Stephanus Van Cortlandt
Stephanus van Cortlandt was the first native-born mayor of New York City, a position which he held from 1677 to 1678 and from 1686 to 1688. He was the patroon of Van Cortlandt Manor and was on the governor's executive council from 1691 to 1700, he was the first resident of Sagtikos Manor in West Bay Shore on Long Island, built around 1697. A number of his descendants married English military leaders and Loyalists active in the American Revolution, their descendants became prominent members of English society. Stephanus van Cortlandt was born on the son of Captain Olof Stevense van Cortlandt, his father had been born at Wijk bij Duurstede, in the Dutch Republic, in 1637 arrived in New Amsterdam. Beginning as a soldier and bookkeeper, Olof Stevense van Cortland rose to high office in the colonial service of the Dutch West India Company, serving many terms as burgomaster and alderman before dying in 1684, his mother was Anna Loockermans van Cortlandt who may have been the person who began the custom of Santa Claus in America.
His parents had four children: Stephanus van Cortlandt. Philipse was married to Margaret Hardenbroeck and during that marriage, had adopted her daughter, Eva de Vries, who thus took the name of Philipse. Eva's father and Margaret's first husband was Peter Rudolphus de Vries. In 1668, he was appointed ensign of one of the militia companies of New York City. In 1677, he was appointed mayor of New York City, at the age of thirty-four, becoming the first mayor of New York City, born in America, he was appointed due to his intelligence, social position in the community, as he was appointed by the English Governor. During his time in office, he remained an adherent of the aristocratic party during the Leisler affair from 1689 to 1691; when Delanoy, the Leisler candidate, was elected to the mayoralty, in place of Van Cortland, the latter refused to deliver up the city seal. It has been said. Van Cortlandt married Gertruj van Schuyler, the daughter of Philip Pieterse Schuyler and the sister of Pieter Schuyler, a colonial governor of New York and mayor of Albany.
They lived at the "Waterside," on the present line of Pearl street, near Broad, where he engaged in business as a merchant. Together, they had: Margaretta van Cortlandt, who married Judge Samuel Bayard, the son of Nicholas Bayard and descendant from the Stuyvesant family. A number of their descendants were Loyalists. Anne van Cortlandt, who married Stephen DeLancey Catherine van Cortlandt, who married New Jersey politician Andrew Johnston, the son of John Johnstone, the 32nd Mayor of New York City. Elizabeth van Cortlandt, who married the Reverend William Skinner Philip Van Cortlandt, who married Catherine de Peyster, daughter of Abraham de Peyster the 20th Mayor of New York City and his wife Catharine de Peyster. Philip and Catherine had six children: Stephen who married Mary W. Ricketts, May 6, 1738. Governor of the State of New York, who married his second cousin, Joanna Livingston, daughter of Cornelia Beekman, niece of Gerardus Beekman and granddaughter of Wilhelmus Beekman, Gilbert Livingston, a son of Robert Livingston the Elder and Alida Schuyler.
His granddaughter, Gertrude Bayard, married Peter Kemble, a prominent New Jersey businessman and politician, his great-granddaughter, Margaret Kemble, married Thomas Gage, General of the British Army during the American Revolutionary War. Descendants of this union are found in England, including amongst the Viscount Gages and the noble Bertie family in England. A grandson, James DeLancey became New York Governor, granddaughter Susannah DeLancey married Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Warren. Another grandson, Oliver De Lancey Sr. married Phila Franks, daughter of a prominent New York Jewish family. Grandson, Lt. General William Skinner, was an American Revolutionary Loyalist whose son, Brig. Gen. Cortlandt Skinner was a Loyalist who married Elizabeth Kearney. Another grandson, Pierre Van Cortlandt was the 1st Lieutenant Governor of New York who married to Joanna Livingston, their descendants include Philip Van Cortlandt and Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
James Duane was an American lawyer and Revolutionary leader from New York. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, a New York state senator, the 44th mayor of New York City, the first post-colonial American mayor, a U. S. District Judge. Duane was a signatory of both the Articles of Confederation. James Duane was born on February 6, 1733, in New York City in the Province of New York, his parents were Eva Benson and Anthony Duane, a Protestant Irishman from County Galway in Ireland who first came to New York as an officer of the Royal Navy in 1698. By the time of his James' birth, Anthony had become a wealthy Anglo-Irish colonial settler. Like others of colonial background, Anthony considered himself settling from one part of the British Empire to another as a free subject, he maintained strong allegiance to the crown throughout his life, values which he passed on to his son. He met and courted Eva Benson, whose father, was a local American merchant. In 1702 Anthony left the navy, settled in New York, married Eva.
They had two sons before her death. When Eva died, Anthony remarried, this time to Althea Ketaltas, the daughter of a wealthy Dutch merchant family. Anthony entered commerce and prospered, the couple had a son, James. Duane's mother, died in 1736, his father married a third time in 1741 to Margaret Riken, the widow of Thomas Lynch of Flushing, New York; when Anthony died in 1747, James became the ward of American aristocrat Robert Livingston, known as the 3rd Lord of the Manor. He completed his early education at Livingston Manor read law as a clerk in the offices of James Alexander, he was admitted to the bar in 1754. As a lawyer, Duane represented Trinity Church in the protracted legal action brought by heirs of Anneke Jans, who claimed that they, not the church, were the lawful owners of much of lower Manhattan, a tract, given to the church by the British crown. By the early 1770s, his practice earned him 1,400 pounds annually. At the height of his success, Duane had a house in Manhattan, one in the country, an estate near Schenectady, New York, of 36,000 acres and 253 tenants.
He was a vestryman of Trinity Church, was appointed one of the church's nine trustees during a post-war crisis about the church's Tory-leanings, was a trustee of Kings College, the precursor to Columbia University. Duane was Clerk of the Chancery Court of New York in 1762, acting provincial Attorney General in 1767 and Indian Commissioner for the Province of New York in 1774. Sir James Duane did sign the articles of Confederation. Duane was a member of the Committee of Sixty, he was made a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1774 and was continuously re-appointed through 1784, although he missed some sessions due to other duties. Like many other Americans, he had inherited his forefathers' patriotism to the British crown as well as their instinctive jealousy for their own rights as Englishmen. Duane was politically conservative; until his marriage to Mary Livingston, he had been a member of James De Lancey's political faction. Like many men of the time, he distrusted the intelligence of common people, warning against the "mob rule" of a democratic republic.
Duane wrestled with his allegiance to the British Empire and his desire to maintain and protect his ideals of English liberty and American self-government from what was perceived as encroachments upon their rights by an centralized imperial state. Thus, in the early Congress, he was one of the many who were most disposed to reconciliation with Britain, he opposed the Declaration of Independence. However, as the British government sent the largest combined navy and army force the British government had dispatched outside of Europe, he saw the futility of any further concord with the British government and advocated independence. Nonetheless, because of his vacillation in contrast to more ardent independence-minded delegates, as well as his noted familial loyalty to New York, it was considered a better use of his talents working on the frontier against British agitation among the Indian tribes. Thus, in 1775 he represented Congress as an Indian Commissioner at New York. However, his local constituency returned him to the new state constitutional convention from 1776-1777.
Due to his excellent legal and political philosophical background, he served on the committee that drafted New York's constitution. Subsequently he was elected as a delegate by the State of New York to the Continental Congress; when the British occupied New York in 1776, he was forced from his home. With the British Army forces quick on his tail and those of other American leaders, he withdrew his wife and family to the relative safety of her father's home at Livingston Manor. In 1778 he signed the Articles of Confederation in Philadelphia, he remained active as a political leader throughout the war and returned home to Gramercy Park in 1783, commenting that his home looked "as if they had been inhabited by wild beasts". Duane was a member of the Federalist Party, he served in the New York State Senate from 1783 to 1790 and was appointed Mayor of New York by the Council of Appointment in 1784, serving until 1789. As mayor, one of his first acts was to donate to the poor the money spent on entertainment for his Inauguration – about 20 guineas.
During his time in office, he strove to help the city revive itself after the damage done by the war and the British occupation, but he was unable to maintain the city's status as the capital of the United States. As head of the Mayor's Court
John Cruger Jr.
John Cruger Jr. was the speaker of the Province of New York assembly and the 41st Mayor of New York City. He was born July 18, 1710, the son of John Cruger and Maria Cuyler, he was a New York City merchant. He served as the 41st Mayor of New York City from 1757 to 1766, he was a member of New York's delegation to the Stamp Act Congress and a member of the Committee of Correspondence. He was the speaker of the Province of New York assembly from 1769 to 1775. In the New York assembly he voted against approval of the proceedings of the First Continental Congress, he was named as one of the "suspected" persons on the New York Provincial Congress in 1776. Before the British occupation of New York City he retired to Kinderhook, returning to New York City in 1783, he died December 27, 1791
Marinus Willett was an American soldier and political leader from New York. He was characterized by historian Mark M. Boatner as "one of the outstanding American leaders of the Revolution." Willett was born in Jamaica, New York, on Long Island, the son of Edward Willett a school teacher and tavern operator. He served in the militia during the French and Indian War, he received a commission as 2nd lieutenant in a New York regiment under the command of Oliver DeLancey Sr. which took part in General James Abercrombie's expedition to Fort Ticonderoga in 1758. His regiment was part of John Bradstreet's army in the Battle of Fort Frontenac, he stayed at Fort Stanwix until he recovered. Tradition has it. During the early stages of the American Revolution, Willett became an informal leader of the Sons of Liberty in New York City, his main participation was as a street brawler. When news arrived on April 23, 1775 of the battles at Lexington and Concord he and others broke into the New York City arsenal and seized the weapons.
On June 6, 1775 when the British soldiers in New York decided to evacuate the city, Willett stopped the soldiers from taking spare arms with them. On July 20, 1775 he and other members of the Sons of Liberty procured a sloop, surprised the guard, captured a British storehouse at Turtle Bay. On June 28, 1775, he joined the Continental Army with a commission of captain in the 1st New York Regiment, commanded by Alexander McDougall. Six weeks the regiment took part in Richard Montgomery's Invasion of Canada and in December the Battle of Quebec. In January, 1776 the enlistments in the regiment expired and the men started home. Willett arrived in New York City in March. In the defence of New York City that year Willett lost a captain's commission in the 4th New York Regiment and participated as a militiaman. In November, 1776 he was made Lieutenant Colonel of the 3rd New York Regiment, commanded by Peter Gansevoort, he spent the winter recruiting. In March, 1777 he was given command of Fort Constitution in the New York Highlands.
From this fort he engaged in a successful attack on one hundred British soldiers burning a house. The fort was abandoned. In May, he was transferred to Fort Stanwix to join the rest of his regiment, where he was second in command. On August 6, 1777, during the Battle of Oriskany he led a sortie from the fort which plundered the nearby Indian and Sir John Johnson's Tory camp, his force suffered no casualties. He was presented with a sword from the Continental Congress for this exploit. After the American defeat at Oriskany, he and another officer slipped through British lines down the Mohawk to Fort Dayton for help, they only took spontoons as weapons and whiskey and crackers for food. At Fort Dayton he learned that Major General Schuyler had dispatched a second relief force under the command of Benedict Arnold. Willett proceeded to Albany where he met with Arnold and returned to Fort Dayton with Arnold's army. On August 20, Willett presided as a judge of Walter Butler, captured and was being tried as a spy.
Butler was sentenced to death. Butler was sent to Albany to await execution. In September, Willett left to visit his wife. While the 3rd New York Regiment was idle spending the winter at Fort Stanwix all the officers petitioned to be transferred to the main army. Gansevoort gave Willett leave to visit George Washington in Philadelphia and the forts in Connecticut. In June, 1778 he was given leave to join Washington's' Main Army, he took part in the Battle of Monmouth. On March 15, 1779, he was given command of a new militia regiment, a position he neither accepted nor declined, he was second in command of the attack on Onondaga in April, 1779. In the summer of 1779, he was with the 3rd New York Regiment as it took part in the Sullivan Campaign. Afterwards it was for a short time stationed in the New York Highlands before joining the main army at Morristown. In January, he took part in a raid on Staten Island; this raid appears to be a separate raid from that conducted by Lord Stirling. In early 1780, he was given command of the 5th New York Regiment a regiment, understrength because of battles in the New York Highlands.
In September, he was one of three officers of the New York Line who presented their grievances to the New York legislature. The men had not been paid since January and they asked for compensation in the form of land, he was made a full colonel of the regiment on December 22, 1779. On January 1, 1781 the number of New York regiments was reduced to two and Willett lost his command, he went home to his wife in Danbury. In April 1781, he was made a colonel of the militia and given responsibility for the defense of the Mohawk Valley. Although the Tryon County militia was nominally 1,100 men, he did not believe that more than five hundred would turn out, his headquarters were at Fort Plain. He had about four hundred men which he split between Saratoga, German Flatts, Fort Hunter, Catskill and Schoharie. By this time Fort Stanwix had been abandoned. Willett wrote of the militia that "I don't think I shall give a wild account if I say, that one third have been killed, or carried captive by the enemy. In October, he led the militia against a mixed force under the command of Major John Ross at the Battle of Johnstown.
Afterwards, the Americans mar
Whitehead Hicks was the 42nd Mayor of New York City from 1766 to 1776. The son of Judge Thomas Hicks, he was a lawyer and served on the New York Supreme Court of Judicature, he married the daughter of John and Louisa Brevoort. Hicks was a Loyalist and was the first to appear in front of a committee of nine colonials formed by the New York Provincial Congress in 1776 to investigate "domestic enemies" "disaffected to the American cause", he met with this committee in June 15, 1776, indicating his loyalty to the king and was subsequently put on parole
Mayor of New York City
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, enforces all city and state laws within New York City; the budget, overseen by New York City Mayor's Office of Management and Budget, is the largest municipal budget in the United States at $82 billion a year. The city employs 325,000 people, spends about $21 billion to educate more than 1.1 million students and levies $27 billion in taxes. It receives $14 billion from the state and federal governments; the mayor's office is located in New York City Hall. The mayor appoints a large number of officials, including commissioners who head city departments, his deputy mayors; the mayor's regulations are compiled in title 43 of the New York City Rules. According to current law, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break, it was changed from two to three terms on October 23, 2008, when the New York City Council voted 29–22 in favor of passing the term limit extension into law.
However, in 2010, a referendum reverting the limit back to two terms passed overwhelmingly. The current mayor is Democrat Bill de Blasio, elected on November 5, 2013 and reelected to a second term on November 7, 2017. In 1665, Governor Richard Nicolls appointed Thomas Willett as the first mayor of New York. For 156 years, the mayor had limited power. Between 1783 and 1821 the mayor was appointed by the Council of Appointments in which the state's governor had the loudest voice. In 1821 the Common Council, which included elected members, gained the authority to choose the mayor. An amendment to the New York State Constitution in 1834 provided for the direct popular election of the mayor. Cornelius W. Lawrence, a Democrat, was elected that year. Gracie Mansion has been the official residence of the mayor since Fiorello La Guardia's administration in 1942, its main floor serves as a small museum. The mayor is entitled to a salary of $258,750 a year. Michael Bloomberg, mayor of the city from 2002 to 2013 and one of the richest people in the world, declined the salary and instead was paid $1 yearly.
In 2000 direct control of the city's public school system was transferred to the mayor's office. In 2003 the reorganization established the New York City Department of Education. Tammany Hall, which evolved from an organization of craftsmen into a Democratic political machine, gained control of Democratic Party nominations in the state and city in 1861, it played a major role in New York City politics into the 1960s and was a dominant player from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the era of Robert Wagner. The Mayor of New York City may appoint several deputy mayors to help oversee major offices within the executive branch of the city government; the powers and duties, the number of deputy mayors, are not defined by the City Charter. The post was created by Fiorello La Guardia to handle ceremonial events that the mayor was too busy to attend. Since deputy mayors have been appointed with their areas of responsibility defined by the appointing mayor. There are five deputy mayors, all of whom report directly to the mayor.
Deputy mayors do not have any right to succeed to the mayoralty in the case of vacancy or incapacity of the mayor. The current deputy mayors are: First deputy mayor: Dean FuleihanAdvises the mayor on citywide administrative and policy matters. Deputy mayor for housing and economic development: Alicia GlenOversees and coordinates the operations of the Economic Development Corporation, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Buildings, the Department of City Planning, Department of Housing Preservation and Development, New York City Housing Development Corporation and related agencies. Deputy mayor for health and human services: Herminia PalacioOversees and coordinates the operations of the Human Resources Administration, Department of Homeless Services, the Administration for Children's Services, New York City Health and Hospitals, related agencies. Deputy mayor for operations: Laura AnglinDeputy mayor for strategic initiatives: J. Phillip Thompson Lilliam Barrios-Paoli 2014–2016, Anthony Shorris 2014-2017, under Bill de Blasio Daniel L. Doctoroff, Stephen Goldsmith 2010–2011, Patricia Harris 2002–2013, Robert K. Steel, Dennis M. Walcott, Howard Wolfson—under Michael Bloomberg Joe Lhota—under Rudolph Giuliani William Lynch 1990s—under David Dinkins Herman Badillo 1977–1979—under Ed Koch Robert W. Sweet 1966–1969 "The mayor has the power to appoint and remove the commissioners of more than 40 city agencies and members of City boards and commissions."
These include: New York City Police Commissioner New York City Fire Commissioner New York City Criminal Court judges New York City Marshals New York City Schools Chancellor New York City Office of Management and Budget Commissioner of Health of the City of New York The Mayor of New York City is an ex-officio board member of the following organizations: Local tabloid newspapers refer to the mayor as "Hizzoner", a corruption of the title His Honor. Spin City, a 1990s TV sitcom, starred Michael J. Fox as a deputy mayor of New York under Barry Bostwick's fictional Mayor Randall Winston. Several mayors have appeared in television and movies, as well as on Broadway, most notably in The Will Rogers Follies. In