An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of rotation of a shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates in the reverse direction, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction and type of motion output. In addition to AC versus DC types, motors may be brushed or brushless, may be of various phase, may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled. General-purpose motors with standard dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use.
The largest electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors are found in industrial fans and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools and disk drives. Small motors may be found in electric watches. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors, electric motors can be used in reverse as generators to recover energy that might otherwise be lost as heat and friction. Electric motors produce linear or rotary force and can be distinguished from devices such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that convert electricity into motion but do not generate usable mechanical force, which are referred to as actuators and transducers; the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices described in experiments by Scottish monk Andrew Gordon and American experimenter Benjamin Franklin in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind them, Coulomb's law, was discovered but not published, by Henry Cavendish in 1771.
This law was discovered independently by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb in 1785, who published it so that it is now known with his name. The invention of the electrochemical battery by Alessandro Volta in 1799 made possible the production of persistent electric currents. After the discovery of the interaction between such a current and a magnetic field, namely the electromagnetic interaction by Hans Christian Ørsted in 1820 much progress was soon made, it only took a few weeks for André-Marie Ampère to develop the first formulation of the electromagnetic interaction and present the Ampère's force law, that described the production of mechanical force by the interaction of an electric current and a magnetic field. The first demonstration of the effect with a rotary motion was given by Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury; when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire.
This motor is demonstrated in physics experiments, substituting brine for mercury. Barlow's wheel was an early refinement to this Faraday demonstration, although these and similar homopolar motors remained unsuited to practical application until late in the century. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils. After Jedlik solved the technical problems of continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices "electromagnetic self-rotors". Although they were used only for teaching, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three main components of practical DC motors: the stator and commutator; the device employed no permanent magnets, as the magnetic fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced by the currents flowing through their windings. After many other more or less successful attempts with weak rotating and reciprocating apparatus Prussian Moritz von Jacobi created the first real rotating electric motor in May 1834.
It developed remarkable mechanical output power. His motor set a world record, which Jacobi improved four years in September 1838, his second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river. It was in 1839/40 that other developers managed to build motors with similar and higher performance; the first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832. Following Sturgeon's work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor was built by American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837; the motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, powered machine tools and a printing press. Due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and bankrupted Davenport. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors, but all encountered the same battery cost issues; as no electricity distribution system was available at the time, no practical commercial market emerged for these motors.
In 1855, Jedlik built a device using similar principles to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors, capable of useful work. He built a model electric vehicle that same year. A major turning point came in 1864; this featured symmetrically-grouped coils closed upon themselves and connected to the bars of a commutator, the brushes of which delivered non-fluctuating current. The first c
Crown Point, New York
Crown Point is a town in Essex County, New York, United States, located on the west shore of Lake Champlain. The population was 2,024 at the 2010 census; the name of the town is a direct translation of the original French name, "Pointe à la Chevelure". The town is on the eastern edge of Essex County, it is 43 miles southwest of Burlington, Vermont, 53 miles northeast of Queensbury, New York, 120 miles south of Montreal, 107 miles north of Albany, New York. Two European forts were built here by colonists because of its strategic location at the narrows of Lake Champlain; the forts preceded organization of the town by more than half a century: first was Fort Saint-Frédéric built by the French in 1731, who came to this area from their colonial settlements to the north at Quebec and Montreal. They competed with the British for the fur trade with Native Americans in the area. During the Seven Years' War, the British gained control of this area. Before that, the French retreated and destroyed their fort to keep it out of the hands of the British.
The latter built Fort Crown Point in 1759 the largest earthen fort in their colonies. With British victory in the war, after 1763 France ceded all its territory in North America east of the Mississippi River to Britain. During colonial times and the American Revolutionary War, Crown Point continued to be important for its strategic location - on the west shore of Lake Champlain about 15 miles north of Fort Ticonderoga, about a day's travel by the modes of that time period. After the failure of the patriot American invasion of Canada in 1776, Crown Point represented the northernmost area under American control. During the British Saratoga campaign in 1777, General John Burgoyne organized a supply magazine here to support his attack of Ticonderoga. Crown Point is an original town of the county, established in 1788 following the Revolution and before the organization of Essex County. Parts of Crown Point were drawn off to form the town of Elizabethtown; the modern European-American settlement of the town began around 1800 with an influx of settlers from Vermont.
Crown Point holds the New York state January record low of −48 °F. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 81.9 square miles, of which 76.1 square miles is land and 5.7 square miles, or 6.99%, is water. The east town line, defined by Lake Champlain, is the border of Vermont; the Champlain Bridge connected Crown Point to Vermont until 2009, when the bridge was demolished as unsafe. A temporary ferry service, operated by the Lake Champlain Transportation Company and funded by the states of New York and Vermont, provided access from Crown Point to Vermont from late 2009 until late 2011; the new bridge at Crown Point, scheduled to open in August 2011, opened to traffic that November. The town of Crown Point lies within the Adirondack Park. New York State Route 9N, New York State Route 22, New York State Route 185 are north-south and east-west highways that pass through Crown Point. NY-9N and NY-22 are conjoined through the town. NY-185 runs up the Crown Point peninsula.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,119 people, 797 households, 578 families residing in the town. The population density was 27.8 people per square mile. There were 1,063 housing units at an average density of 13.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.50% White, 0.09% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.14% of the population. There were 797 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.4% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,958, the median income for a family was $39,853. Males had a median income of $31,106 versus $20,074 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,692. About 10.8% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over.... Bulwagga Bay – A bay between Crown Point peninsula and the mainland of the county. Burdick Crossing – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town, near the south end of Crown Point on County Road 48. Cold Spring Park – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town on County Road 7. Crown Point – The hamlet of Crown Point is in the eastern part of the town on Routes NY-9N and NY-22. Crown Point Green Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. Crown Point – A peninsula in the south end of Lake Champlain and site some historic fortifications.
Crown Point Center – A hamlet west of Factoryville at the junction of County Roads 2 and 7. Crown Point State Historic Site – A state park/historical site at the north tip of Crown Point peninsula. Eagle Lake – A lake in the southwest part of the town. Factoryville – A hamlet west of Crown Point village. Ironville – A hamlet in the south part of the town on County Road 2 at the north end of Penfield Pond, it is the location of the Ironvill
Salisbury is a town in Addison County, United States. The population was 1,136 at the 2010 census. Salisbury was chartered on November 3, 1761 as one of the New Hampshire Grants issued by Benning Wentworth; the town may have been named after Salisbury, Connecticut, or for James Cecil, 6th Earl of Salisbury. Salisbury is located in southern Addison County along the western edge of the Green Mountains and the eastern edge of the Champlain Valley. U. S. Route 7 passes through the town leading south to Brandon and Rutland; the northern half of Lake Dunmore is in the eastern part of the town, is the site of Branbury State Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, Salisbury has a total area of 30.0 square miles of which 28.9 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles, or 3.81%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,090 people, 423 households, 302 families residing in the town; the population density was 37.4 people per square mile. There were 628 housing units at an average density of 21.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 98.17% White, 0.09% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.28% of the population. There were 423 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families. 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 25.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $39,500, the median income for a family was $45,455.
Males had a median income of $27,107 versus $21,827 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,306. About 5.1% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 2.5% of those age 65 or over. Branbury State Park, a 69-acre park on the shore of Lake Dunmore, is located in Salisbury; the park has 1,000 feet of natural sandy beach, hiking trails, waterfalls and camping areas. The park operated as a farm and a summer boys' camp before being named a state park in 1945. John Prout, Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court Henry Olin, congressman from Vermont and sixth Lieutenant Governor of Vermont Wilbur F. Storey, 19th Century editor and publisher, owned Detroit Free Press and Chicago Times This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Salisbury has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.
Town of Salisbury official website City-Data.com Virtual Vermont: Salisbury Vermont ePodunk: Profile for Salisbury Vermont Vermont State Parks: Branbury State Park
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Williamstown is a town in Orange County, United States. The population was 3,389 at the 2010 census, making it the second largest municipality in the county. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40.3 square miles, of which 40.2 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water. The Ainsworth State Park is a 905-acre park located in Williamstown which provides camping and hunting; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,225 people, 1,248 households, 889 families residing in the town. The population density was 80.3 people per square mile. There were 1,318 housing units at an average density of 32.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.33% White, 0.06% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.25% from other races, 0.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population. There were 1,248 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families.
21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,929, the median income for a family was $45,859. Males had a median income of $29,635 versus $22,378 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,720. About 5.9% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 2.9% of those age 65 or over. Williamstown Vermont Official Town Website Ainsworth Public Library Website
The Electro-Magnet, and Mechanics Intelligencer
The Electro-Magnet, Mechanics Intelligencer was an 1840 newspaper published by Thomas Davenport, inventor of the electric motor. This newspaper, published in New York City, was the first printed on a press run by electricity, it was the first American periodical devoted to electricity and the world's first electrical technical journal. Davenport had mechanical lathes powered by electric motors in 1836, so had decided to expand this concept to other applications, he reported on December 13, 1839, that he mechanically attached a hundred-pound electric motor to a printing press. He was the first to use this electro-mechanical press idea; the Electro-Magnet and Mechanics Intelligencer was a newspaper he printed, becoming the first printed using electricity as power to run the press. The power for his electric motor he used for the press came from a battery of amalgamated zinc and sheets of platinized silver. Davenport's paper was sometimes referred to other times as a magazine; the periodical, a weekly publication, was the first in America devoted to the subject of electricity.
It was the world's first electrical technical journal written for those interested in mechanical devices related to electricity. Davenport was the sole editor of The Electro-Magnet, Mechanics Intelligencer; the paper was eleven inches by fourteen inches in size and had eight pages with four columns to a page. He published his issues in New York City at 42 Stanton Street in 1840; the first issue was put out January 18. It had on the front page an article talking about how the power of electro-magnetism and his new invention of the electromagnetic motor could be used for the benefit of people by saving labor. Davenport wrote in his newspaper on the second issue put out on January 25 on various subjects besides electrical or magnetic related subjects. "No. 2, Vol. 1" looked physically much like the first issue with the same number of pages and columns. The first page had an article on "The Origin of Galvanism", "The Vision of Columbus", "The Fancy Dress Ball." He knew there were many skeptics of his new electric motor invention and responded to their concerns in this issue.
Davenport used this application of an electric printing press for demonstration purposes to show an example of what could be done with his new electric motor invention. Many business people submitted possible uses for his new device and he decided that printing a newspaper would be the most effective way of showing what could be done with his invention. In the newspaper he asked for investors to help him financially develop ideas he had for electric motor applications. In spite of his plea for investors in his journal Davenport did not turn a profit from his motor invention because the batteries needed to operate it were too expensive. Davenport was optimistic that his paper would be successful, but before the third printing due on February 1, he wrote a letter to his brother in Brandon, New York, on January 28 of his concern that he was not able to pay an editor and had to do all the work himself; the newspaper-journal experiment was discontinued due to lack of enough subscribers. Davenport did a second similar journal in July entitled The Magnet.
It was printed in quarto form on a sheet 16 inches by 22 inches. He wrote in the one issue that he had demonstration models of his electrical motors at No. 4 Little Green Street printing the Declaration of Independence. American_Printing_History_Association. Printing History. American Printing History Association. Gray, James; the Electrician. James Gray. Carey, Charles W.. American Inventors and Business Visionaries. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-6883-8. Davenport, Walter Rice. Biography of Thomas Davenport, the'Brandon blacksmith'. Montpelier, Vermont: The Vermont historical society; this was a small paper 11 by 14 inches, was not in any way remarkable save that the press printing it was driven by electricity, the first instance in human history of this kind. In a letter written December 13, 1839, dated in New York, Davenport wrote to this John H. Smith of Glasgow that he was driving a rotary printing press with a machine weighing less than a hundred pounds.... But he did this: he edited and published the first electrical magazine in all history, he ran the first printing press by electricity, was thus a pioneer after whom thousands have followed in the years since.
His press was run by motors of two different types, one of them being the one for which the patent was granted, and, described, the other was a "helix machine" for which he filed a caveat for a patent, not granted. Day, Lance. History of Technology. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-65020-0. EE_staff. Electrical Engineer. Electrical Engineer. Gazette. THE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. "The first number of the Electro Magnet was issued on Saturday, January 18, 1840, the first paper printed by the power of electro-magnetism or galvanism. Kane, Joseph Nathan. Famous First Facts, Fifth Edition; the H. W. Wilson Company. ISBN 0-8242-0930-3. Item 4769, page 326 The first electricity journal was The Electro-Magnet and Mechanics Intelligencer, which appeared on January 18, 1840, it was printed in New York City on a press'ropelled by electro-magnetism.' The editor of the magazine and the inventor of the electrical printing press was Thomas Davenport. / Item 5775, page 411 The first electric printing press was invented by Thomas Davenport of Brandon, VT, used in 1839 in New York City.
It was a rotary press operated by an engine weighing less than 100 pound