
After five years, Charité reinstated him to its new Institute for Pathology. He cofounded the political party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, was elected to the Prussian House of Representatives and won a seat in the Reichstag, his opposition to Otto von Bismarck's financial policy resulted in an anecdotal "Sausage Duel", although he supported Bismarck in his anti-Catholic campaigns, which he named Kulturkampf. A prolific writer, his scientific writings alone exceeded 2,000. Cellular Pathology, regarded as the root of modern pathology, introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula, he was a co-founder of Physikalisch-Medizinische Gesselschaft in 1849 and Deutsche Pathologische Gesellschaft in 1897. He founded journals such as Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie; the latter is published by German Anthropological Association and the Berlin Society for Anthropology and Prehistory, the societies which he founded.
Virchow was the first to describe and christen diseases such as leukemia, ochronosis and thrombosis. He coined biological terms such as "chromatin", "neuroglia", "agenesis", "parenchyma", "osteoid", "amyloid degeneration", "spina bifida", his description of the life cycle of a roundworm Trichinella spiralis influenced the practice of meat inspection. He developed the first systematic method of autopsy, introduced hair analysis in forensic investigation, he was critical of. As an anti-evolutionist, he called Charles Darwin an "ignoramus" and his own student Ernst Haeckel a "fool", he described the original specimen of Neanderthal man as nothing but that of a deformed human. Virchow was born in Schievelbein in Prussia, he was the only child of Johanna Maria née Hesse. His father was the city treasurer. Academically brilliant, he always topped in his classes and was fluent in German, Greek, English, French and Dutch, he progressed to the gymnasium in Köslin in 1835 with the goal to become a pastor. He graduated in 1839 upon a thesis titled A Life Full of Work and Toil is not a Burden but a Benediction.
However, he chose medicine because he considered his voice too weak for preaching. In 1839, he received a military fellowship for studying medicine at Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute in Berlin, he was most influenced by his doctoral advisor. He defended his thesis titled de rheumate praesertim corneae for medical degree on 21 October 1843. On graduation, he became subordinate physician to Müller, but shortly after, he joined the Charité Hospital in Berlin for internship. In 1844, he was appointed as medical assistant to the prosector Robert Froriep, from whom he learned microscopy which interested him in pathology. Froriep was the editor of an abstract journal that specialised in foreign work, which inspired Virchow for scientific ideas of France and England. Virchow published his first scientific paper in 1845 in which he wrote the earliest known pathological descriptions of leukemia, he qualified the medical licensure examination in 1846, succeeded Froriep as hospital prosector at the Charité. In 1847, he was appointed to his first academic position with the rank of privatdozent.
Because his writings did not receive favourable attention from German editors, he founded Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin with a colleague Benno Reinhardt in 1847. He edited alone after Reinhardt's death in 1852 till his own; this journal published critical articles based on the criterion that no papers would be published which contained outdated, dogmatic or speculative ideas. Unlike his German peers, Virchow had great faith in clinical observation, animal experimentation and pathological anatomy at the microscopic le
On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason
On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason is an elaboration on the classical Principle of Sufficient Reason, written by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer as his doctoral dissertation in 1813. The principle of sufficient reason is a powerful and controversial philosophical principle stipulating that everything must have a reason or cause. Schopenhauer revised and re-published it in 1847; the work articulated the centerpiece of many of Schopenhauer's arguments, throughout his works he refers his readers to it as the necessary beginning point for a full understanding of his further writings. In January 1813, after suffering their disastrous defeat in Russia, the first remnants of Napoleon's Grande Armée were arriving in Berlin; the sick and wounded filled up the hospitals and the risk of an epidemic grew high. A patriotic, militaristic spirit inflamed the city and most of the populace and students included, entertained the hope that the French yoke could be violently thrown off.
All this became intolerable to Schopenhauer who fled the city, retreating to the small town of Rudolstadt near Weimar. It was here, from June to November of that year, while staying at an inn, that the work was composed. After submitting it as his doctoral dissertation he was awarded a PhD from the University of Jena in absentia. Private publication soon followed. "There were three reviews of it, commending it condescendingly. Scarcely more than one hundred copies were sold, the rest was remaindered and, a few years pulped." Among the reasons for the cold reception of this original version are that it lacked the author's authoritative style and appeared decidedly unclear in its implications. A copy was sent to Goethe who responded by inviting the author to his home on a regular basis, ostensibly to discuss philosophy but in reality to recruit the young philosopher into work on his Theory of Colors. In 1847 Schopenhauer enlarged the work, publishing a new edition; this is the version of the work, read today.
"There the lines of thought are pursued, linking up with his main work. Schopenhauer’s epistemology, by direct admission, begins with Immanuel Kant's theory of knowledge. Schopenhauer proclaimed himself a Kantian who had appropriated his predecessor's most powerful accomplishment in epistemology, who claimed to have extended and completed what Kant botched or had left undone. In Schopenhauer’s point of view, Kant’s chief merit lies in his distinction between the thing in itself and the phenomenal world in which it appears, i.e. the world as we represent it to ourselves. What is crucial here is the realization that what makes human experience universally possible to begin with without exception, is the perceiving mind; the intellect synthesizes perceptions from raw sensations to abstract modified concepts built upon formed perceptions. Schopenhauer appropriates Kant’s forms of sensibility and expands them into what he calls the understanding: To know causality is the sole function of the understanding, its only power, it is a great power embracing much, manifold in its application, yet unmistakable in its identity throughout all its manifestations.
Conversely, all causality, hence all matter, the whole of reality, is only for the understanding, through the understanding, in the understanding. The first, ever-present manifestation of understanding is perception of the actual world; this is in every way knowledge of the cause from the effect, therefore all perception is intellectual. Thus, our understanding does not exist independent of our ability to perceive and determine relationships anchored in experience itself. Not only what we think in the abstract, but our perceptions are intellectual and subjectively determined via extraction, new formation, modified formulation. We have the philosophical grounds for Nietzsche’s perspectivism, though given in different language: representation. One may translate "Vorstellung" as the English word "idea" – indeed, Schopenhauer himself provides this translation from Kant's similar use of "Vorstellungen." However, this "idea" is semantically distinct both from the Platonic Idea and from Berkeley's use of "idea."
Schopenhauer’s central proposition is the main idea of his entire philosophy, he states as “The world is my representation.” The rest of his work is an elaborate analysis and explanation of this sentence, which begins with his Kantian epistemology, but finds thorough elaboration within his version of the principle of sufficient reason. This is responsible for providing adequate explanations for any ‘thing,’ or object that occurs in relation to a subject of knowing, it amounts to what Schopenhauer has done, in his view, to extend and complete what Kant began in his Critique of Pure Reason. Four classes of explanation fall under the principle’s rubric. Hence, four classes of objects occur always and only in relation to a known subject, according to a correlative capacity within the subject; these classes are summarized as follows: Becoming: Only with the combination of time and space does perceptual actuality become possible for a subject, allowing for ideas of interpretation, this provides the ground of becoming judgment.
This is the law of causality, which is, when considered subjectively, intellectual and a prio
Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his satirical verse, including Essay on Criticism, The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad, for his translation of Homer, he is the second-most quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations after Shakespeare. From the age of 12, he suffered numerous health problems including Pott's disease, which deformed his body and stunted his growth, he suffered from respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, abdominal pain. His poor health alienated him from society, though he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters, he never married. In May, 1709, Pope's Pastorals earned him instant fame; this was followed by An Essay on Criticism in May 1711, well received. Pope's most famous poem is The Rape of the Lock, first published in 1712. A mock-epic, it satirises a high-society quarrel between Arabella Fermor and Lord Petre, who had snipped a lock of hair from her head without her permission; the poem brought into focus the onset of acquisitive individualism and conspicuous consumption, where purchased goods assume dominance over moral agency.
He made many enemies throughout his career, with his fierce satire and criticisms of prominent figures, at one point deemed it necessary to carry pistols while walking his dog. After 1738, Pope wrote little, toyed with the idea of a patriotic epic called Brutus, but only the opening lines survive, he revised and expanded his masterpiece The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, Pope replaced Lewis Theobald, with the poet laureate Colley Cibber, as "king of dunces", but his real target is Whig politician Horace Walpole. By now Pope's health was failing, when told by his physician, on the morning of his death, that he was better, Pope replied: "Here am I, dying of a hundred good symptoms". Alexander Pope was born in 1688 to Alexander Pope Senior, a linen merchant of Plough Court, Lombard Street and his wife Edith, who were both Catholics. Edith's sister Christiana was the wife of the famous miniature painter Samuel Cooper.
Pope's education was affected by the enacted Test Acts, which upheld the status of the established Church of England and banned Catholics from teaching, attending a university, voting, or holding public office on penalty of perpetual imprisonment. Pope was taught to read by his aunt, went to Twyford School in about 1698/99, he went on to two Roman Catholic schools in London. Such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas. In 1700, his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, close to the royal Windsor Forest; this was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Papists from living within 10 miles of either London or Westminster. Pope would describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest. Pope's formal education ended at this time, from on he educated himself by reading the works of classical writers such as the satirists Horace and Juvenal, the epic poets Homer and Virgil, as well as English authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Dryden.
He studied many languages and read works by English, Italian and Greek poets. After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from the London literary society such as William Wycherley, William Congreve, Samuel Garth, William Trumbull, William Walsh. At Binfield, he began to make many important friends. One of them, John Caryll, was twenty years older than the poet and had made many acquaintances in the London literary world, he introduced the young Pope to the ageing playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet, who helped Pope revise his first major work, The Pastorals. He met the Blount sisters and Martha, both of whom would remain lifelong friends. From the age of 12, he suffered numerous health problems including Pott's disease, which deformed his body and stunted his growth, leaving him with a severe hunchback, his tuberculosis infection caused other health problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, abdominal pain. He grew to a height of only 1.37 m. Pope was removed from society because he was Catholic.
Although he never married, he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters, including Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. His lifelong friend Martha Blount was his lover. In May, 1709, Pope's Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonson's Poetical Miscellanies; this earned Pope instant fame, was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711, well received. Around 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club; the aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus. He made friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. In March 1713, Windsor Forest was published to great acclaim. During Pope's friendship with Joseph Addison, he contributed to Addison's play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator. Around this time he began the work of translating the Iliad, a painstaking process – publication began in 1715 and did not end until 1720.
In 1714, the political situation worsened with the death of Queen Anne and the disputed succession between the Hanoverians and the Jacobites, l