High School of Glasgow
The High School of Glasgow is an independent, co-educational day school in Glasgow, Scotland. The original High School of Glasgow was founded as the Choir School of Glasgow Cathedral in around 1124, was the oldest school in Scotland, the twelfth oldest in the United Kingdom until its closure in 1977, it remained part of the Church as the city's grammar school until coming under local authority control in 1872, closed in 1977, when the private Drewsteighnton School adopted the name. The School maintains a relationship with the Cathedral, where it holds an annual Service of Commemoration and Thanksgiving in September, it counts two British Prime Ministers, two Lords President and the founder of the University of Aberdeen among its alumni. It is a selective school. In 2009, The Times placed it as the top independent school in Scotland for Higher and Standard Grade results, a rise from second place the year before, although it placed only sixth in Scotland when counted by Highers alone, a drop from fourth in the previous year.
The Rector of the school is John O'Neill. The original school was founded as the Choir School of Glasgow Cathedral in around 1124, became known as Glasgow Grammar School, it was housed in Greyfriar's Wynd until 1782, when it moved to new purpose-built accommodation in George Street, but it moved again in 1821 to new premises between John Street and Montrose Street. The name was changed in 1834 to The High School of Glasgow, in 1872 it was transferred to the management of the Glasgow School Board. In 1878, the school moved into the former premises of the Glasgow Academy on Elmbank Street, when the latter moved to its new home in Kelvinbridge in the West End of the city; the Glasgow High School for Girls was founded in 1894 and housed variously in Garnethill and Kelvindale. In 1976, the regional council closed the Boy's High School, while the Girls' High School began admitting boys and was renamed as Cleveden Secondary School; the proposed closure was met with anger from former pupils and, the day after the closure of the Boys' High School, the new, independent, co-educational High School was created, following a merger involving the former pupils' association, the Glasgow High School Club, Drewsteignton School in Bearsden, which became the new High School.
In 1983 an arts and science extension was opened. The new, purpose-built Senior School is in Old Anniesland, owned by the Glasgow High School Club. There have been multiple extensions including the two-storey science block; the Junior School occupies the site of the former Drewsteignton School, on Ledcameroch Road in Old Bearsden. The Headmistress of the Junior School is Heather Fuller Pupils at the School are divided into the following Houses: Bannerman, for Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Clyde, for Lord Clyde. Law, for Bonar Law. Moore, for Sir John Moore; the School operates a house competition, pupils may earn points for their house through excellence in areas such as sports, academia. The current holder of the overall house championship is Bannerman House; the Junior School Houses take their names from British lifeboat stations: Broughtyferry, Campbelltown and Longhope. The Glasgow High School Club is the former pupil club of the High School and its predecessor schools, the High School for Boys, the Girls' High School and Drewsteignton School.
The Club is a limited company, run by a committee and a President, elected annually. The President is Ronnie Gourley, the Past President is Alisair Wood; the Honorary President is The Lord Macfarlane of Bearsden, the Rector of the School, John O'Neil, is an ex officio member. The rest of the committee comprises three Honorary Vice Presidents, Senior Vice President, Junior Vice President, Treasurer, House Convenor, seven Ordinary Members, GHK Rugby President, Triathlon Representative, President of the Ladies' Section and President of Ladies' Hockey; the Club owns Old Anniesland, the site on which the School now stands, is based in the pavilion. The Club runs all the facilities at Old Anniesland, including the Jimmie Ireland Stand but excluding the school. Use of the Club's facilities is restricted to members; the Club runs a number of sports teams, although the former Glasgow High Kelvinside rugby club merged in 1997 with rivals Glasgow Academicals FC to form Glasgow Hawks. The name was intended as an acronym of High, Accies and Kelvinside, however West of Scotland declined the invitation to merge into the new team and continue to play separately from their ground in Milngavie.
The friendly rivalry with the Glasgow Accies, based at neighbouring New Anniesland, inspired the name of the Anniesland Trophy, an annual golf competition between the Clubs. The Club has an active London branch, The London Club, which hosts a dinner every March at the Caledonian Club and a lunch in early October for recent leavers moving to study in London; the London Club runs a number of sports teams golf. Notable former pupils of the High School have included two Prime Ministers, the founder of the University of Aberdeen, the current and most recent Principals of the University of Glasgow and numerous judges and Law Officers, including the current Lord President of the Court of Session, as well as politicians and academics. Ross Anderson, Professor of Security Engineering, University of Cambridge Duncan Inglis Cameron, Secretary of Heriot-Watt University Sir Ian Heilbron, Professor of Organic Chemistry at Imperial College London Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, President of the Royal Society John Horne, geologist Professor Sheila McLean, Instit
The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London. It was founded in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president, George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, its foundational principles were diffusing the knowledge of, facilitating the general introduction of, useful mechanical inventions and improvements, as well as enhancing the application of science to the common purposes of life. Much of the Institution's initial funding and the initial proposal for its founding were given by the Society for Bettering the Conditions and Improving the Comforts of the Poor, under the guidance of philanthropist Sir Thomas Bernard and American-born British scientist Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford. Since its founding it has been based at 21 Albemarle Street in Mayfair, its Royal Charter was granted in 1800. Throughout its history, the Institution has supported public engagement with science through a programme of lectures, many of which continue today.
The most famous of these are the annual Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, founded by Michael Faraday in 1825. The Royal Institution was founded as the result of a proposal by the American-born Bavarian Count Rumford for the "formation by Subscription, in the Metropolis of the British Empire, of a Public Institution for diffusing the Knowledge and facilitating the general Introduction of useful Mechanical Inventions and Improvements, for the teaching by courses of Philosophical Lectures and Experiments, the application of Science to the Common Purposes of Life"; the first Professor and Public Lecturer in Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry was Dr Thomas Garnett, whom Rumford poached from the newly founded Andersonian Institute in Glasgow. Despite Garnett's first lectures being a great success, his salary was frozen, he was not allowed to practise as a doctor, Humphry Davy was appointed as his assistant, so he resigned. Humphry Davy was an greater success, as was his assistant and successor Michael Faraday.
Davy's immediate successor was William Thomas Brande. Thus the Institution has had an instrumental role in the advancement of science since its founding. Notable scientists who have worked there include Sir Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday, James Dewar, Sir William Henry Bragg and Sir William Lawrence Bragg, Max Perutz, John Kendrew, Antony Hewish, George Porter. In the 19th century, Faraday carried out much of the research which laid the groundwork for the practical exploitation of electricity at the Royal Institution. In total fifteen scientists attached to the Royal Institution have won Nobel Prizes. Ten chemical elements including sodium were discovered there; the leadership of the Royal Institution has had various titles: Director of the Laboratory Director of the Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory DirectorThe position was abolished in 2010. The Institution's last director was Susan Greenfield. Sarah Harper, Professor of Gerontology at the University of Oxford, was announced as the new Director of the Ri in April 2017 and resigned in September 2017.
In 1952, Edward Andrade was forced to resign following a complicated controversy over the management of the Royal Institution and his powers as director, involving a power struggle with Alexander Rankine, secretary. Following various resignations and general meetings of members, Andrade was awarded £7,000 by arbitration: the arbitrators blamed the problems on "a lack of clear definition of roles... an outdated constitution, the inability of the protagonists to compromise". Andrade launched a lawsuit to set the arbitration aside. From 1998 to 8 January 2010, the director of the Royal Institution was Baroness Susan Greenfield, but following a review, the position was abolished for being "no longer affordable"; the Royal Institution had found itself in a financial crisis following a £22 million development programme led by Greenfield, which included refurbishment of the institution's main Albemarle Street building, the addition of a restaurant and bar with an aim to turn the venue into a "Groucho club for science".
The project ended £3 million in debt. Greenfield subsequently announced; the RI's official statement stated it would "continue to deliver its main charitable objectives under the direction of chief executive officer, Chris Rofe and a talented senior team including Professor Quentin Pankhurst, the Director of the Davy Faraday Research Laboratory, Dr Gail Cardew, the Head of Programmes and Professor Frank James, Head of Collections and Heritage." Baroness Greenfield dropped the discrimination case. Today the Royal Institution is committed to "diffusing science for the common purposes of life". Membership is open to all, with no nomination procedure or academic requirements, on payment of an annual subscription; the Institution's patrons and trustees include: Patron: HRH The Prince of Wales President: HRH The Duke of Kent Honorary Vice-President: Sir John Ritblat Chairman: Sir Richard Sykes Board of Trustees: Dr Fergus Boyd, Dr Sophie Forgan, Simon Godwin, Prof Yike Guo, Lord Julian Hunt, John Krumins, Sarika Patel, Geoff Potter, Louise Terry, Prof Alison Woollard.
In February 2018, the institution appointed Dr Shaun Fitzgerald FREng as director. Fitzgerald took up the post in April 2018. In July 2018, the institution announced a new five-year strategy running from October 2
Regensburg is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich and Augsburg; the city is the political and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate. The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany; the first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there. In 179, a new Roman fort Castra Regina was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, it was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739. From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings.
From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there; this was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs, the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world. A memorial plate at St John's Church was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.
In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants and by 1000 this had doubled to 40,000 people. On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg, Germany. In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted. Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg; this bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics. In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century in 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later.
The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, Roman Catholics were denied civil rights, but the town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet. So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states": the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, the three monasteries.
In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria, acted as functional co-capital of the Empire due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, it was residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one brief exception was a prince himself. In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg, it was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine, annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg. Dalberg modernized public life. Most he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by t
Edward Hodges Baily
Edward Hodges Baily was an English sculptor, born in Downend in Bristol. Baily's father, a celebrated carver of figureheads for ships, destined him for a commercial life, but at school the boy showed his natural taste and talents by producing numerous wax models and busts of his schoolfellows. At the age of fourteen Baily was placed in a mercantile house, where he worked for the next two years, though he still felt a strong leaning towards his artistic abilities. At the age of sixteen he began executing portraits in wax. Two Homeric studies, executed for a friend, were shown to John Flaxman, who bestowed on them such high commendation that in 1807 Baily came to London and placed himself as a pupil under the great sculptor. In 1809 he entered the Royal Academy Schools. In 1811 he gained the Royal Academy gold medal for a model of Hercules restoring Alcestis to Admetus, soon after exhibited Apollo discharging his Arrows against the Greeks and Hercules casting Lichas into the Sea, he was elected ARA in 1817 and RA in 1821 when he exhibited one of his best pieces, Eve at the Fountain.
He was entrusted with the carving of the bas-reliefs on the south side of the Marble Arch in Hyde Park, executed numerous busts and statues of public figures, including the prominent, well-known statue of Nelson, at the top of Nelson's Column, in Trafalgar Square. In 1857, the year of his retirement from the Royal Academy, he designed a Turner Gold Medal for Landscape Painting. Baily's election as a fellow of the Royal Society came in 1842. Amongst his pupils was William Theed, a leading Victorian sculptor who produced a number of portrait busts and the large group sculpture ‘’Africa’’ for the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens. Among Baily's assistants were Musgrave Watson and Joseph Durham ARA. Financial insecurity was a recurring theme in his life, he was first declared bankrupt in 1831, again in 1838. On the first occasion questions were asked in Parliament on his behalf because his financial distress had resulted from delays in receiving payment for sculptures at Buckingham Palace, his appeals to the Royal Academy for financial assistance, were successful in the 1830s, as again in the 1860s, when they provided him with a pension of £200 a year as an honorary retired RA. Baily died at 99 Devonshire Road, Holloway on 22 May 1867 and is buried in London's Highgate Cemetery.
Amongst Baily's many busts and statues of scientific and literary figures are the following: Charles James Fox & Lord Mansfield – St. Stephen's Hall, London Lord Byron – Harrow School. Mary's, Sussex Charles, 2nd Earl Grey – Grey Street, Newcastle upon Tyne George Stephenson, National Railway Museum, York Eve at the Fountain – Art Gallery, Cambridge Eve at the Fountain – Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery Eve listening to Adam – Victoria and Albert Museum, London Governor Richard Bourke – State Library of New South Wales, Sydney Athena – Athenaeum Club, London Sir Thomas Picton – Carmarthen, Wales Chief Justice Tindal – Tindal Square, Essex Sir Charles Metcalfe – Kingston, Jamaica Thomas Fleming, Manchester Cathedral Justice – Old Council House, Bristol A tablet with two marble full-length angels, to Samuel Paynter, of Richmond – Richmond Church, his nephew was the paleontologist. Some of Edward Baily's descendants still live in Bristol, East Grinstead, the Isle of Wight, in Canada today.
Cambridge. Edward Bowring Stephens Jordan, Caroline, ""The spirit of purity and chastity": Eve at the Fountain by Edward Hodges Baily", Sculpture Journal, 15: 19–35, doi:10.3828/sj.15.1.2
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet was a Scottish historical novelist, poet and historian. Many of his works remain classics of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor. Although remembered for his extensive literary works and his political engagement, Scott was an advocate and legal administrator by profession, throughout his career combined his writing and editing work with his daily occupation as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an active member of the Highland Society, served a long term as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and was a Vice President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; as Encyclopædia Britannica argues: "Scott gathered the disparate strands of contemporary novel-writing techniques into his own hands and harnessed them to his deep interest in Scottish history and his knowledge of antiquarian lore.
The technique of the omniscient narrator and the use of regional speech, localized settings, sophisticated character delineation, romantic themes treated in a realistic manner were all combined by him into a new literary form, the historical novel. His influence on other European and American novelists was immediate and profound, though interest in some of his books declined somewhat in the 20th century, his reputation remains secure." Walter Scott was born on 15 August 1771. He was the ninth child of a Writer to the Signet and Anne Rutherford, his father was a member of a cadet branch of the Scott Clan, his mother descended from the Haliburton family, the descent from whom granted Walter's family the hereditary right of burial in Dryburgh Abbey. Via the Haliburton family, Walter was a cousin of the pre-eminent contemporaneous property developer James Burton, a Haliburton who had shortened his surname, of his son, the architect Decimus Burton. Walter subsequently became a member of the Clarence Club, of which the Burtons were members.
Five of Walter's siblings died in infancy, a sixth died when he was five months of age. Walter was born in a third-floor flat on College Wynd in the Old Town of Edinburgh, a narrow alleyway leading from the Cowgate to the gates of the University of Edinburgh, he survived a childhood bout of polio in 1773 that left him lame, a condition, to have a significant effect on his life and writing. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live in the rural Scottish Borders at his paternal grandparents' farm at Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower, the earlier family home. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to Edinburgh, that summer went with his aunt Jenny to take spa treatment at Bath in England, where they lived at 6 South Parade. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt at a water cure at Prestonpans during the following summer.
In 1778, Scott returned to Edinburgh for private education to prepare him for school, joined his family in their new house built as one of the first in George Square. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh, he was now well able to explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, poems and travel books, he was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and writing, learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland with emphasis on the Covenanters. After finishing school he was sent to stay for six months with his aunt Jenny in Kelso, attending the local grammar school where he met James and John Ballantyne, who became his business partners and printed his books. Scott began studying classics at the University of Edinburgh in November 1783, at the age of 12, a year or so younger than most of his fellow students. In March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his father's office to become a Writer to the Signet. Whilst at both high school and university, Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, the son of Professor Adam Ferguson who hosted literary salons.
Scott met the blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macpherson's Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott met Robert Burns at one of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting; when Burns noticed a print illustrating the poem "The Justice of the Peace" and asked who had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne, was thanked by Burns. Scott describes this event in his memoirs where he whispers the answer to his friend Adam who tells Burns Another version of the event is described in Literary Beginnings When it was decided that he would become a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking classes in moral philosophy and universal history in 1789–90. After completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh; as a lawyer's clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction. He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792, he had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, who married Scott's friend Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet.
As a boy and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral traditions of the Scottish Borders. He was an obsessive collector of stories, developed an innovative method of recording what he heard at the feet of local story-tellers using carvings on twigs, to avoid
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Battle of Hohenlinden
The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. A French army under Jean Victor Marie Moreau won a decisive victory over the Austrians and Bavarians led by Archduke John of Austria. After being forced into a disastrous retreat, the allies were compelled to request an armistice that ended the War of the Second Coalition. Hohenlinden is 33 km east of Munich in modern Germany. General of Division Moreau's 56,000 strong army engaged Bavarians; the Austrians, believing they were pursuing a beaten enemy, moved through wooded terrain in four disconnected columns. Instead, Moreau ambushed the Austrians as they emerged from the Ebersberg forest while launching MG Antoine Richepanse's division in a surprise envelopment of the Austrian left flank. Displaying superb individual initiative, Moreau's generals managed to encircle and smash the largest Austrian column; this crushing victory, coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at the Battle of Marengo on 14 June 1800, ended the War of the Second Coalition.
In February 1801, the Austrians signed the Treaty of Lunéville, accepting French control up to the Rhine and the French puppet republics in Italy and the Netherlands. The subsequent Treaty of Amiens between France and Britain began the longest break in the wars of the Napoleonic period. From April to July 1800, Moreau's army drove the Austrian army of Feldzeugmeister Pál Kray from the Rhine River to the Inn River with victories at Stockach, Höchstädt. On 15 July, the combatants agreed to an armistice. Realizing that Kray was no longer up to the task, Emperor Francis II removed him from command; the Austrian chancellor Johann Amadeus von Thugut first offered Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este and Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary command of the army but both declined. Because his brother, the capable Feldmarschall Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen refused the command, the emperor appointed another brother, the 18-year-old Archduke John; the inexperienced youth could not cope with this enormous responsibility, so the emperor nominated Franz von Lauer as John's second-in-command and promoted him to Feldzeugmeister.
John was directed to follow Lauer's instructions. To further complicate the clumsy command structure, the aggressive Oberst Franz von Weyrother was named John's chief of staff; the armistice was renewed in lapsed on 12 November. By this time, Weyrother had convinced Lauer to adopt an offensive posture. Weyrother's plan called for crushing the French left wing near Landshut and lunging south to cut Moreau's communications west of Munich. After a few days of marching, it became obvious that the Austrian army was too slow to execute such an ambitious plan. So Lauer convinced the archduke to convert the enterprise into a direct attack on Munich. So, the sudden advance caught Moreau's somewhat scattered French forces by surprise and achieved local superiority. In the Battle of Ampfing on 1 December, the Austrians drove back part of General of Division Paul Grenier's Left Wing; the defeated French managed to inflict 3,000 casualties on the Austrians while only suffering 1,700 losses. Yet, when the Austrian leaders found that Grenier evacuated Haag in Oberbayern the next day, they became ecstatic.
Archduke John and Weyrother overrode Lauer's cautious counsel and launched an all-out pursuit of an enemy they believed to be fleeing. However, Moreau decided deploying his army in open ground near Hohenlinden. To approach his position, the Austro-Bavarians had to advance directly west through wooded terrain. Moreau's main defensive position consisted of four divisions facing east. From north to south, these were commanded by General of Division Claude Legrand, General of Brigade Louis Bastoul, General of Division Michel Ney and General of Division Emmanuel Grouchy; the divisions of Legrand and Ney belonged to Grenier's corps. Moreau held 1,700 heavy cavalry under General of Division Jean-Joseph Ange d'Hautpoul in reserve. Off to the south near Ebersberg were two more divisions, under Generals of Division Antoine Richepanse and Charles Decaen; the divisions of d'Hautpoul, Richepanse and Grouchy formed Moreau's Reserve Corps. Moreau planned to have Richepanse march northeast to strike southern flank.
His main line would maneuver in open terrain and counterattack the Austrians as they emerged from the woods. Decaen would support Richepanse. According to the battle plan drawn up by Weyrother, the Austrians advanced west in four corps. From north to south they were Feldmarchall-Leutnant Michael von Kienmayer's Right Column, Feldmarchall-Leutnant Louis-Willibrord-Antoine Baillet de Latour's Right Center Column, Feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrat's Left Center Column, Feldmarchall-Leutnant Johann Sigismund Riesch's Left Column; the three southern columns marched near the main road from Haag to Hohenlinden. Meanwhile, Kienmayer followed the Isen River valley from Dorfen west to Lengdorf south to Isen, before approaching the Hohenlinden plain from the east. Archduke John rode with Kollowrat's force. Latour used trails just to the north of the highway. Due to the densely forested terrain, bad roads, poor staff work, the Austrian columns were not mutually supporting, their commanders mistakenly thought the French were in retreat and were rushing to catch their enemies before they could escape.
All Austrian columns started at dawn. Marching on the all-weather highway, Kollowrat's column made good time despite heavy snow. At 7:00 am, his advance guard under General-Major Franz