Jagdschloss is the German term for a hunting lodge. It is a schloss set in a wildlife park or a hunting area that served as accommodation for a ruler or aristocrat and his entourage while hunting in the area. A Jagdschloss was the venue for a banquet accompanying a hunt, sometimes it hosted festivals and other events; the term Jagdschloss is equated to the Lustschloss or maison de plaisance as the hunt was a recreational activity. However, a Lustschloss and Jagdschloss differ in function as well as architecture; the layout and furnishing of a Lustschloss is unconstrained, while that of a Jagdschloss is always related to hunting: the walls may be adorned with antlers and other trophies, with scenes of hunting, by a deliberate use of wood or other natural materials. A Jagdschloss could be lavishly furnished, but unlike with a Lustschloss, timber-framed buildings or log cabins were not uncommon. Only a few imposing stone buildings have survived, which colours the general understanding of what a Jagdschloss is today.
A Jagdschloss had stables and other outbuildings used to house hunting equipment and the entourage. Larger examples form self-contained ensembles, while smaller ones, known as Jagdhäuser, were built within castle parks and gardens, within range of the Residenz of the owner. Amalienburg in the park of Nymphenburg Palace, Bavaria Augustusburg Hunting Lodge in Augustusburg, Saxony Clemenswerth in Sögel, Lower Saxony Engers Palace Falkenlust in Brühl, North Rhine-Westphalia Gelbensande Hunting Lodge Glienicke Hunting Lodge Granitz Hunting Lodge Grünau Hunting Lodge by Neuburg on the Danube Grunewald Hunting Lodge in Berlin Hubertusstock Hunting Lodge in the Schorfheide Kranichstein Hunting Lodge by Darmstadt Letzlingen Hunting Lodge Moritzburg Castle in Saxony Quitzin Hunting Lodge in Western Pomerania Rominten Hunting Lodge Springe Hunting Lodge Stern Hunting Lodge in Potsdam Wolfsgarten Castle in Hesse Wolfstein Hunting Lodge in Kochholz Schloss Fuschl in Austria Schloss Holzheim in Hesse Lustschloss Monique Chatenet: Maisons des champs dans l'Europe de la Renaissance.
Actes des premières Rencontres d'architecture européenne, Château de Maisons, 10-13 juin 2003. Picard, Paris, 2006, ISBN 2-7084-0737-6. Claude d'Anthenaise: Chasses princières dans l'Europe de la Renaissance. Actes du colloque de Chambord. Fondation de la Maison de la Chasse et de la Nature. Actes Sud, Arles, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7427-6643-7. Heiko Laß: Jagd- und Lustschlösser: Art and culture of two sovereign construction tasks. Imhof, Petersberg, 2006, ISBN 3-86568-092-5
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness; the word baron comes from a Late Latin barō "man. The scholar Isidore of Seville in the 7th century thought the word was from Greek βᾰρῠ́ς "heavy", but the word is of Old Frankish origin, cognate with Old English beorn meaning "warrior, nobleman". Cornutus in the first century reports a word barones which he took to be of Gaulish origin, he glosses it as meaning servos militum and explains it as meaning "stupid", by reference to classical Latin bārō "simpleton, dunce". During the Ancien Régime, French baronies were much like Scottish ones. Feudal landholders who possessed a barony were entitled to style themselves baron if they were nobles; these baronies could be sold until 1789 when feudal law was abolished. The title of baron was assumed as a titre de courtoisie by many nobles, whether members of the Nobles of the Robe or cadets of Nobles of the Sword who held no title in their own right. Emperor Napoléon created a new imperial nobility.
The titles could not be purchased. In 1815, King Louis XVIII created a new peerage system and a Chamber of Peers, based on the British model. Baron-peer was the lowest title, but the heirs to pre-1789 barons could remain barons, as could the elder sons of viscount-peers and younger sons of count-peers; this peerage system was abolished in 1848. In pre-republican Germany all the knightly families of the Holy Roman Empire were recognised as of baronial rank, although Ritter is the literal translation for "knight", persons who held that title enjoyed a distinct, but lower, rank in Germany's nobility than barons; the wife of a Freiherr is called a Freifrau or sometimes Baronin, his daughter Freiin or sometimes Baroness. Families which had always held this status were called Uradel, were heraldically entitled to a three pointed coronet. Families, ennobled at a definite point in time had seven points on their coronet; these families held their fief in vassalage from a suzerain. The holder of an allodial barony was thus called Freiherr.
Subsequently, sovereigns in Germany conferred the title of Freiherr as a rank in the nobility, without implication of allodial or feudal status. Since 1919, hereditary titles have had no legal status in Germany. In modern, republican Germany and Baron remain heritable only as part of the legal surname. In Austria, hereditary titles have been banned. Thus, a member of the reigning House of Habsburg or members of the former nobility would in most cases be addressed as Herr/Frau in an official/public surrounding, for instance in the media. Still, in both countries, honorary styles like "His/her Highness", "Serenity", etc. persists in social use as a form of courtesy. In Luxembourg and Liechtenstein, barons remain members of the recognized nobility, the sovereigns retain authority to confer the title Generally, all legitimate males of a German baronial family inherit the title Freiherr or Baron from birth, as all legitimate daughters inherit the title of Freiin or Baroness; as a result, German barons have been more numerous than those of such countries where primogeniture with respect to title inheritance prevails as France and the United Kingdom.
In Italy, barone was the lowest rank of feudal nobility except for that of vassallo. The title of baron was most introduced into southern Italy by the Normans during the 11th century. Whereas a barony might consist of two or more manors, by 1700 we see what were single manors erected into baronies, counties or marquisates. Since the early 1800s, when feudalism was abolished in the various Italian states, it has been granted as a simple hereditary title without any territorial designation or predicato; the untitled younger son of a baron is a nobile dei baroni and in informal usage might be called a baron, while certain baronies devolve to heirs male general. Since 1948 titles of nobility have not been recognised by the Italian state. In the absence of a nobiliary or heraldic authority in Italy there are, in fact, numerous persons who claim to be barons or counts without any basis for such claims. Baron and noble are hereditary titles and, as such, could only be created or recognised by the kings of Italy or the pre-unitary Italian states such as the Two Sicilies, Parma or Modena, or by the Holy See or the Republic of San Marino.
Beginning around 1800, a number of signori began to style themselves barone but in many cases this was not sanctioned by decree, while there was less justification in the holder of any large landed estate calling himself a baron. Both were common p
The Spectator (1711)
The Spectator was a daily publication founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England, lasting from 1711 to 1712. Each "paper", or "number", was 2,500 words long, the original run consisted of 555 numbers, beginning on 1 March 1711; these were collected into seven volumes. The paper was revived without the involvement of Steele in 1714, appearing thrice weekly for six months, these papers when collected formed the eighth volume. Eustace Budgell, a cousin of Addison's, the poet John Hughes contributed to the publication. In Number 10, Mr. Spectator states that The Spectator will aim "to enliven morality with wit, to temper wit with morality"; the journal reached an audience of thousands of people every day, because "the Spectators was something that every middle-class household with aspirations to looking like its members took literature would want to have." He hopes it will be said he has "brought philosophy out of closets and libraries and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffee–houses".
Women were a target audience for The Spectator, because one of the aims of the periodical was to increase the number of women who were "of a more elevated life and conversation." Steele states in The Spectator, No. 10, "But there are none to whom this paper will be more useful than to the female world." He recommends that readers of the paper consider it "as a part of the tea-equipage" and set aside time to read it each morning. The Spectator sought to provide readers with topics for well-reasoned discussion, to equip them to carry on conversations and engage in social interactions in a polite manner. In keeping with the values of Enlightenment philosophies of their time, the authors of The Spectator promoted family and courtesy. Despite a modest daily circulation of 3,000 copies, The Spectator was read. Contemporary historians and literary scholars, meanwhile, do not consider this to be an unreasonable claim; these readers came from many stations in society, but the paper catered principally to the interests of England's emerging middle class—merchants and traders large and small.
The Spectator had many readers in the American colonies. In particular, James Madison read the paper avidly as a teenager, it is said to have had a big influence on his world view, lasting throughout his long life. Jürgen Habermas sees The Spectator as instrumental in the formation of the public sphere in 18th century England. Although The Spectator declares itself to be politically neutral, it was recognised as promoting Whig values and interests; the Spectator continued to be popular and read in the late 18th and 19th centuries. It was sold in eight-volume editions, its prose style, its marriage of morality and advice with entertainment, were considered exemplary. The decline in its popularity has been discussed by C. S. Lewis. In The Spectator, No.11, Steele created a frame narrative that would come to be an well known story in the eighteenth century, the story of Inkle and Yarico. Although the periodical essay was published on March 13 of 1711, the story is based on Richard Ligon's publication in 1647.
Ligon's publication, A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes, reports on how the cruelties of the transatlantic slave trade contribute to slave-produced goods such as tobacco and sugarcane. Mr. Spectator goes to speak with an older woman, whom many people visit to discuss various topics; when Mr. Spectator enters the room, there is another man present speaking with Arietta, they are discussing "constancy in love," and the man uses the tale of The Ephesian Matron to support his point. Arietta is angered by the man's hypocrisy and sexism, she counters his tale with the story of Inkle and Yarico. Thomas Inkle, a twenty-year-old man from London, sailed to the West Indies to increase his wealth through trade. While on an island, he encounters a group of Indians, who kill many of his shipmates. After fleeing, Inkle hides in a cave where he discovers an Indian maiden, they become enamored with one another's clothing and physical appearances, Yarico for the next several months hides her lover from her people and provides him with food and fresh water.
A ship passes, headed for Barbadoes, Inkle and Yarico use this opportunity to leave the island. After reaching the English colony, Inkle sells Yarico to a merchant after she tells him that she is pregnant. Arietta closes the tale stating that Inkle uses Yarico's declaration to argue for a higher price when selling her. Mr. Spectator is so moved by the legend. Steele's text was so well known and influential that seven decades after his publication, George Colman modified the short story into a comic opera, showcasing three relationships between characters of varying social statuses to reach multiple audiences. Bully Dawson, mentioned in The Spectator as being kicked by "Sir Roger de Coverley" in a public coffee house The Spectator, a current weekly British conservative magazine, which borrows its name from the 1711 publication The Spectator Nos. 1, 2, 10, 1710–11. Brian McCrea and Steele are Dead: The English Department, Its Canon, the Professionalization of Literary Criticism C. S. Lewis, "Addison" in Eighteenth Century English Literature: Modern Essays in Criticism ed. James Clifford.
The standard edition of The Spectator is Donald F. Bond's edition in five volumes, published in 1965. Selections can be found
Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County the County of Fairfax is a county of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. Part of Northern Virginia, Fairfax County borders both the City of Alexandria and Arlington County and forms part of the inner suburban ring of Washington, DC; the county is thus predominantly suburban with some urban and rural pockets. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,081,726, in 2015, it was estimated at 1,142,234, making it the Commonwealth's most populous jurisdiction, with 13.6% of Virginia's population. The county is the most populous jurisdiction in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, with 19.8% of the MSA population, as well as the larger Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area, with 13.1% of the CSA population. The county seat is the City of Fairfax, though because it is an independent city under Virginia law, the city of Fairfax is not part of Fairfax County. Fairfax was the first U. S. county to reach a six-figure median household income and has the second-highest median household income of any county-level local jurisdiction in the United States after neighbor Loudoun County.
The county is home to the headquarters of intelligence agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, as well as the National Counterterrorism Center and Office of the Director of National Intelligence. The county is home to seven Fortune 500 companies, including three with Falls Church addresses. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of what would become Fairfax County were an Algonquian-speaking sub-group called the Taux known as the Doeg or Dogue, their villages, as recorded by Captain John Smith in 1608, included Namassingakent and Nemaroughquand on the south bank of the Potomac River in what is now Fairfax County. Virginian colonists from the Northern Neck region drove the Doeg out of this area and into Maryland by 1670. Fairfax County was formed in 1742 from the northern part of Prince William County, it was named for 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, proprietor of the Northern Neck. The Fairfax family name is derived from the Old English phrase for "blond hair" – Fæger-feax.
The oldest settlements in Fairfax County were along the Potomac River. George Washington built his home, Mount Vernon, facing the river. Gunston Hall, the home of George Mason is nearby. Modern Fort Belvoir is on the estate of Belvoir Manor, built along the Potomac by William Fairfax in 1741. Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, the only member of the British nobility to reside in the colonies, lived at Belvoir before he moved to the Shenandoah Valley; the Belvoir mansion and several of its outbuildings were destroyed by fire after the Revolutionary War in 1783, George Washington noted the plantation complex deteriorated into ruins. In 1757, the northwestern two-thirds of Fairfax County became Loudoun County. In 1789, part of Fairfax County was ceded to the federal government to form Alexandria County of the District of Columbia. Alexandria County was returned to Virginia in 1846, reduced in size by the secession of the independent city of Alexandria in 1870, renamed Arlington County in 1920.
The Fairfax County town of Falls Church became an independent city in 1948. The Fairfax County town of Fairfax became an independent city in 1961. Located near Washington, D. C. Fairfax County was an important region in the Civil War; the Battle of Chantilly or Ox Hill, during the same campaign as the second Battle of Bull Run, was fought within the county. Other areas of activity included Minor's Hill, Munson's Hill, Upton's Hill, on the county's eastern border, overlooking Washington, D. C; the federal government's growth during and after World War II spurred rapid growth in the county and made the county suburban. Other large businesses continued to settle in Fairfax County and the opening of Tysons Corner Center spurred the rise of Tysons Corner; the technology boom and a steady government-driven economy created rapid growth and an growing and diverse population. The economy has made Fairfax County one of the nation's wealthiest counties. A general aviation airport located along U. S. Route 50, west of Seven Corners called the Falls Church Airpark operated in the county from 1948 to 1960.
The facility's 2,650 foot unpaved runway was used extensively by private pilots and civil defense officials. Residential development, multiple accidents, the demand for retail space led to its closure in 1960. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 406 square miles, of which 391 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water. Fairfax County is bounded on the southeast by the Potomac River. Across the river to the northeast is Washington, D. C. across the river to the north is Montgomery County and across the river to the southeast are Prince George's County and Charles County, Maryland. The county is bounded on the north and east by Arlington County and the independent cities of Alexandria and Falls Church, it is bounded on the west by Loudoun County, on the south by Prince William County. Most of the county lies in the Piedmont region, with rolling hills and deep stream valleys such as Difficult Run and its tributaries. West of Route 28, the hills give way to a flat, gentle valley which stretches west to the Bull Run Mountains in Loudoun County.
Elevations in the county range from near sea level along the tidal sections of the Potomac River in the southeast port
Martinsburg, West Virginia
Martinsburg is a city in and the county seat of Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States, in the tip of the state's Eastern Panhandle region in the lower Shenandoah Valley. Its population was 17,687 in the 2016 census estimate, making it the largest city in the Eastern Panhandle and the ninth-largest municipality in the state. Martinsburg is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Martinsburg was established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, adopted in December 1778 during the American Revolutionary War. Founder Major General Adam Stephen named the gateway town to the Shenandoah Valley along Tuscarora Creek in honor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin, a nephew of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Aspen Hall is the oldest house in the city. Part was built in 1745 by Edward Beeson, Sr. Aspen Hall and its wealthy residents had key roles in the agricultural, religious and political history of the region. Significant events related to the French and Indian War. Three original buildings are still standing, including the rare blockhouse of Mendenhall's Fort.
The first United States post office in what is now West Virginia was established at Martinsburg in 1792. At that time and the larger territory were still part of Virginia; the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops were constructed in 1849 and rebuilt after the American Civil War. According to William Still, "The Father of the Underground Railroad" and its historian, Robert Brown, alias Thomas Jones, escaped from slavery in Martinsburg on Christmas night, 1856, he rode a horse and had it swim across the freezing Potomac River. After riding forty miles, he walked in cold wet clothes to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he received assistance there from the Underground Railroad and traveled by train to Philadelphia, the office of William Still with the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Brown's wife and four children had been sold, he had a likeness of his wife, locks of hair from each of them. In 1854, ten-year-old Isabelle Boyd, known as "Belle" and a noted spy for the Confederacy, moved to Martinsburg with her family.
After the Civil War began, Benjamin joined the Second Virginia Infantry, part of the Stonewall Brigade. His wife Mary was thus in charge of the Boyd home when Union forces under General Robert Patterson took Martinsburg; when a group of Patterson's men tried to raise a Union flag over the Boyd home, Mary refused. One of the soldiers, Frederick Martin, threatened Mary, Belle shot him, she was acquitted. She soon became involved in espionage, sending information to Confederate generals Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and J. E. B. "Jeb" Stuart. She was helped by Eliza Corsey, a Boyd family slave whom Belle had taught to read and write. In 1863, Belle was imprisoned. Boyd's Greek Revival home, which he had built in 1853 and sold in 1855, had numerous owners over the decades. In 1992 it was purchased by the Berkeley County Historical Society; the historical society now operates it as the Berkeley County Museum. It is known as the Belle Boyd House. Most residents of West Virginia were yeomen farmers who supported the Union and, during the Civil War, they voted to separate from Virginia.
The new state was admitted to the Union during the war. The city of Martinsburg was incorporated by an act of the new West Virginia Legislature on March 30, 1868. Martinsburg became a center of its workers; the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began July 14, 1877 in this city at the B&O shops and spread nationwide. Telephone service was established in Martinsburg in 1883. In 1889, electricity began to be furnished to Martinsburg as part of a franchise granted to the United Edison Manufacturing Company of New York; the Interwoven mills began operations in Martinsburg in 1891. Construction of the "Apollo Civic Theatre" was completed in 1913. Over one thousand men from Berkeley County participated in World War I. Of these, forty-one were killed and twenty-one were wounded in battle. A monument to those who fell in battle was erected in Martinsburg in 1925. During World War II, the Newton D. Baker Hospital in Martinsburg treated thousands of soldiers wounded in the war. In 1946 this military hospital became a part of the Veterans Administration.
The VA Medical Center in Martinsburg still provides care to United States veterans. Due to restructuring beginning in the late 1940s and continuing through the 1970s, many of the mills and factories operating in Martinsburg shut down and went out of business, dealing a major blow to the local economy. Jobs were moved to the Deep South and offshore. Martinsburg is located at 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W. Martinsburg is 24 miles southeast of Hagerstown, 89 miles west of Baltimore, 92 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. and 138 miles east of Morgantown. U. S. Route 11 runs through the center of town, Interstate 81 passes along the northern side of the town. Martinsburg is 212 miles distant from the state capital of Charleston. However, it is closer to no less than five other state capitals: Harrisburg PA - 80 miles, Annapolis MD - 85 miles, Dover DE - 132 miles, Richmond VA - 135 miles, Trenton NJ - 179 miles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.67 square miles, of which 6.65 square
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, extends 550 miles southwest from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range; the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color. Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks – the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section – and eight national forests including George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cherokee National Forest, Pisgah National Forest, Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest.
The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail. Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains and other mountain ranges; the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that form the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey and Hudson River highlands reaching The Berkshires of Massachusetts and the Green Mountains of Vermont; the Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation.
The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains; the Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charockites.
Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S. Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes; the lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, the New York-New Jersey Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust, emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078–1,064 Ma preserve deformational features; those emplaced post-1,064 Ma have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago.
320 Mya, North America, Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies; the English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year. At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia with the Iroquois between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia Colony.
This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nati
Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron
Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron MP was an English nobleman and politician. Thomas Fairfax was born on 16 April 1657, the great-grandson of the Civil War leader Thomas Fairfax, 1st Lord Fairfax of Cameron, his father was Henry Fairfax, 4th Lord Fairfax of Cameron and his mother was Francis Barwick. Fairfax graduated from Magdalen College, Oxford in 1675 and served in the Yorkshire Militia under the Earl of Danby. After the Glorious Revolution in 1688, he was appointed Lt-Colonel of Lord Castleton's Regiment of Foot, a new regiment raised to fight in the Nine Years' War. In 1694, William III made him Colonel of a Regiment of Foot and he was promoted to Brigadier in 1696, shortly before the Treaty of Ryswick ended the war in 1697, he left military service in 1703 as a Major-General. In 1690 and 1695, he was a Member of Parliament supporting the Tory interest, although the modern concept of political parties did not yet apply, he was able to sit in the English Parliament. In 1704, Fairfax obtained a three-year licence from Queen Anne to search for wrecks and treasure in the West Indies but the venture was a financial failure.
He died on 6 January 1710. In 1685, Fairfax married Catherine Colepepper, daughter of Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, they had seven children: Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, Henry Colpepper Fairfax, Katherine Fairfax, Margaret Fairfax, Frances Fairfax, Mary Fairfax, Robert Fairfax. List of deserters from James II to William of Orange