Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C; the first issue was published in 1970. The history of Smithsonian began when Edward K. Thompson, the retired editor of Life magazine, was asked by the then-Secretary of the Smithsonian, S. Dillon Ripley, to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested."Thompson would recall that his philosophy for the new magazine was that it "would stir curiosity in receptive minds. It would deal with history, it would present art. It would peer of science and technology. Technical matters would be digested and made intelligible by skilled writers who would stimulate readers to reach upward while not turning them off with jargon. We would find the best writers and the best photographers—not unlike the best of the old Life."In 1973, the magazine turned a profit for the first time. By 1974, circulation had nearly quadrupled, to 635,000, it reached the one million milestone in 1975—one of the most successful launches of its time.
In 1980, Thompson was replaced by Don Moser, who had worked at Life, circulation reached upwards of two million, in turn, by Carey Winfrey upon his retirement in 2001. Smithsonian magazine provides in-depth analysis of varied topics within a diverse range of scientific areas, adds photography to supplement its comprehensive features; the monthly magazine looks at the topics and subject matters researched and exhibited by the Smithsonian Institution - science, art, popular culture and innovation - and chronicles them for its diverse readership. Every year since 2012, the Magazine has sponsored the American Ingenuity Awards, a recognition of innovation in the arts and technology. Winners have included Elon Musk, Lin-Manuel Miranda, OK Go, Dave Eggers, Aziz Ansari, Rosanne Cash, Jeff Bezos, Fred Armisen, Bill Hader and David Lynch. Presenters have included Stephen Hawking, Stephen Colbert, David Byrne, Herbie Hancock, Erin Brockovich, Ruben Blades, Bill Nye, Art Spiegelman and Senator Al Franken.
The American Ingenuity Award. Every year since 2003, Smithsonian magazine has run an international photography contest. Tens of thousands of images are submitted from over a hundred countries. 2017 Winners: Thong Huu, Sara Jacoby, Oreon Strusinski, Dan Fenstermacher, Tran Tuan Viet, SEYED MOHAMMAD SADEGH HOSSEINI, Adam Żądło and Mohammad Mohsenifar. 2016 Winners: Pradeep Raja Kannaiah, Milan Sachs, Prelena Soma Owen, Stephanie Foden, Peter Nutkins, Greta Rybus, João Borges, Jim Mneymneh and Alina Rudya. 2015 Winners: Albert Ivan Damanik, Alice Van Kempen, Hidetoshi Ogata, Lauren Pond, Tamina-Florentine Zuch, Tihomir Trichkov, Benedetta Ristori, Radim Schreiber, Jian Wang. 2014 Winners: Pham Ty, Nicolas Reusens, Lorenzo Mittiga, Olivier Douliery, David Martín Huamaní Bedoya, Joydeep Mukherjee, Jefflin Ling, Yilang Peng. 2013 Winners: Sergio Carbajo Rodriguez, Candy Feng, Graham McGeorge, Willie Huang, Nidal Adnan Kibria, Simon Morris, Shamma Esoof, Cesar Rodriguez. Notable past and current contributors to Smithsonian have included: Official website
Long Beach, Washington
Long Beach is a city in Pacific County, United States. The population was 1,392 at the 2010 census. Long Beach began when Henry Harrison Tinker bought a land claim from Charles E. Reed in 1880, he platted the town and called it "Tinkerville." Long Beach was incorporated on January 18, 1922. From 1889 to 1930, a narrow gauge railroad called the Ilwaco Railway and Navigation Company ran up the whole peninsula; the Long Beach depot was built between First and Second Streets on the east side of the track, which ran north along "B" Street. A major destination in Long Beach was Tinker's Hotel renamed the Long Beach Hotel, built close to the station; this was the second hotel built at the site by the founder of Long Beach. Tinker's first hotel burned down in 1894, he built another one south of the rail depot. The image in the gallery shows a crowd waiting for the train sometime between 1901 and 1907. Just across the tracks from Tinker's Hotel in Long Beach was the Portland Hotel; the Portland Hotel, owned by the Hanniman family featured an enormous round turret-like structure.
The Portland Hotel burned down on December 6, 1914, was not replaced. The Driftwood Hotel was another common Long Beach destination; the boardwalk area near the station was known as "Rubberneck Row." Businesses existing in August 1911 that can be identified along Rubberneck Row from photographs include, on the west side of the tracks, an establishment advertising "Baths", Milton York Candies, a "Postal Shop," and a soda fountain just across from the station advertising "Milk Shake." A somewhat earlier photograph shows a sign for a livery stable to the west across the tracks from Tinker's Hotel, followed by a barber shop, "Vincent's Souvenirs," and "The Candy Man". A banner stretching above the tracks advertises a restaurant; the photo published by Feagans shows it was produced by H. A. Vincent and Long Beach, the owner of Vincent's Souvenirs. In the late 80's, the Marsh's free Museum was made to show people wonders of the northwest. Long Beach is located at 46°21′3″N 124°3′13″W on the Long Beach Peninsula.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.35 square miles, all of it land. With a marine west coast-cool summer Mediterranean climate, Long Beach is known for its year round mild climate. Both hot and cold weather is rare; the record high temperature is 99 degrees Fahrenheit on August 10, 1981 and the record low is 0 degrees Fahrenheit on December 8, 1972. Long Beach records nearly 80 inches of rainfall annually. Snow can happen every once in a while. If a magnitude 9.0 earthquake were to hit the Cascadia subduction zone, emergency planners estimate the first tsunami waves could hit Long Beach 20 to 25 minutes later. At a December 2016 open house, the city government presented initial plans of a proposed 32-foot berm which could accommodate eight-hundred and fifty persons; the structure would have a "modified prow" much like a ship looking out to sea. The shape is designed to withstand the backwash from a tsunami; the total estimated cost would be $3.4 million of which the Federal Emergency Management Agency would pay 75%, the Emergency Management Division of Washington State 12.5%, the City of Long Beach 12.5%.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,392 people, 726 households, 342 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,031.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,564 housing units at an average density of 1,158.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.5% White, 0.1% African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.7% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.7% of the population. There were 726 households of which 15.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.9% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 52.9% were non-families. 44.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.85 and the average family size was 2.54. The median age in the city was 50.1 years. 14.5% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,283 people, 660 households, 314 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,018.7 people per square mile. There were 1,155 housing units at an average density of 917.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.87% White, 0.08% African American, 1.09% Native American, 1.40% Asian, 1.56% from other races, 6.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.83% of the population. 19.6% were of German, 11.5% Irish, 10.3% English, 6.3% American and 5.7% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 660 households out of which 17.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.2% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 52.3% were non-families. 43.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.92 and the average family size was 2.63.
In the city, the popula
American Platinum Eagle
The American Platinum Eagle is the official platinum bullion coin of the United States. In 1995, Director of the United States Mint Philip N. Diehl, American Numismatic Association President David L. Ganz, Platinum Guild International Executive Director Jacques Luben began the legislative process of creating the Platinum Eagle. After over two years of work, the 99.95% fine platinum coins were released by the United States Mint in 1⁄10, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 and 1 troy oz denominations. In late 2008, the fractional denominations were discontinued, leaving only the one ounce denomination; the Platinum Eagle is authorized by the United States Congress, is backed by the United States Mint for weight and purity. Proof versions of the coins are intended for coin collectors and sold directly to the public whereas the bullion versions are sold only to the Mint's authorized buyers; the proof American Platinum Eagles are unique in the fact that they are the only U. S. bullion coins. Bullion versions are minted with the same design every year.
While minted, the uncirculated Platinum Eagles matched the proof designs and were struck on burnished coin blanks with a "W" mint mark signifying West Point, further distinguishing them from the bullion versions. The 1⁄10, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 troy oz coins are identical in design to the 1 troy oz coin except for the markings on the reverse side that indicate the weight and face value of the coin; as is the case with bullion coins, the face values of these coins are their legal values reflecting their issue and monetized value as coins. They are legal tender for all debts private at their face values; these face values do not reflect their intrinsic value, much greater. The 1 troy oz coin's face value of $100 is the highest to appear on a U. S. coin. The U. S. Government, has taken the position that paying debts with such coins at their face value, where the face value is lower than its intrinsic value, will implicate money laundering and tax evasion statutes; the specifications of each denomination are presented below: All denominations of the proof American Platinum Eagles carry a yearly design.
These coins are the only U. S. bullion coins that change designs every year. Since 1998, each design aside from the 2017 reverse commemorating the 20th anniversary of the program, has been part of a themed series: 1998–2002: The Vistas of Liberty series featured reverse designs depicting a bald eagle in a different landscape of the United States, in a different region of the country. 2006–2008: The Foundations of Democracy series featured reverse designs representing the three branches of government. 2009–2014: The Preamble to the Constitution series explored the core concepts of American democracy by highlighting the Preamble to the United States Constitution. The themes for the reverse designs for this program are inspired by narratives prepared by former Chief Justice of the United States, John Roberts, at the request of the United States Mint. 2015–2016: The Torches of Liberty series featured reverse designs from the Artistic Infusion Program which represent the "nation's core values of liberty and freedom".
2018–2020: The Preamble to the Declaration of Independence series features obverse designs portraying Lady Liberty and handwritten single-word inscriptions from the Declaration of Independence in addition to a new common reverse design. It is the first series to vary obverse designs, all created concurrently by the same designer, rather than reverse designs. On November 28, 2007, the U. S. Mint announced the American Eagle 10th Anniversary Platinum Coin Set. Intended to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Platinum Eagle's 1997 launch, the set contained two half-ounce Platinum Eagles, one matching the 2007 proof strike from earlier in the year and the other carrying an enhanced reverse proof finish with the same design; this first offering of a reverse proof version of the Platinum Eagle followed the prior year's release of similar sets for the American Silver Eagle and American Gold Eagle's 20th anniversary. In addition to being accompanied by a certificate of authenticity, the coins were encased in a domed mahogany box designed to display the coins at an angle.
The set's release on December 13, 2007 at a price of $1,949.95 with a seven-day one-set-per-household limit was met with strong collector interest. First week sales reached 14,682 units half of the maximum ordered mintage of 30,000 units. However, due to fluctuations in the price of platinum, the Mint suspended sales on February 13, 2008, resumed sales about a month at $2,649.95. The increased price constituted a larger premium, around $635, above spot; the following months brought a decline in platinum's price below $1,000 per troy oz, precipitating further suspensions and a final price of $1,249.95. When sales were ended in December 31, 2008, over a year after its initial release, the Mint reported total sales of 19,583 units; the figures listed below are the final audited mintages from the U. S. include coins sold both individually and as part of multi-coin sets. Since 2009, only the $100 denomination has been offered. Bullion Platinum Eagles were not issued from 2009 to 2013. In 2015, due to an insufficient quantity of blanks, no bullion Platinum Eagles were issued.
American Gold Eagle American Silver Eagle American Palladium Eagle Eagle Canadian Platinum Maple Leaf Platinum coin Platinum as an investment United States Mint American Eagle Coin Program page United States Mint American Eagle Platinum Bullion Coins page United States Mint American Eagle Proof and Uncirculated Coin Program page United States Mint American Eagle Coin Images page
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
The Philadelphia Mint was created from the need to establish a national identity and the needs of commerce in the United States. This led the Founding Fathers of the United States to make an establishment of a continental national mint, a main priority after the ratification of the Constitution of the United States; the Coinage Act of 1792 was entered into law on April 2. It proclaimed the creation of the United States Mint. Philadelphia at that time was the nation's capital; the Mint Act instituted a decimal system based on a dollar unit. David Rittenhouse, an American scientist, was appointed the first director of the mint by President George Washington. Two lots were purchased by Rittenhouse on July 18, 1792, at Seventh Street and 631 Filbert Street in Philadelphia for $4,266.67. The next day, demolition of an abandoned whiskey distillery on the property began. Foundation work began on July 31, by September 7, the first building was ready for installation of the smelting furnace; the smelt house was the first public building.
A three-story brick structure facing Seventh Street was constructed a few months later. Measuring nearly 37 ft wide on the street, it only extended back 33 ft; the gold and silver for the mint were contained in basement vaults. The first floor housed deposit and weighing rooms, along with the press room, where striking coins took place. Mint official offices were on the second floor, the assay office was located on the third floor. A photograph of the Seventh Street building taken around 1908 show that by the year 1792 and the words "Ye Olde Mint" had been painted onto the facade. Between the smelt house and the building on Seventh Street, a mill house was built. Horses in the basement turned a rolling mill located on the first floor. In January 1816, the smelt and mill houses were destroyed by a fire; the smelt house was never repaired and all smelting was done elsewhere. The mill house, destroyed, was soon replaced with a large brick building, it included a new steam engine in the basement to power the machinery.
Until 1833, these three buildings provided the United States with hard currency. Operations moved to the second Philadelphia mint in 1833, the land housing the first mint was sold. In the late 19th or early 20th century, the property was sold to Frank Stewart, who approached the city, asking them to preserve or relocate the historic buildings. With no governmental help, the first mint was demolished between 1907 and 1911. Now, only a small plaque remains to memorialize the spot. On July 4, 1829, a cornerstone was laid for the building at the intersection of Chestnut and Juniper Streets, it was designed by William Strickland. The second Philadelphia Mint, the "Grecian Temple", was constructed of white marble with classic Greek-style columns on front and back. Measuring 150 ft wide in front by 204 ft deep, it was a huge improvement over the first facility, in space as well as image. Opening in January 1833, its production was constrained by the outdated machinery salvaged from the first mint. Franklin Peale was sent to Europe to study advanced coinmaking technologies which were brought back and implemented, increasing productivity and quality.
Sold in 1902, the second mint was demolished. The cornerstone buried in 1833 was unearthed and contained a candy jar with a petrified cork stoppering it. Inside the jar were three coins, a few newspapers, a scroll with information on the first mint and the creation of the second; the site has been occupied since 1914 by 1339 Chestnut Street. The third Philadelphia Mint was built at 1700 Spring Garden Street and opened in 1901, it was designed by William Martin Aiken, Architect for the Treasury, but it was constructed under James Knox Taylor. It was a block from the United States Smelting Company, at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. In one year alone, the mint produced 501,000,000 coins, as well as 90,000,000 coins for foreign countries. A massive structure nearly a full city block, it was an instant landmark, characterized by a Roman temple facade. Visitors enjoyed seven themed glass mosaics designed by Louis C. Tiffany in a gold-backed vaulted ceiling; the mosaics depicted ancient Roman coinmaking methods.
This mint still stands intact, much of the interior is intact, as well. It was acquired by the Community College of Philadelphia in 1973. A tribute page has been created. Two blocks from the site of the first mint, the fourth and current Philadelphia Mint opened its doors in 1969, it was designed by Philadelphia architect Vincent G. Kling, who would help design Five Penn Center, Centre Square, the Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts, it was the world's largest mint when it was built and held that distinction as of October 2017. The Philadelphia Mint can produce up to one million coins in 30 minutes, it took three years for the original mint to produce that many. The mint produces medals and awards for military and civil services. Engraving of all dies and strikers only occurs here. Uncirculated coins minted here have the "P" mint mark, while circulated coins from before 1980 carried no mint mark except the Jefferson nickels minted from 1942–1945 and the 1979 Susan B. Anthony dollar coins. Since 1980, all coins minted there have the "P" mint mark except cents until 2017.
Tours can be taken. This takes place via an enclosed catwalk above the minting facility itself. Various video stations are p
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t