Mayor of Los Angeles
The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, United States. The officeholder is limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the Constitution of California, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan. Eric Garcetti has been the city's 42nd and current mayor since 2013. California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members, but such limits can still be imposed on the local level. Los Angeles has a strong mayor–council form of government, giving the mayor the position of chief executive of the city; the mayor is given the authority to appoint general managers and commissioners, remove officials from city posts, is required to propose a budget each year. Most of the mayor's appointments and proposals are subject to approval by the Los Angeles City Council, but the mayor has the power of veto or approval of City Council legislation; the organization of the mayor's office changes with administration, but is always governed by a chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, director of communications, several deputy mayors.
Each mayor organizes his office into different offices containing the Los Angeles Housing Team, Los Angeles Business Team, International Trade Office, Mayor's Volunteer Corps, Office of Immigrant Affairs, among other divisions. The mayor has an office in the Los Angeles City Hall and resides at the Mayor's Mansion, Getty House, located in Windsor Square; as of 2017, the mayor received a salary of $248,141. The mayor is elected in citywide election. Elections follow a two-round system; the first round of the election is called the primary election. The candidate receiving a majority of the vote in the primary is elected outright. If no candidate receives a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election, called the general election; the City Charter allows for write-in candidates for the primary election, but not for the runoff in the general election. The mayor is elected with a limit of two consecutive terms; the office of Mayor is nonpartisan by state law, although most mayoral candidates identify a party preference.
Elections for mayor were held in odd-numbered years from 1909 until 2013. In October 2014, the Los Angeles City Council recommended consolidating city elections with gubernatorial and presidential elections in even-numbered years in an effort to increase turnout. On March 3, 2015, voters passed a charter amendment to extend the term of the mayor elected in 2017 to five-and-a-half years. From 2022 and onward, mayoral elections will be consolidated with the statewide gubernatorial elections held every four years; the most recent election was held in March 2017. Incumbent mayor Eric Garcetti was re-elected for a second term. In the case of an office vacancy, the City Council has a choice to appoint a new mayor or to hold a special election; the replacement, if appointed, will serve until the next scheduled primary for a city general election. If any portion remains on the term, a special election will be held to elect a candidate to serve the remainder of the term; the mayor is subject to recall by registered voters if at least 15 percent of eligible voters sign a recall petition within 120 days of the first day of circulation.
If the petition is successful, a special election is held asking whether the incumbent should be removed and who among a list of candidates should replace the incumbent. If the recall is successful, the replacement candidate with the majority of votes succeeds the ousted incumbent. If no replacement candidate receives a majority of the votes, a special runoff election is held between the top two candidates; as of April 2019, 42 individuals have served as mayor of Los Angeles since its incorporation as a city in the state of California. Six individuals served non-consecutive terms, the first of which began in 1854 and the last of which ended in 1921; those who served non-consecutive terms are only counted once in the official count of mayoralties. Stephen Clark Foster was appointed as Mayor of Los Angeles in 1848 prior to California statehood and official incorporation of the city; the longest term was that of Tom Bradley, who served for 20 years over five terms prior to the establishment of successive term limits.
The shortest term, not counting city council presidents serving as acting mayor, was that of William Stephens, appointed to serve for less than two weeks after Arthur Cyprian Harper resigned from office. Two mayors died in office: Henry Mellus and Frederick A. MacDougall. Three Hispanics have served as mayor since incorporation: Antonio F. Coronel, Cristobal Aguilar, Antonio Villaraigosa. Many other Hispanics served as mayor prior to California joining the United States including Manuel Requena, who briefly served as acting mayor post-statehood in his role as city council president. Tom Bradley is the only African American to have served as mayor, but was the city's longest-serving mayor. Two French Canadians have served as mayor, including Damien Marchesseault, who served for three distinct periods, Prudent Beaudry; this list includes three Presidents of the City Council who served as Acting Mayor due to a vacancy in the office of the mayor but who were not appointed as mayor. The Council Presidents are not included in the count of mayors.
† Council presidents who temporarily served as acting mayor in case of a vacancy but were not appointed to the position are not included in the count of mayors. As of April 2019, three former Mayors of Los Angeles were alive, the oldest being Richard J. Riordan; the most recent mayor to die was Thomas Bradley, on September 29, 1998. History of Los Angeles T
James Kenneth Hahn is an American lawyer and politician. A Democrat, Hahn was elected the 40th mayor of Los Angeles in 2001, he served until 2005. Prior to his term as mayor, Hahn served in several other capacities for the city of Los Angeles, including deputy city attorney, city controller and city attorney. Hahn is the only individual in the city's history to have been elected to all three citywide offices, he is a sitting judge on the Los Angeles County Superior Court. As mayor, Hahn appointed Bill Bratton, the former NYPD commissioner, as police chief of Los Angeles and chose not to renew Bernard Parks' second term as chief. Bratton's appointment is seen as leading to the sharp declines in Los Angeles' crime rate and improved morale in the department. Hahn led the successful campaign to defeat secession in the San Fernando Valley and San Pedro, thereby keeping Los Angeles intact. While he is noted for these two accomplishments, they helped lead to his unsuccessful re-election bid. Hahn is the brother of Los Angeles county supervisor and former congresswoman, Janice Hahn, the nephew of former California State assemblyman and Los Angeles city councilman Gordon Hahn.
Hahn was born on July 3, 1950 in Los Angeles, the son of Ramona and Kenneth Hahn, was raised in the Morningside Park district of Inglewood near South Los Angeles. Hahn attended Manchester Avenue Elementary School, Daniel Freeman Elementary School, Horace Mann Junior High School, Los Angeles Lutheran Middle & Senior High School, he graduated from the Los Angeles campus of Pepperdine University in California magna cum laude with a bachelor's degree in English and a minor in journalism, in 1972. He received his Juris Doctor degree from the Pepperdine University School of Law, in 1975. In 1994, he was selected as the School of Law's distinguished alumnus. While at Seaver College, he assisted in the development of a paralegal program for the Family Law Center of the Legal Aid Society and during law school, he clerked for the Los Angeles district attorney's Office. Upon graduation in 1975 until 1979, Hahn worked as a prosecutor and deputy city attorney in the office of the City Attorney. From 1979–1981, he was in private practice with Robert Horner.
In 1981 he was elected the fifth city controller of Los Angeles and served until 1985. He was at the time the youngest person elected to that position. Hahn served from 1985 to 2001 as Los Angeles city attorney, an office of 358 attorneys, support staff of 346, with branch offices in 21 locations citywide; as city attorney, Hahn worked to rid LA's neighborhoods of gang activity through the use of gang injunctions. He was involved in crafting state legislation regarding gang enforcement by writing the Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act. During Hahn's tenure as city attorney, he led the litigation to stop the Joe Camel ad campaign and reached a settlement of 312 million dollars for the city, he created the Tobacco Enforcement Project to prevent the sale of tobacco to minors. He re-established a domestic violence unit and sponsored over 30 pieces of relevant legislation, ensuring that California had tough domestic violence laws. Special units in the office included AIDS/HIV discrimination, environmental protection, housing enforcement, consumer protection, special enforcement, governmental law and enforcement.
He managed a dispute resolution program. Aside from the special units, the office was divided into a civil branch. Hahn required all of his attorneys to receive ethnic and religious tolerance training from the Museum of Tolerance. Hahn was elected in 2001. Hahn rejected Bernard Parks for a second term as Los Angeles police chief, he appointed former NYPD commissioner William Bratton to the position. Together with Bratton, he reinstated the community policing program, implemented a flexible work week schedule and the COMPSTAT system, initiated a comprehensive recruitment and retention campaign. Morale rose in the department and there was the first increase in the ranks in ten years. In addition, all areas of crime dropped making it the second safest large city in the United States, he ensured for the first time in the city's history that there be at least one ambulance at every fire station. He convened a homeland security cabinet in his office, hosted an annual homeland security summit, coordinated Los Angeles' "Operation Archangel" to protect its infrastructure, lobbied for state and federal public safety grants.
After September 11, the United States Conference of Mayors appointed him to serve as chair of its aviation security task force. For these combined efforts, Hahn was endorsed in his re-election campaign by the police protective league and United Firefighters of Los Angeles. Hahn created a $100 million affordable housing trust fund, at the time the nation's largest, expanded the adaptive reuse ordinance to convert dilapidated buildings into mixed-use residential properties, he identified the funding to keep the city's homeless shelters open year-round and met with civic leaders across the county to establish a blue ribbon commission called "Bring LA Home" to end homelessness in Los Angeles county within a decade. He worked with councilmembers Wendy Greuel and Eric Garcetti to initiate and sign into law seven busi
John Bryson (mayor)
John Bryson served as the 19th Mayor of Los Angeles from December 10, 1888 to February 25, 1889. In that time, he appointed all 6 of his sons to the 80-man Los Angeles Police Department, he would serve as President of the San Gabriel Valley Rapid Transit Railroad
George Alexander (American politician)
George Alexander was a political figure who, from 1909 to 1913, served as the 28th mayor of Los Angeles, California. Born in Scotland's largest city, Glasgow, he moved with his parents to the United States at the age of 11. In 1862, during the second year of the Civil War, he married Annie Yeiser in Iowa and participated in combat after enlisting in the Iowa volunteers. After the war, he settled in the small Iowa city of Belle Plaine, in 1870 started his own grain and feed business. In 1887, at the age of 48, Alexander expanded his grain business. By 1892, he began his governmental career in the County Recorder's office. In 1901, he was elected to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors and served until 1909. In 1909 he ran in a recall election against Mayor Arthur C. Harper, became Mayor of Los Angeles on March 26, 1909 and served until July 1, 1913. George Alexander died in Los Angeles seven weeks before his 84th birthday and is interred in the city's Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery
William Dennison Stephens was an American federal and state politician. A three-term member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1911 to 1916, Stephens was the 24th governor of California from 1917 to 1923. William Stephens was born in Eaton, Ohio on December 26, 1859, he was the third child out of a total of nine children born to Alvira Stephens. With ambitions to become a lawyer, Stephens studied earnestly in law to become a lawyer, yet family fortunes required all of his earnings to go to his family instead. Following his graduation from Eaton High School in 1876, Stephens had worked for three years as a school teacher before joining the railroad business to become an engineer. Between 1880 and 1887, Stephens helped survey the construction of railroads in Ohio, Indiana and Louisiana, his days in the railroads came to an end in 1887 when his mother, now falling ill, sought a hot and drier climate to improve her health. The Stephens family, including William, relocated to Los Angeles, California that year, though Alvira would be dead within a year.
After relocating to Los Angeles, Stephens began to work as a traveling salesman and as a grocery manager. In 1891, Stephens married Flora E. Rawson. In 1902, he became a partner in Carr and Stephens Groceries, giving Stephens wide name recognition throughout Los Angeles. Stephens became involved in business and municipal politics, serving on the board of directors of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce from 1902 to 1911, as well as being elected to the Los Angeles Board of Education from 1906 to 1907. Stephens further served on the Los Angeles Board of Water Commissioners, working alongside William Mulholland in an advisory committee for the construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. In 1906, Stephens served as a major in the California Army National Guard during the San Francisco earthquake as part of the First Brigade. In 1909, he became vice president of the American National Bank. Following Los Angeles Mayor Arthur C. Harper's resignation from office shortly before a crucial recall election, Stephens was appointed Acting Mayor of the city on March 15, 1909, becoming the city's 27th mayor.
Stephens' mayoralty lasted for less than two weeks before George Alexander, the winner of the election, assumed the office. After his brief stint as Mayor of Los Angeles, Stephens entered the realm of federal politics. In the 1910 elections, Stephens was elected as a Republican for the 7th congressional district to the U. S. House of Representatives. Due to redistricting, Stephens changed constituencies to the newly created 10th congressional district for the 1912 elections, which he won. During this time period, Stephens identified himself as a member of the Progressive movement, becoming a member of the Progressive Party, led by former U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt and California Governor Hiram Johnson. Stephens was one of the 13 Progressives to be elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in the 1910s, four of which came from California, he defended his seat again in the 1914 elections, winning a consecutive third term to the House. Stephens would continue to identify himself as a member of the Progressive Party until the party’s dissolution in 1916, when he rejoined the Republican Party.
Following Lieutenant Governor John Morton Eshleman's death from tuberculosis on February 28, 1916, Governor Hiram Johnson sought a replacement for his subordinate. By mid-year, Johnson had selected Stephens as Eshleman's successor, forcing him to resign his seat from the federal House and assume the position of lieutenant governor on July 22. Stephens' position as lieutenant governor was short lived. Governor Johnson himself was elected to the U. S. Senate in the 1916 elections, leaving the governorship open to the installed lieutenant governor. Johnson submitted his resignation to take his Senate seat on March 15, 1917, with Stephens, fulfilling his duties as lieutenant governor, to assume the governorship, making him the state's 24th governor. Nearly Stephens faced controversy regarding the Preparedness Day Bombing, a terrorist attack on the San Francisco Preparedness Day parade on July 22, 1916; the attack was blamed on left wing radicals, in particular union leader and former Industrial Workers of the World member Thomas Mooney, his alleged accomplice, Warren Billings.
Both Mooney and Billings were convicted, though critics said that the trial was conducted in a lynch mob atmosphere. Governor Stephens supported both convictions. However, international sympathy for Mooney spread, making him one of the United States's most famous political prisoners. There was international pressure on Stephens to intervene for Mooney. President Woodrow Wilson telegraphed Stephens to ask him to review the case against Mooney. Stephens yielded, but only commuting Mooney's death sentence to life imprisonment. Despite this slight clemency, militant labor radicals continued to pressure Stephens, resulting in threats, actions of violence. On the evening of December 17, 1917, a dynamite bomb exploded at the foot of the Governor's Mansion in Sacramento. Although Stephens was not injured, the explosion caused considerable damage to the kitchen. Radicals from the IWW were blamed for the attack. In an unrelated threat, labor radicals threatened to destroy both the California State Capitol and the Governor's Mansion if a $50,000 ransom was not met.
Stephens responded to threats from labor radicals, to subversion worries during World War I, with the California Criminal Syndicalism Act, targeting radical labor unionists and their advocacy of violent confrontation with state authorities. Despite numerous threats on his life and state p
Fletcher Bowron was an American lawyer and politician. He was the 35th mayor of Los Angeles, from September 26, 1938, until June 30, 1953, he was the longest-serving mayor to date in the city, was the city's second longest-serving mayor after Tom Bradley, presiding over the war boom and heavy population growth, building freeways to handle them. Bowron was born in Poway, the youngest of three children, his Yankee parents, who had migrated from the Midwest, sent him to Los Angeles High School, where he graduated in 1904. In 1907, he began studies at UC Berkeley, where his two brothers had graduated enrolled in the University of Southern California Law School two years where he became a member of the Delta Chi Fraternity, he dropped out of law school and became a reporter for San Francisco and Los Angeles newspapers, working the City Hall and court beats in the latter city. He was admitted to the bar in 1917. Upon the U. S. entry into World War I in 1917, Bowron enlisted in the Army, serving in the 14th Field Artillery before transferring to the military intelligence division.
Upon his return, he once again practiced law before he married Irene Martin in 1922. The following year, he was appointed as a deputy state corporations commissioner, his work in that capacity caught the attention of California governor, Friend Richardson, who hired him as executive secretary in 1925, appointed him to the superior court in 1926. In his first tenure as a superior court judge, which lasted 12 years, Bowron became the first jurist on the West Coast to use the pre-trial calendar system, he was elected mayor of Los Angeles on a fusion ticket in 1938 in the wake of the corruption arising from the previous administration of Frank L. Shaw, earned the reputation of being lawful, unlike his predecessor; this was part of. Los Angeles grew enormously during the war years, with large defense industries. After the war Bowron began construction of the Los Angeles International Airport and the 1st phases of the elaborate freeway system, he obtained hundred million dollars from the Federal Housing Authority for the construction of 10,000 units.
As president of the American Municipal Association, representing 9500 cities, he was the leader of the nation's mayors in their dealings with the federal government. A high priority was eliminating organized crime from the city's police department, he forced the resignation of numerous officers, prevented Los Angeles from becoming a wide open town. Bowron ran on nonpartisan fusion tickets; the Los Angeles Citizens Committee demanded his recall, claiming he was responsible for high taxes and continued police corruption. In 1952 he lost his reelection bid in the Republican primary to Norris Poulson, a conservative opponent of public housing, he served during the era of World War II, most notably supporting the removal of Japanese Americans from California and their subsequent Internment. In January 1942 Bowron began to call for relocating Japanese Americans away from the coast and putting them to work in farm camps, he forced all Japanese American employees of the City of Los Angeles to take a leave of absence and circulated propaganda targeted at people of Japanese descent.
By February he was pushing for internment on his radio show, quoted on Abraham Lincoln's birthday in support of the camps: "There isn't a shadow of a doubt but that Lincoln, the mild-mannered man whose memory we regard with saint-like reverence, would make short work of rounding up the Japanese and putting them where they could do no harm." He continued by talking about "the people born on American soil who have secret loyalty to the Japanese Emperor." Bowron attempted to pass a constitutional amendment under which American-born Japanese would be stripped of their citizen rights if they held dual U. S.-Japanese citizenship or if their parents were ineligible for U. S. citizenship. He additionally proposed allowing the government to ignore portions of the Selective Service Act and call Japanese Americans, including women and those whose age or physical status would otherwise exempt them, into non-combat military service if the war required it, he lost re-election in 1953 after having survived a number of recall attempts, with his defeat linked because his liberal backing began to wane as a result of McCarthyism.
In 1956, he once again ran for superior court judge, defeating Joseph L. Call in the November election. Serving one six-year term, he retired from political office in 1962, but remained active in city activities, he played himself on the January 29, 1953 episode of "The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show," titled "The Tax Refund." On January 4, 1961, his wife Irene died at the Madison Lodge Sanitarium after spending nearly five years at the facility. Ten months Bowron married his long-time executive assistant, Albine Norton. Following his retirement from the bench, he served as director of the Metropolitan Los Angeles History Project, hiring Robert C. Post a graduate student at UCLA, as his chief researcher. In 1967, Bowron was named chairman of the city's Citizen's Committee on Zoning Practices and Procedures. After finishing work on September 11, 1968 he suffered a fatal heart attack while driving home. While his body lay in state in the Los Angeles City Hall rotunda, people came to pay their respects.
He is buried at Inglewood Park Cemetery. Employers Group, which, as the Merchants and Manufacturers Association, opposed Bowron's policies Stephen W. Cunningham, Republican City Council member who ran against Bowron in 1941 Harold Harby, Los Angeles City Council member, 1939–42, 1943–57, complained about Bowron's radio talks John C
John G. Nichols
John G. Nichols was a businessman and politician. John Greg Nichols was born on December 1812 in Canandaigua, New York, his father, William Nicholas, was a Scottish immigrant. He served as the Sheriff of Iowa for two terms in the 1840s, he made the trip to California in 1849, arriving in San Bernardino on December 31, 1849. He served as the third Mayor of Los Angeles from 1852 to 1853 and again from 1856 to 1859, he married Florida Cox. They lived in the first brick house to be built in California, their son was the first American to be born in the city, he was the first mayor to expand the city. He died on January 1898 in Los Angeles, he was buried at the Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery in California. Nichols Canyon was named in his honor