Walter Reynolds was Bishop of Worcester and Archbishop of Canterbury as well as Lord High Treasurer and Lord Chancellor. Reynolds was the son of a baker from Windsor and became a clerk, or chaplain, in the service of Edward I. Reynolds held several livings and, owing to his acting skill, he became a prime favourite with the prince of Wales, afterwards Edward II, whom he served as Keeper of the Great Wardrobe. Just after the prince became king, on 22 August 1307 Reynolds was appointed Treasurer of England. On 13 November 1307 he was elected Bishop of Worcester and consecrated on 13 October 1308, he was on 6 July 1310 named Keeper of the Great Seal and Lord Chancellor of England. Amongst his duties as Bishop of Worcester was to act as the parton and appoint the Headmaster of the school that became the Royal Grammar School Worcester. Reynolds was one of the godfathers of the future Edward III when the prince was christened on 17 November 1312; when Robert Winchelsea, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in May 1313 Edward II convinced Pope Clement V to appoint his favourite to the vacant archbishopric, Reynolds was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral in January 1314 as the 51st Archbishop.
Although the private life of the new archbishop appears to have been the reverse of exemplary he attempted to carry out some necessary reforms in his new official capacity. In this connection in 1317 he laid London under an interdict after William de Melton, the Archbishop of York, had passed through its streets with his cross borne erect before him. Reynolds remained in general loyal to Edward II until 1324, when with all his suffragans he opposed the king in defence of the Bishop of Hereford, Adam of Orlton, he fought with Edward II over liturgical issues, sent sums of money to Queen Isabella in her rebellion against King Edward II. Having fled for safety into Kent he returned to London and declared for Edward III, whom he crowned on 1 February 1327, he was appointed as a member of the regency council for Edward III, formed in February 1327. In 1327 Reynolds popularised in England the political argument of vox populi, vox Dei, contrary to Alcuin's original warning to Charlemagne to resist such arguments, as the title of his sermon laying charges against Edward II.
Reynolds died at Mortlake on 16 November 1327. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. Weir, Alison Queen Isabella: Treachery and Murder in Medieval England New York: Ballantine 2005 ISBN 0-345-45319-0 List of Keepers from Office of Constitutional Affairs This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Reynolds, Walter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 229
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. It forms part of a World Heritage Site, it is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby, leader of the Church of England and symbolic leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Its formal title is the Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury. Founded in 597, the cathedral was rebuilt between 1070 and 1077; the east end was enlarged at the beginning of the 12th century, rebuilt in the Gothic style following a fire in 1174, with significant eastward extensions to accommodate the flow of pilgrims visiting the shrine of Thomas Becket, the archbishop, murdered in the cathedral in 1170. The Norman nave and transepts survived until the late 14th century, when they were demolished to make way for the present structures. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the archbishop.
Christianity had started to become powerful in the Roman Empire around the 3rd century. Following the conversion of Augustine of Hippo in the 4th century, the influence of Christianity grew steadily; the cathedral's first bishop was Augustine of Canterbury abbot of St Andrew's Benedictine Abbey in Rome. He was sent by Pope Saint Gregory the Great in 596 as a missionary to the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine dedicated it to Jesus Christ, the Holy Saviour. Augustine founded the Abbey of St Peter and Paul outside the city walls; this was rededicated to St Augustine himself and was for many centuries the burial place of the successive archbishops. The abbey is part of the World Heritage Site of Canterbury, along with the cathedral and the ancient Church of St Martin. Bede recorded; the oldest remains found during excavations beneath the present nave in 1993 were, parts of the foundations of an Anglo-Saxon building, constructed across a Roman road. They indicate that the original church consisted of a nave with a narthex, side-chapels to the north and south.
A smaller subsidiary building was found to the south-west of these foundations. During the 9th or 10th century this church was replaced by a larger structure with a squared west end, it appears to have had a square central tower. The 11th-century chronicler Eadmer, who had known the Saxon cathedral as a boy, wrote that, in its arrangement, it resembled St Peter's in Rome, indicating that it was of basilican form, with an eastern apse. During the reforms of Dunstan, archbishop from 960 until his death in 988, a Benedictine abbey named Christ Church Priory was added to the cathedral, but the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date only to c. 997 and the community only became monastic from Lanfranc's time onwards. Dunstan was buried on the south side of the high altar; the cathedral was badly damaged during Danish raids on Canterbury in 1011. The Archbishop, Ælfheah, was taken hostage by the raiders and killed at Greenwich on 19 April 1012, the first of Canterbury's five martyred archbishops.
After this a western apse was added as an oratory of Saint Mary during the archbishopric of Lyfing or Aethelnoth. The 1993 excavations revealed that the new western apse was polygonal, flanked by hexagonal towers, forming a westwork, it housed the archbishop's throne, with the altar of St Mary just to the east. At about the same time that the westwork was built, the arcade walls were strengthened and towers added to the eastern corners of the church; the cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1067, a year after the Norman Conquest. Rebuilding began in 1070 under Lanfranc, he cleared the ruins and reconstructed the cathedral to a design based on that of the Abbey of Saint-Étienne in Caen, where he had been abbot, using stone brought from France. The new church, its central axis about 5m south of that of its predecessor, was a cruciform building, with an aisled nave of nine bays, a pair of towers at the west end, aiseless transepts with apsidal chapels, a low crossing tower, a short choir ending in three apses.
It was dedicated in 1077. Under Lanfranc's successor Anselm, twice exiled from England, the responsibility for the rebuilding or improvement of the cathedral's fabric was left in the hands of the priors. Following the election of Prior Ernulf in 1096, Lanfranc's inadequate east end was demolished, replaced with an eastern arm 198 feet long, doubling the length of the cathedral, it was raised above a elaborately decorated crypt. Ernulf was succeeded in 1107 by Conrad, who completed the work by 1126; the new choir took the form of a complete church with its own transepts. A free standing campanile was built on a mound in the cathedral precinct in about 1160; as with many Gothic church buildings, the interior of the choir was richly embellished. William of Malmesbury wrote: "Nothing like it could be seen in England either for the light of its glass windows, the gleaming of its marble pavements, or the many-coloured paintings which led the eyes to the panelled ceiling above."Though named after the 6th-century founding archbishop, the Chair of St Augustine, the ceremonial enthronement chair of the Archbishop of Canterbury, may date from the Norman period.
Its first recorded use is in 1205. A pivotal moment in the history of the cathedral was the mu
Ealdred (archbishop of York)
Ealdred was Abbot of Tavistock, Bishop of Worcester, Archbishop of York in Anglo-Saxon England. He was related to a number of other ecclesiastics of the period. After becoming a monk at the monastery at Winchester, he was appointed Abbot of Tavistock Abbey in around 1027. In 1046 he was named to the Bishopric of Worcester. Ealdred, besides his episcopal duties, served Edward the Confessor, the King of England, as a diplomat and as a military leader, he worked to bring one of the king's relatives, Edward the Exile, back to England from Hungary to secure an heir for the childless king. In 1058 he undertook a pilgrimage to the first bishop from England to do so; as administrator of the Diocese of Hereford, he was involved in fighting against the Welsh, suffering two defeats at the hands of raiders before securing a settlement with Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, a Welsh ruler. In 1060, Ealdred was elected to the archbishopric of York, but had difficulty in obtaining papal approval for his appointment, only managing to do so when he promised not to hold the bishoprics of York and Worcester simultaneously.
He helped secure the election of Wulfstan as his successor at Worcester. During his archiepiscopate, he built and embellished churches in his diocese, worked to improve his clergy by holding a synod which published regulations for the priesthood; some sources state that following King Edward the Confessor's death in 1066, it was Ealdred who crowned Harold Godwinson as King of England. Ealdred supported Harold as king, but when Harold was defeated at the Battle of Hastings, Ealdred backed Edgar the Ætheling and endorsed King William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy and a distant relative of King Edward's. Ealdred crowned King William on Christmas Day in 1066. William never quite trusted Ealdred or the other English leaders, Ealdred had to accompany William back to Normandy in 1067, but he had returned to York by the time of his death in 1069. Ealdred supported the monasteries in his diocese with gifts and building projects. Ealdred was born in the west of England, could be related to Lyfing, his predecessor as bishop of Worcester.
His family, from Devonshire, may have been well-to-do. Another relative was Wulfstan, who under Ealdred's influence became Abbot of Gloucester. Ealdred was a monk in the cathedral chapter at Winchester Cathedral before becoming abbot of Tavistock Abbey about 1027, an office he held until about 1043. After leaving the abbacy of Tavistock, he continued to hold two properties from the abbey until his death. No contemporary documents relating to Ealdred's time as abbot have been discovered. Ealdred was made bishop of Worcester in 1046, a position he held until his resignation in 1062, he may have acted as suffragan, or subordinate bishop, to his predecessor Lyfing before formally assuming the bishopric, as from about 1043 Ealdred witnessed as an episcopus, or bishop, a charter from 1045 or early 1046 names Sihtric as abbot of Tavistock. Lyfing died on 26 March 1046, Ealdred became bishop of Worcester shortly after. However, Ealdred did not receive the other two dioceses that Lyfing had held and Cornwall.
Ealdred was an advisor to King Edward the Confessor, was involved in the royal government. He was a military leader, in 1046 he led an unsuccessful expedition against the Welsh; this was in retaliation for a raid led by the Welsh rulers Gruffydd ap Rhydderch, Rhys ap Rhydderch, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Ealdred's expedition was betrayed by some Welsh soldiers who were serving with the English, Ealdred was defeated. In 1050, Ealdred went to Rome "on the king's errand" to secure papal approval to move the seat, or centre, of the bishopric of Crediton to Exeter, it may have been to secure the release of the king from a vow to go on pilgrimage, if sources from after the Norman Conquest of England are to be believed. While in Rome, he attended a papal council, along with his fellow English bishop Herman; that same year, as Ealdred was returning to England he met Sweyn, a son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, absolved Sweyn for having abducted the abbess of Leominster Abbey in 1046. Through Ealdred's intercession, Sweyn was restored to his earldom, which he had lost after abducting the abbess and murdering his cousin Beorn Estrithson.
Ealdred helped Sweyn not only because Ealdred was a supporter of Earl Godwin's family but because Sweyn's earldom was close to his bishopric. As as 1049 Irish raiders had allied with Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent in raiding along the River Usk. Ealdred unsuccessfully was again routed by the Welsh; this failure underscored Ealdred's need for a strong earl in the area to protect against raids. The bishop of Hereford would have led the defence in the absence of an Earl of Hereford, but in 1049 the incumbent, Æthelstan, was blind, so Ealdred took on the role of defender. Earl Godwin's rebellion against the king in 1051 came as a blow to Ealdred, a supporter of the earl and his family. Ealdred was present at the royal council at London. In 1051, when he was sent to intercept Harold Godwinson and his brothers as they fled England after their father's outlawing, Ealdred "could not, or would not" capture the brothers; the banishment of Ealdred's patron came shortly after the death of Ælfric Puttoc, the Archbishop of York.
York and Worcester had long had close ties, the two sees had been held in plurality, or at the same time. Ealdred wanted to become Archbishop of York after Ælfric's death, but his patron's eclipse led to the king appointing Cynesige, a royal c
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour; the Archbishop of Canterbury is the primate of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion owing to the importance of St Augustine, who served as the apostle to the pagan Kingdom of Kent around the turn of the 7th century. The city's cathedral became a major focus of pilgrimage following the 1170 martyrdom of Thomas Becket, although it had been a well-trodden pilgrim destination since the murder of St Alphege by the men of King Canute in 1012. A journey of pilgrims to Becket's shrine served as the frame for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th century classic The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury is a popular tourist destination: one of the most-visited cities in the United Kingdom, the city's economy is reliant upon tourism; the city has been occupied since Paleolithic times and served as the capital of the Celtic Cantiaci and Jute Kingdom of Kent.
Many historical structures fill the area, including a city wall founded in Roman times and rebuilt in the 14th century, the ruins of St Augustine's Abbey and a Norman castle, the oldest extant school in the world, the King's School. Modern additions include the Marlowe Theatre and the St Lawrence Ground, home of the Kent County Cricket Club. There is a substantial student population, brought about by the presence of the University of Kent, Canterbury Christ Church University, the University for the Creative Arts, the Girne American University Canterbury campus. Canterbury remains, however, a small city in terms of geographical size and population, when compared with other British cities; the Roman settlement of Durovernum Cantiacorum occupied the location of an earlier British town whose ancient British name has been reconstructed as *Durou̯ernon, although the name is sometimes supposed to have derived from various British names for the Stour. In Sub-Roman Britain, it was known in Old Welsh as Cair Ceint.
Occupied by the Jutes, it became known in Old English as Cantwareburh, which developed into the present name. The Canterbury area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, Neolithic and Bronze Age pots have been found in the area. Canterbury was first recorded as the main settlement of the Celtic tribe of the Cantiaci, which inhabited most of modern-day Kent. In the 1st century AD, the Romans named it Durovernum Cantiacorum; the Romans rebuilt the city, with new streets in a grid pattern, a theatre, a temple, a forum, public baths. Although they did not maintain a major military garrison, its position on Watling Street relative to the major Kentish ports of Rutupiae and Lemanae gave it considerable strategic importance. In the late 3rd century, to defend against attack from barbarians, the Romans built an earth bank around the city and a wall with seven gates, which enclosed an area of 130 acres. Despite being counted as one of the 28 cities of Sub-Roman Britain, it seems that after the Romans left Britain in 410 Durovernum Cantiacorum was abandoned for around 100 years, except by a few farmers and decayed.
Over the next 100 years, an Anglo-Saxon community formed within the city walls, as Jutish refugees arrived intermarrying with the locals. In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine to convert its King Æthelberht to Christianity. After the conversion, being a Roman town, was chosen by Augustine as the centre for his episcopal see in Kent, an abbey and cathedral were built. Augustine thus became the first Archbishop of Canterbury; the town's new importance led to its revival, trades developed in pottery and leather. By 630, gold coins were being struck at the Canterbury mint. In 672, the Synod of Hertford gave. In 842 and 851, Canterbury suffered great loss of life during Danish raids. In 978, Archbishop Dunstan refounded the abbey built by Augustine, named it St Augustine's Abbey; the Siege of Canterbury saw a large Viking army besiege Canterbury in 1011, culminating in the city being pillaged and the eventual murder of Archbishop Alphege in 19 April 1012. Remembering the destruction caused by the Danes, the inhabitants of Canterbury did not resist William the Conqueror's invasion in 1066.
William ordered a wooden motte-and-bailey castle to be built by the Roman city wall. In the early 12th century, the castle was rebuilt with stone. After the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine; this pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century collection of stories, The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury Castle was captured by the French Prince Louis during his 1215 invasion of England, before the death of John caused his English supporters to desert his cause and support the young Henry III. Canterbury is associated with several saints from this period who lived in Canterbury: Saint Augustine of Canterbury Saint Anselm of Canterbury Saint Thomas Becket Saint Mellitus Saint Theodore of Tarsus Saint Dunstan Saint Adrian of Canterbury Saint Alphege Saint Æthelberht of Kent The Black Death hit Canterbury in 1348. At 10,000, Canterbury had the 10th largest population in England.
In 1363, during the Hundred Years' War, a Commission of Inquiry found that disrepai
Wulfstan (died 1023)
Wulfstan was an English Bishop of London, Bishop of Worcester, Archbishop of York. He should not be confused with Archbishop of York, or Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, he is thought to have begun his ecclesiastical career as a Benedictine monk. He became the Bishop of London in 996. In 1002 he was elected to the diocese of Worcester and the archdiocese of York, holding both in plurality until 1016, when he relinquished Worcester, it was while he was at London that he first became well known as a writer of sermons, or homilies, on the topic of Antichrist. In 1014, as archbishop, he wrote his most famous work, a homily which he titled the Sermo Lupi ad Anglos, or the Sermon of the Wolf to the English. Besides sermons Wulfstan was instrumental in drafting law codes for both kings Æthelred the Unready and Cnut the Great of England, he is considered one of the two major writers of the late Anglo-Saxon period in England. After his death in 1023, miracles were said to have occurred at his tomb, but attempts to have him declared a saint never bore fruit.
Wulfstan's early life is obscure, but he was the uncle of one Beorhtheah, his successor at Worcester but one, the uncle of Wulfstan of Worcester. About Wulfstan's youth we know nothing, he had familial ties to the Fenlands in East Anglia, to Peterborough specifically. Although there is no direct evidence of his being monastic, the nature of Wulfstan's episcopal career and his affinity with the Benedictine Reform argue that he had once studied and professed as a Benedictine monk at Winchester. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Wulfstan was consecrated bishop of London in 996, succeeding Aelfstan. Besides the notice in the Chronicle, the first record of his name is in a collection of nine Latin penitential letters collected by him, three of which were issued by him as bishop of London, one by him as "Archbishop of the English"; the other five letters in the collection were issued by a Pope John. In the letters issued by Wulfstan as bishop of London he styles himself "Lupus episcopus", meaning "the bishop Wolf".
"Lupus" is the Latin form of the first element of his Old English name, which means "wolf-stone". In 1002 Wulfstan was elected Archbishop of York and was translated to that see. Holding York brought him control over the diocese of Worcester, as at that time it was practice in England to hold "the disaffected northern archbishopric in plurality with a southern see." He held both York until 1016, resigning Worcester to Leofsige while retaining York. There is evidence, that he retained influence over Worcester after this time, that Leofsige acted "only as a suffragan to Wulfstan." Although holding two or more episcopal sees in plurality was both uncanonical and against the spirit of the Benedictine Reform, Wulfstan had inherited this practice from previous archbishops of York, he was not the last to hold York and Worcester in plurality. Wulfstan must have early on garnered the favour of powerful men Æthelred king of England, for we find him drafting all royal law codes promulgated under Æthelred's reign from 1005 to 1016.
There is no doubt. This made him a suitable choice for the king's legal draftsman, but it is likely that Wulfstan's position as archbishop of York, an important centre in the politically sensitive northern regions of the English kingdom, made him not only a influential man in the North, but a powerful ally for the king and his family in the South. It is indicative of Wulfstan's continuing political importance and savvy that he acted as legal draftsman for, advisor to, the Danish king Cnut, who took England's West Saxon throne in 1016. Wulfstan was one of the most effective Old English prose writers, his writings cover a wide range of topics in an greater range of genres, including homilies, secular laws, religious canons, political theory. With Ælfric of Eynsham, he is one of the two major vernacular writers in early eleventh-century England, a period which, was still much enamoured of and influenced by the Benedictine Reform; the Benedictine Reform was a movement which sought to institute monastic standards among the secular clergy, a movement made popular by the churchmen of the Carolingian Empire in the ninth and tenth centuries.
The Reform promoted a regular life for priests and clerics, a strict church hierarchy, the primacy of the Roman see, the authority of codified or canonical church law, stressed the importance of catholic, universal, church practices throughout all Christendom. These ideas could only thrive in a social and political atmosphere which recognised the importance of both the clergy's and the laity's obedience to the authority of the church on all things spiritual, on many things secular and juridical; this was one of the main theoretical models behind much of Wulfstan's legal and quasi-legal writings. But Wulfstan was not blind to the fact that, in order for this Reform model to thrive in England, the English clergy and laity needed to be educated in the basic tenets of the faith. Nothing less than the legitimacy of English Christendom rested on Englishmen's steadfastness on certain fundamental Christian beliefs and practices, for example
Robert Winchelsey was an English Catholic theologian and Archbishop of Canterbury. He studied at the universities of Paris and Oxford, taught at both. Influenced by Thomas Aquinas, he was a scholastic theologian. Winchelsey held various benefices in England and was the Chancellor of Oxford University before being elected to Canterbury in early 1293. Although he had the support of Edward I, Winchelsey became a forceful opponent of the king; the archbishop was encouraged by the papacy to resist Edward's attempts to tax the clergy. Winchelsey was an opponent of the king's treasurer Walter Langton as well as other clergy. On one occasion he rebuked an abbot so. Following the election of a former royal clerk as Pope Clement V in 1305, the king was able to secure the archbishop's exile that same year. Upon the succession of Edward's son, Edward II, Winchelsey was allowed to return to England after the new king petitioned the pope to allow his return. Winchelsey soon joined the king's enemies and was the only bishop to object to the return of the king's favourite, Piers Gaveston.
Winchelsey died in 1313. Although miracles were alleged to have happened at his tomb, an attempt to have him declared a saint was unsuccessful. Winchelsey studied and taught at the universities of Paris and Oxford, became the Rector of Paris, Chancellor of Oxford. While in Paris, he read, met, Thomas Aquinas, his own theology was thereafter purely scholastic. In 1283, he was appointed canon of St. Paul's in London, but it is unclear when he returned to England, he held the prebend of Oxgate in the diocese of London, was made Archdeacon of Essex in the London diocese, in about 1288. John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in December 1292. On 13 February 1293, Winchelsey was elected as his successor. Unusually, neither the pope nor the king had a hand in his election. On 1 April, Winchelsey left England for Rome to get papal confirmation, he was not consecrated because of a papal vacancy. Winchelsey was a fearless opponent of Edward I; when he swore his oath of fealty to Edward, he offended the king by adding a declaration that he was only swearing fealty for the temporalities, not the spiritualities.
All through his term as archbishop he refused to allow Edward to tax the clergy beyond certain levels, withstood severe pressure to change his mind. In August 1295, he offered the king a tenth of all ecclesiastical revenues, less than Edward had hoped to collect from the clergy. Winchelsey did concede though that if the war with France, what the money was requested to fund, continued into the following year the clergy would be amenable to making further contributions. Following the issue of the papal bull Clericis laicos in 1296, forbidding the payment of taxes to a secular power, Winchelsey urged his clergy in 1297 to refuse payments to Edward. However, the clergy of the province of York paid a tax of a fifth of their revenues. Edward declared clerics who refused to pay outlaws, ordered their property to be seized, he conceded that the clergy could return to his protection if they paid a fine of a fifth of their revenues what the northern clergy had offered in the way of taxation. The royal clerks and many other clergy paid the fines, in March, the southern clergy met again, after a long debate, Winchelsey instructed each clerk to decide for himself whether or not to pay the fine.
It appears that most chose to pay, but the archbishop still refused to make any contribution, so Edward seized his lands. They were returned to him in July 1297, when the prelate were reconciled at Westminster. Winchelsey tried to mediate between Edward and the earls, who objected to Edward's tax demands. Winchelsey further irritated Edward with his opposition to the Bishop of Lichfield, Walter Langton, the king's treasurer; the king was not the only one to be upset by the archbishop. In 1299, Winchelsey and the king reconciled, the archbishop presided at the king's second marriage, to Margaret of France, at Canterbury. Winchelsey vigorously asserted his authority over his suffragan, or subordinate bishops, quarrelled with Pope Boniface VIII over a Sussex living, was excommunicated by one of the pope's clerks in 1301, he was absolved in 1302. Winchelsey and the barons joined in demanding reforms from the king at the parliament of Lincoln in 1301, but Winchelsey's support of Boniface VIII's claim to be the protector of Scotland broke the alliance.
One of the reasons which led the archbishop to ally with the barons was his hostility to Edward's adviser, Walter Langton, Bishop of Lichfield. The king took no action against Winchelsey until the Gascon and former royal clerk Bertrand de Got was named Pope Clement V in 1305. Edward sent two envoys – Langton and Henry Lacy – to the pope, to press his claim that Winchelsey was plotting against him. Clement suspended the archbishop on 12 February 1306. Winchelsey left England and went to the papal court at Bordeaux, where he stayed until Edward's death in July 1307. Only Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham supported the archbishop. After the death of Edward I, the new king, Edward II, asked that Winchelsey be restored, which the pope agreed to on 22 January 1308. Soon after his return to England in early 1308 the archbishop joined the king's enemies; the archbishop, along with the Earl of Warwick, were the only people to object to the return of the new king's favourite Piers Gaveston to England in 1309.
Winchelsey aided the barons in their prosecutio