Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Chertsey is a town in the Runnymede borough of Surrey, England on the right bank of the River Thames where it is met by a corollary, the Abbey River and a tributary, the River Bourne or Chertsey Bourne. It is within a narrow projection of the Greater London Urban Area, aside from the Thames bordered by Thorpe Park, junction 11 of the M25 London orbital motorway, the town of Addlestone and south-western semi-rural villages that were within Chertsey. Chertsey is centred 29 kilometres southwest of central London, has a branch line railway station and less than 1 mile north of its developed centre is the M3. Chertsey's built environment has the medieval tower and chancel roof of its Anglican church and 18th century listed buildings including the stone Chertsey Bridge, Botleys Mansion within a public-access park, many of the buildings along its two right-angled streets forming a church/museum/café/hotel/private housing and general high street respectively. A curfew bell is run at 8pm on weekdays from Michaelmas to Lady Day and is associated with the romantic local legend of Blanche Heriot, celebrated by a statue of the heroine at Chertsey Bridge.
Its green spaces include sports fields, the Thames Path National Trail, Chertsey Meads and a round knoll with remains of a prehistoric hill fort known as Eldebury Hill. The area has much expensive domestic property such as Pyrcroft House from the 18th century and the replacement of'Tara' from the late 20th century. Adjoining are the main areas of woodland and a few remaining agricultural and equestrian fields to the south-west and north; this place appears in the endowment charter of its abbey in the 7th century as Cirotisege or Cerotesege – that is, the island of Cirotis. Chertsey was one of the oldest market towns in England, its Church of England parish church dates to the 12th century and the farmhouse of the'Hardwick' in the elevated south-west is of 16th century construction. It grew to all sides but the north around Chertsey Abbey, founded in 666 A. D by Eorcenwald, Bishop of London on a donation by Frithwald. Accordingly, until the end of use of the hundreds, used in the feudal system until the establishment of Rural Districts and Urban District Councils, the name chosen for the wider Chertsey area hundred was Godley Hundred.
In the 9th century the Abbey and town were sacked by the Danes, leaving a mark today in the name of the neighbouring village and refounded as a subsidiary abbey from Abingdon Abbey by King Edgar in 964. Chertsey appears in the Domesday Book as Certesi, it was held by Chertsey Abbey and by Richard Sturmid from the abbey. Its Domesday assets were: 5 hides, 1 mill and 1 forge at the hall, 20 ploughs, 80 hectares of meadow, woodland worth 50 hogs, it rendered a larger than average sum for the book of manor and ecclesiastical parish entries, £22. The Abbey grew to become one of the largest Benedictine abbeys in England, supported by large fiefs in the northwest corner of Sussex and Surrey until it was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1536; the King took stone from the Abbey to construct his palace at Oatlands Palace. By the late 17th century, only some outer walls of the Abbey remained. During this period until at least 1911 a wider area was included in Chertsey: Ottershaw was an ecclesiastical district.
Today the history of the abbey is reflected in local place names and the surviving former fishponds that fill with water after heavy rain. The nearby Hardwick Court Farm, now much reduced in size and cut off from the town by the M25, has the successor to the abbey's large and well-supported 15th century tithe barn rebuilt in the 17th century; the eighteenth-century Chertsey Bridge provides an important cross-river link, Chertsey Lock is a short distance above it on the opposite side. On the south west corner of the bridge is a bronze statue of local heroine Blanche Heriot striking the bell by Sheila MitchellFRBS; the summit of St Ann's Hill in Chertsey was a vital viewing point for the Anglo-French Survey, which calculated the distance between the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the Paris Observatory using trigonometry. A grid of triangles was measured all the way to the French coast. In the 18th century Chertsey Cricket Club was one of the strongest in the country and beat the rest of England by more than an innings in 1778.
The Duke of Dorset, was appointed Ambassador to France in 1784. He arranged to have the Chertsey cricket team travel to France in 1789 to introduce cricket to the French nobility. However, the team, on arriving at Dover, met the Ambassador returning from France at the outset of the French Revolution and the opportunity was missed; the original Chertsey railway station was built by the London and Southampton Railway and opened on 14 February 1848. The present station, across the level crossing from the site of the original one, was opened on 10 October 1866 by the London and South Western Railway; the Southern Railway completed electrification of the line on 3 January 1937. Samuel Lewis devotes one of his longest entries to small town in his 1848 topographical guide to England: Chertsey Regatta has been held on the river for over 150 years, in the non-Olympic regional sport of skiffing which has a club on this reach of river; the Olympic sport of rowing has an annual Burway Regatta above Chertsey Lock, an area of former flood meadow and golf course.
The Burway was in the m
William Daniell was an English landscape and marine painter, printmaker, notable for his work in aquatint. He travelled extensively in India in the company of his uncle Thomas Daniell, with whom he collaborated on one of the finest illustrated works of the period – Oriental Scenery, he travelled around the coastline of Britain to paint watercolours for the ambitious book A Voyage Round Great Britain. His work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and the British Institution and he became a Royal Academician in 1822. William Daniell was born in Kingston upon Surrey, his father was a owner of a public house called The Swan in nearby Chertsey. Daniell's future was changed when he was sent to live with his uncle, the landscape artist Thomas Daniell after his father's premature death in 1779. In 1784 William accompanied his uncle to India, who worked there on a series of prints, acting as his assistant in preparing drawings and sketches. William's brother Samuel Daniell remained independent of his uncle and became a topographical artist.
From 1806 he lived in Ceylon. Daniell was sixteen. On 17 July 1786, a few months after their arrival in Calcutta, Thomas Daniell placed an advertisement in the Calcutta Chronicle, announcing the forthcoming publication of a set of twelve views of the city; this seemed a promising idea, since Calcutta was expanding and its European inhabitants might be willing to buy prints showing its latest buildings. Both he and William were inexperienced printmakers and had to enlist the help of Indian craftsmen, but the set, executed in aquatint, was completed in November 1788 and sold well. Thomas began planning an ambitious tour of northern India inspired by the wealth of picturesque scenery indicated in William Hodges's collection of aquatints, Select Views in India. In August 1789, Thomas and William set off up-river past Murshidabad to Bhagalpur, where they stayed with Samuel Davis, an employee of the East India Company and a skilled amateur artist, they continued on to Kanpur and travelled overland to Delhi, visiting Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and Mathura on the way.
Thomas and William Daniell were back in Calcutta at the end of 1791. They held a lottery of their completed work. Since the Third Mysore War was in progress, the Daniells suspected that a market existed among the British for oil paintings and drawings of the areas in which the conflict was taking place, they duly visited various hill-forts on their way south, as well as the huge and richly carved temples at Madurai and Rameswaram. Once back in Madras they set off on a tour to western India. On their arrival in Bombay in March 1793 they met James Wales busy drawing the area's cave temples, he took them to Elephanta and Kanheri among other places. In September 1794 the Daniells returned to England. Over the period 1784 to 1794 William had kept a detailed diary of their travels; this is now in the British Library. After 1794 he no longer kept a diary and so we have no information in his own hand about the rest of his life; the Royal Academician, Joseph Farington, himself a landscape painter and topographical draughtsman, kept a diary from 1793 until he died in 1821.
The Daniells were close friends of Farington. John Garvey has gone through the diary and extracted glimpses of William's private life and of his artistic work; the diaries are the only written record we have of the life of William Daniell. In 1794, William and his uncle set up house at Fitzroy Square, their first priority was to publish a selection of their paintings of India. The views that were selected were made into aquatint prints, calling upon William's skills in this delicate medium; these skills were hard earned. Farington records in his diary that William had informed him that on his return to England he spent the next seven years working from six in the morning until midnight perfecting his aquatinting techniques; the Daniells’ great work on India, Oriental Scenery, was published in six parts over the period 1795–1808. It comprised a total of six uncoloured title-pages; the cost of a complete set was £210. The publication was both artistically and financially. Thirty sets were sold to the East India Company, a further order for eighteen copies was received.
Thomas Sutton in his book The Daniells: Artists and Travellers, quotes a glowing tribute to the work of the Daniells from the Calcutta Monthly magazine:The execution of these drawings is indeed masterly. In looking at it, one may feel the warmth of an Indian sky, the water seems to be in actual motion and the animals and plants are studies for the naturalist. Further different versions of Indian scenes were published, details can be found in Sutton's book, together with a detailed inventory of all the artistic output of Thomas and William Daniell. Oriental Scenery took its place among such revered works as J. Stuart and N. Revett's Antiquities of Athens, Baron Denon's Voyage dans la basse et la haute Egypte and Robert Wood's Ruins of Palmyra and Ruins of Balbek, it provided an new vision of the Indian subcontinent, to influence both decorative arts and
Landscape painting known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, trees and forests where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works, landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is always included in the view, weather is an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, develop when there is a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects; the two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases. The recognition of a spiritual element in landscape art is present from its beginnings in East Asian art, drawing on Daoism and other philosophical traditions, but in the West only becomes explicit with Romanticism. Landscape views in art may be imaginary, or copied from reality with varying degrees of accuracy.
If the primary purpose of a picture is to depict an actual, specific place including buildings prominently, it is called a topographical view. Such views common as prints in the West, are seen as inferior to fine art landscapes, although the distinction is not always meaningful; the word "landscape" entered the modern English language as landskip, an anglicization of the Dutch landschap, around the start of the 17th century, purely as a term for works of art, with its first use as a word for a painting in 1598. Within a few decades it was used to describe vistas in poetry, as a term for real views; however the cognate term landscaef or landskipe for a cleared patch of land had existed in Old English, though it is not recorded from Middle English. The earliest forms of art around the world depict little that could be called landscape, although ground-lines and sometimes indications of mountains, trees or other natural features are included; the earliest "pure landscapes" with no human figures are frescos from Minoan Greece of around 1500 BCE.
Hunting scenes those set in the enclosed vista of the reed beds of the Nile Delta from Ancient Egypt, can give a strong sense of place, but the emphasis is on individual plant forms and human and animal figures rather than the overall landscape setting. The frescos from the Tomb of Nebamun, now in the British Museum, are a famous example. For a coherent depiction of a whole landscape, some rough system of perspective, or scaling for distance, is needed, this seems from literary evidence to have first been developed in Ancient Greece in the Hellenistic period, although no large-scale examples survive. More ancient Roman landscapes survive, from the 1st century BCE onwards frescos of landscapes decorating rooms that have been preserved at archaeological sites of Pompeii and elsewhere, mosaics; the Chinese ink painting tradition of shan shui, or "pure" landscape, in which the only sign of human life is a sage, or a glimpse of his hut, uses sophisticated landscape backgrounds to figure subjects, landscape art of this period retains a classic and much-imitated status within the Chinese tradition.
Both the Roman and Chinese traditions show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes backed with a range of spectacular mountains – in China with waterfalls and in Rome including sea, lakes or rivers. These were used, as in the example illustrated, to bridge the gap between a foreground scene with figures and a distant panoramic vista, a persistent problem for landscape artists; the Chinese style showed only a distant view, or used dead ground or mist to avoid that difficulty. A major contrast between landscape painting in the West and East Asia has been that while in the West until the 19th century it occupied a low position in the accepted hierarchy of genres, in East Asia the classic Chinese mountain-water ink painting was traditionally the most prestigious form of visual art. Aesthetic theories in both regions gave the highest status to the works seen to require the most imagination from the artist. In the West this was history painting, but in East Asia it was the imaginary landscape, where famous practitioners were, at least in theory, amateur literati, including several Emperors of both China and Japan.
They were also poets whose lines and images illustrated each other. In the 1830s the British inventor William Talbot creates the process of calotype and in 1844 he publishes the first book with photo illustrations: "The Pencil of Nature"Talbot, W. H. F.. The Pencil of Nature: in 6 parts. However, in the West, history painting came to require an extensive landscape background where appropriate, so the theory did not work against the development of landscape painting – for several centuries landscapes were promoted to the status of history painting by the addition of small figures to make a narrative scene religious or mythological. In early Western medieval art interest in landscape disappears entirely, kept alive only in copies of Late Antique works such as the Utrecht Psalter. A revival in interest in nature mainly manifested itself in depictions of small gardens such as the Hortus Conclusus or those in millefleur tapestries; the frescos of figures at work or pl
Queen Street, London
Queen Street is a street in the City of London which runs between Upper Thames Street at its southern end to Cheapside in the north. The thoroughfares of Queen Street and King Street were newly laid out, cutting across more ancient routes in the City, following the Great Fire of London in 1666. At the lower end of Queen Street is Southwark Bridge; the London Chamber of Commerce & Industry is located at No. 33. At the upper end the street crosses Cheapside and becomes King Street, which leads to Gresham Street and the Guildhall; this creates a direct route from the River Thames at Southwark Bridge up to the Guildhall. Queen Street meets the newer Queen Victoria Street as well as Cannon Street. Minor roads off the street include Cloak Lane. Two short sections of the street are pedestrianised, which together with a pedestrian-priority crossing of Cannon Street, forms a "Central Plaza" area; this was part of an award-winning public realm improvement scheme undertaken in 2006. This pedestrianised part of Queen Street has been used as a location for a number of art events organised by the City of London Festival and the London Architectural Biennale.
Queen Street and King Street form part of an important route on the London Cycle Network which continues south over Southwark Bridge and north towards Moorgate. Queen Street runs through the wards of Vintry and Cordwainer, is in the postal code area EC4. King Street is in the ward of Cheap and in postcode area EC2. King Street formed part of the marathon course of Paralympic Games; the women's Olympic marathon took place on the men's on 12 August. The four Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It borders with Cheshire to the northwest and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the southeast, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, Shropshire to the west; the largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority. Lichfield has city status, although this is a smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Tamworth. Smaller towns include Stone, Uttoxeter, Burntwood/Chasetown, Eccleshall and the large villages of Wombourne, Tutbury, Barton-under-Needwood and Abbots Bromley. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest and the Peak District national park. Wolverhampton, West Bromwich and Smethwick are within the historic county boundaries of Staffordshire, but since 1974 have been part of the West Midlands county. Apart from Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire is divided into the districts of Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Staffordshire Moorlands, Tamworth.
Staffordshire was divided into five hundreds: Cuttlestone, Pirehill and Totmonslow. The historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands. An administrative county of Staffordshire was set up in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 covering the county except the county boroughs of Wolverhampton and West Bromwich in the south, Hanley in the north; the Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united in Staffordshire. In 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county corporate, meaning it was administered separately from the rest of Staffordshire, it remained so until 1888. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, thus associated with Warwickshire. Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, became the single county borough of Stoke-on-Trent.
A significant boundary change occurred in 1926 when the east of Sedgley was transferred to Worcestershire to allow the construction of the new Priory Estate on land purchased by Dudley County Borough council. A major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs; the County Borough of Warley was formed by the merger of the county borough of Smethwick and municipal borough of Rowley Regis with the Worcestershire borough of Oldbury: the resulting county borough was associated with Worcestershire. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley a detached part of Worcestershire and became associated with Staffordshire instead; this reorganisation led to the administrative county of Staffordshire having a thin protrusion passing between the county boroughs and Shropshire, to the west, to form a short border with Worcestershire. Under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 the county boroughs of the Black Country and the Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District of Staffordshire became, along with Birmingham and Coventry and other districts, a new metropolitan county of West Midlands.
County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a non-metropolitan district in Staffordshire, Burton forming an unparished area in the district of East Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, Stoke-on-Trent became a unitary authority independent of Staffordshire once more. In July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield; the artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively been dated to the 7th or 8th centuries, placing the origin of the items in the time of the Kingdom of Mercia. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Staffordshire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling; some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society, based in Leek. JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and Bet365, based in Stoke-on-Trent.
The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the world's largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent. Staffordshire has a comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18. Resources are shared. There are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury; the modern county of Staffordshire has three professional football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent. Stoke City, one of the oldest professional football clubs in existence, were founded in 1863 and played at the Victoria Ground for 119 years from 1878 until their relocation to the Britannia Stadium in 1997, they were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888. By the late 1930s, they were establi
Royal Society of Arts
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges. Founded in 1754 by William Shipley as the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, it was granted a Royal Charter in 1847, the right to use the term Royal in its name by King Edward VII in 1908; the shorter version, The Royal Society of Arts and the related RSA acronym, are used more than the full name. Notable past fellows include Charles Dickens, Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Hawking, Karl Marx, Adam Smith, Nelson Mandela, David Attenborough, William Hogarth, John Diefenbaker, Tim Berners-Lee. Today, the RSA has Fellows elected from 80 countries worldwide; the RSA award three medals, the Albert Medal, the Benjamin Franklin Medal and the Bicentenary Medal. Medal winners include Nelson Mandela, Sir Frank Whittle, Professor Stephen Hawking; the RSA members are innovative contributors to the human knowledge, as shown by the Oxford English Dictionary, which records the first use of the term "sustainability" in an environmental sense of the word in the RSA Journal in 1980.
On the RSA building's frieze The Royal Society of Arts words are engraved, although its full name is Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts and Commerce. The short name and the related R S of A abbreviation is used more than the full name; the RSA's mission expressed in the founding charter was to "embolden enterprise, enlarge science, refine art, improve our manufacturers and extend our commerce", but of the need to alleviate poverty and secure full employment. On its website, the RSA characterises itself as "an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to today’s social challenges"; the RSA's Patron is HM Elizabeth II, the RSA's President is HRH The Princess Royal, its Chairman is Vikki Heywood, its Chief Executive is Matthew Taylor. 1755–1761: The Viscount Folkestone 1761–1793: The Lord Romney 1794–1815: The Duke of Norfolk 1816–1843: HRH The Duke of Sussex 1843–1861: HRH The Prince Consort 1862–1862: William Tooke 1863–1901: HRH The Prince of Wales 1901–1901: Sir Frederick Bramwell 1901–1910: HRH The Prince of Wales 1910–1910: The Lord Alverstone 1911–1942: HRH The Duke of Connaught 1942–1943: Sir Edward Crowe 1943–1945: E. F. Armstrong 1945–1947: The Viscount Bennett 1947–1952: The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh 1952–2011: HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 2011–present: HRH The Princess Royal Prospective fellows can apply for membership.
There have been nearly 28,000 Fellows since 1754. Fellows must have demonstrated a high level of achievement related to the arts and commerce and more "share the values" of the RSA and be "committed to supporting the mission of the RSA"; this change coincided with a rebranding of the RSA mission as a "21st century enlightenment" and its approach as "The Power to Create", which aims at broadening the RSA's impact through increasing its Fellowship. Life Fellows must have demonstrated exceptionally high achievement; the RSA says: "The RSA Fellowship is an international community achievers and influencers from a wide array of backgrounds and professions, distinguished by the title'FRSA'. Fellows are social entrepreneurs to scientists, community leaders to commercial innovators and journalists to architects and engineers, many more." Fellows of the RSA are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSA. Fellowship is regarded as an honour and privilege. Modelled on the Dublin Society for improving Husbandry and other Useful Arts, the RSA, from its foundation, offered prizes through a Premium Award Scheme that continued for 100 years.
Medals and, in some cases, money were awarded to individuals who achieved success in published challenges within the categories of Agriculture, Polite Arts, Manufacture and Trade, Chemistry and Mechanics. Successful submission included agricultural improvements in the cultivation of crops and reforestation, devising new forms of machinery, including an extendable ladder to aid firefighting that has remained in use unchanged, artistic skill, through submissions by young students, many of whom developed into famous artists i.e. Edwin Landseer who at the age of 10 was awarded a silver medal for his drawing of a dog; the RSA specifically precluded premiums for patented solutions. Today the RSA continues to offer premiums. In 1936, the RSA awarded the first distinctions of Royal Designers for Industry, reserved for "those few who in the judgment of their peers have achieved'sustained excellence in aesthetic and efficient design for industry'". In 1937 "The Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry" was established as an association with the object of "furthering excellence in design and its application to industrial purposes": membership of the Faculty is automatic for all RDIs and HonRDIs.
The Faculty has 120 Royal Designers and 45 Honorary Royal Designers: the number of designers who may hold the distinction of RDI at any one time is limited. The Faculty consists of the world’s leading practitioners from fields as disparate as engineering, furniture and textiles, graphics and film design. Early members include Eric Gill, Enid Marx, Sir Frank Whittle and numerous ot